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Full text of "Illustrated history of Kennebec County, Maine; 1625-1799-1892;"

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New  York 
94  Reade  St. 


Edition  Limited  to  1600  Prints. 


H.  W.   BLAKE  &  CO. 


fA.  H.  Ritchie. 
Engravers,  •  Hazlett  Gilmour. 
I  A.  C.  Shipley. 

Artist,  Frank  M.  Gilbert. 

Printer,  J.  Henry  Probst. 

Binders,  T.  Russell  &  Son. 



HISTORY  is  a  record  of  human  experience.  Human  acts  are  its 
sources,  its  forces,  its  substance,  its  soul.  Individual  life  is  its 
unit;  collective  biography  its  sum  total.  This  book  is  an  effort  to 
preserve  some  of  the  staple  facts  in  the  lives  of  the  men  and  women 
of  Kennebec  county.  Those  who  have  attempted  such  work  know 
its  difficulties;  those  who  have  not  cannot  understand  them. 

Early  local  history  is,  at  best,  but  a  collection  of  memories  and  tra- 
ditions, with  an  occasional  precious  bit  of  written  data.  Of  necessity, 
such  chains  have  many  missing  links.  The  questioner  is  so  frequently 
told  that  had  he  but  come  ten— or  twenty — years  ago,  such  and  such 
an  one,  now  gone,  could  have  told  him  so  much.  Those  people  then 
would  surely  have  said  the  same  of  their  predecessors.  So  if,  for  the 
printed  page,  we  get  what  we  can  when  we  can,  the  reader  has  the 
best  obtainable. 

Happily,  both  in  character  and  extent,  the  matter  here  given 
greatly  excels  the  original  expectations  and  plans  of  the  publishers. 
In  addition  to  the  historical  matter,  in  which  they  take  genuine  pride, 
they  regard  as  of  great  importance  the  genealogical  and  biographical 

The  facts  of  life  and  generation  are  beyond  question  of  superla- 
tive worth.  There  is  no  more  significant  tendency  of  civilization  than 
the  growing  attention  paid  to  making  more  detailed  records  of  family 
statistics.  Scarcely  a  New  England  family  of  long,  vigorous  con- 
tinuance can  be  found,  some  loyal  member  of  which  has  not — at  great 
cost  of  time  and  often  of  money— prepared  an  approximate  genealogy. 
Every  effort  at  local  history  puts  in  imperishable  form  the  priceless 
annals  of  the  past.  The  recollections  and  experiences  taken  from 
the  lips  of  the  aged  is  so  much  rescued  from  oblivion.  Every  promi- 
nent figure  in  the  realms  of  business,  science,  art   or  profession   has 


passed  through  the  uneventful  periods  of  childhood  and  youth,  often 
in  some  obscure  locality;  and  there  is  not  a  town  in  Kennebec  county- 
whose  pride  in  having  produced  and  whose  interest  in  watching  or 
relating  the  careers  of  its  honored  sons  and  daughters  do  not  still 
make  its  air  richer  and  its  sunshine  brighter. 

While  writing  these  last  lines  on  a  winter's  day  near  the  close  of 
the  second  year  of  labor  on  the  work  in  hand,  we  wish  in  behalf  of 
their  posterity,  whom  we  have  tried  to  serve,  to  thank  the  good  people 
of  Kennebec  who  have  so  kindly  and  faithfully  cooperated  with  us  in 
every  way  to  make  this  volume  worthy  of  its  title.  Besides  to  twenty 
writers  whose  names  these  chapters  bear,  we  gladly  acknowledge  our 
obligation  to  more  than  twenty  hundred  who  have,  in  personal  inter- 
views or  in  correspondence,  or  both,  done  what  they  could  to  leave 
for  coming  times  this  record  of  their  county's  past — this  monument 
to  what  it  is.  . 

Augusta,  Me.,  c.,^^^>?z^ 

December,  1892. 



Chapter  I. 
General  View.     By  Hiram  K.  Mor- 

rell 1 

Chapter  II. 
The  Indians  of  the  Kennebec.     By 

Capt.  Charles  E.  Nash 9 

Chapter  III. 
Sources  of  Land  Titles.     By  Len- 

dall  Titcomb,  Esq 73 

Chapter  IV. 

Civil  History  and  Institutions 78 

Chapter  V. 

Military  History 109 

Chapter  VI. 

Military  History  (Concluded) 122 

Chapter  VII. 

Industrial  Resources 175 

Chapter  VIII. 
Agriculture  and   Live   Stock.     By 

Samuel  L.  Boardman 187 

Chapter  IX. 

Travel  and  Transportation 225 

Chapter  X. 
The    Newspaper    Press.      By   Mr. 

Howard  Owen 238 

Chapter  XI. 
Literature    and    Literary    People. 

By  Thomas  Addison 254 

Chapter  XII. 
The  Society  of  Friends.    By  Rufus 

M.  Jones 269 

Chapter  XIII. 
History  of  the  Courts.     By  Judge 

William  Penn  Whitehouse 297 

Chapter  XIV. 
The  Kennebec  Bar.     By  James  W. 

Bradbury,  LL.D 308 

Chapter  XV. 
The  Medi^  al  Profession 347 

Chapter  XVI. 
Augusta.   By  Capt.  Charles  E.Nash.     381 

Chapter  XVII. 

Augusta  (Continued) 405 

Chapter  XVIII. 

Augusta  (Concluded) 427 

Chapter  XIX. 
Hallowell.       By    Dr.    William    B. 

Lapham 489 

Chapter  XX. 
Town  of  Farmingdale.     By  A.   C. 
Stilphen,  Esq 517 

Chapter  XXI. 
Town  of  Winslow.     By  Henry  D. 
Kingsbury ' 537 

Chapter  XXII. 
City  of  Waterville.     By  Henry  D. 
Kingsbury 568 

Chapter  XXIII. 
City  of  Waterville  (Concluded) ...     580 

Chapter  XXIV. 
The  City  of  Gardiner 601 

Chapter  XXV. 
Town  of  West  Gardiner 668 

Chapter  XXVI. 
Town    of    Litchfield.      By    H.    D. 

Kingsbury 684 

Chapter  XXVU. 

Town  of  Pittston 712 

Chapter  XXVIII. 

Town  of  Randolph 738 

Chapter  XXIX. 

Town  of  Chelsea 749 

Chapter  XXX. 
Town  of  Monmouth.    By  Harry  H. 

Cochrane 764 

Chapter  XXXI. 
Town  of  Wayne 807 


Chapter  XXXII. 

Town  of  Winthrop 826 

Chapter  XXXIII. 

Town  of  Manchester 875 

Chapter  XXXIV. 
Town  of  Readfield.     By  Henry  D. 

Kingsbury 890 

Chapter  XXXV. 

Town  of  Mount  Vernon 9.S0 

Chapter  XXXVI. 
Town  of  Fayette.     By  George  Un- 
derwood, Esq 953 

Chapter  XXXVII. 

Town  of  Vienna 974 

Chapter  XXXVIII. 

Town  of  Rome 988 

Chapter  XXXIX. 
Town   of  Belgrade.      By  J.    Clair 
Minot 993 

Chapter  XL. 

Town  of  Sidney 10.34 

Chapter  XLI. 
Town  of  Oakland 1064 

Chapter  XLII. 
Town  of  \^assalboro 1095 

Chapter  XLIII. 
Town  of  China 1139 

Chapter  XLIV. 
Town  of  Windsor 1172 

Chapter  XLV. 
Town  of  Albion 1194 

Chapter  XL\'I. 

Town  of  Benton 1218 

Chapter  XLVII. 
Town  of  Clinton 1243 


Adams,  Enoch,  M.  D 348 

Adams,  Hermon  H 1018 

Albion,  Map  of 1202 

Allen,  E.  C 452 

Asylum  for  Insane 96 

Augusta,  Settlers'  Map 387 

Ayer,  John 1076 

Bailey,  Hannah  J.,  Residence 852 

Bailey,  Moses 853 

Barnard,  Mrs.  Henrietta  M.,  Res..  648 

Barton,  Asher  H 1331 

Barton,  Asher  H. ,  Residence 1332 

Bassett,  Alexander,  Residence 1162 

Bassett,  Jonathan 1163 

Bean,  Emery  O 316 

Benson,  Benj.  Chandler 1079 

Besse,  Charles  K 980 

Billings,   Oliver 965 

Billings  Homestead •. 965 

Blaine,  James  G 456 

Blaisdell,  Elijah 1233 

Blake,  Fred  K.,  Residence 795 

Blake,  Henry  M 350 

Blake  Homestead 795 

Blake,  William  P 1081 

Bodwell,  Joseph  R 185 

Boutelle,  Nathaniel  R 351 

Boutelle,  Timothy 308 

Bowman,  Sifamai 625 

Bradbury,  James  W 318 

Brooks,  Samuel  S 466 

Brown,  Frederick  1 909 

Brown,  Frederick  I., Res.  and  Store.  908 

Brown,  George 756 

Burbank,  Silas 852 

Burleigh,  Edwin  C 82 

Bussell,  John 1124 

Butman,  James  O.,  Farm  Res 910 

Cabin,   ' '  Uncle  Tom's. " 705 

Capitol,  at  Augusta 80 

Carleton,  Leroy  T 324 

Carr,  Albert  C,  Residence 855 

Carr,  Daniel 833 

Chelsea,  Settlers'  Map  of 750 

China,  Sketch  Map  of 1140 

Christ's  Church,  Gardiner 630 

Cobb,  Chandler  F.,  Stock  Farm. . .  311 

Cobbosseecontee  Lake 880 

Coburn  Classical  Institute lOO 

Colby  University 98 


Colcord,  John  B.,  Farm  Residence.  1335 

Collins,  Jason 234 

Collins,  John 672 

Comfort  Publishing  House 443 

Cony,   Daniel 469 

Cony  High  School 425 

Cony,  Samuel 468 

Copsecook  Paper  Mills 615 

Cornish,  Colby  C 556 

Court  House,  Augusta 79 

Crooker,  Leander  J 354 

Crosby,  George  H.,  Residence 1309 

Cumston,  Charles  M  793 

Cumston,  Charles  M.,  Residence..     792 

Cushnoc,  Plan  of  1761 387 

Dingley,  J.  B 647 

Dodge,  Howard  W 1260 

Doherty,  Charles  W 434 

Druillette's,  Fr.  Gabriel,  Autogr'h.       83 

East  Winthrop,  Village  Plan 849 

Eaton,  Joseph 560 

Emerson,  Luther  D 1084 

Fairfax,  Settlers'  Map 1202 

Father  Rale's  Monument 65 

Faught,  Albert,  Residence 1052 

Fifield,  Joseph  S 883 

Fifield.  Joseph  S. ,  Farm  Res 883 

Fogg,  Samuel  G..  Farm  Res 912 

Fort  Western,  Vicinity  of 392 

Friends'  Meeting  House,  East  Vas- 

salboro 376 

Friends'  Meeting  House,  Winthrop.     293 

Gannett  &  Morse  Concern 443 

Gardiner  High  School. . .-. 638 

Gardiner  Savings  Bank 627 

Giddings,  Wooster  P 358 

Giddings,  Wooster  P.,  Residence..     358 

Giris'  Reform  School 104 

Gott,  John  M 824 

Gower,  John 857 

Gray,  Jo.shua 608 

Guptill.  D.  F 562 

Haley,  Eben   D 180 

Hallowell  Social  Library 502 

Hammond,  Carlos 1054 

Hanscom,  David 1237 

Hanson,  James  H 588 

Harlow,  Henry  M 95 

Harriman,  Benjamin  W 914 

Harriman,  Benj.  W.,  Residence.  . .     915 

Harvey  Homestead 917 

Harvey,  William,  Birthplace 917 

Hathaway,  Charles  F 589 

He  wins,  George  E.,  Residence 472 

Hewins  Homestead 472 

Hewins,  Daniel 473 

Haynes,  J.  Manchester 470 

High  School,  Gardiner 638 

Hobbs,  Josiah  S 105 

Hodgdon,  Elbridge  G 1262 

Hodges,  Albert .564 

Hodges,  Albert,  Residence 564 

Hodges,  Bamum 564c 

Holway,  Oscar 474 

Hopkins,  Myrick 649 

Hopkins,  Myrick,  Homestead 648 

Howard,  Oakes 860 

Hussey,  Ben.  G.,  Residence 1114 

Hussey,  Orrett  J.,  Residence 1128 

Industrial  School  for  Girls 104 

Insane,  Hospital  for  the 96 

Jail,  Kennebec  County 79 

Jewett,  Hartley  W 532 

Jones,  Levi 863 

Jones  Plantation,  Plan  of 1140 

Kendrick,  Cyrus 363 

Kennebec  Court  House 79 

Kennebec  County  Jail 79 

Kent,  Elias  H.,  Residence 968 

Kents  Hill  Seminary 102 

Kilbreth,  Sullivan 887 

Knight,  Austin  D 513 

Ladd,  Harvey 919 

Lamb,  William 1264 

Lane,  Samuel  W 476 

Lapham,  Eliphalet  H 731 

Lapham,  William  B 360 

Lawrence,  Charles 618 

Lawrence,  Sherburn 630 

Lawrence  Homestead 619 

Lewis,  Allen  E 740 

Library,  Hallowell 503 

Lithgow,  L.  W 439 

Longfellow,  George  A 864 

Loring.  Henry  S 1058 

MacDonald,  Roderick 920 

Maine  Wesleyan  Seminary 103 

Manley,  Joseph  H 478 

Marston,  David  E 364 

Minot,  George  E   1034 

Minot,  George  E.,  Residence 1024 

Mitchell,  Benjamin  G 593 

Monument,  Father  Rale's 65 

Morrell,  Arch 656 


Morrell,  Hiram  K 262 

Morrell,  James  S 1213 

Mt.  Pleasant  Stock  Farm 211 

Nason,  Charles  H 445 

Nichols,  Thomas  B 1130 

North,  James  W 479 

Oak  Grove  Seminary 280 

"  Oak  Hill  "— BiUings  Homestead..  96.5 

"  Oak  Trees  "—Gov.  Williams'  Res.  487 

Owen,  Howard,  Cottage 880 

Packard,  Henry 868 

Parsons,  David  E 366 

Rale,  Fr.  Seb.,  Autograph  of .53 

Richardson,  Alton 1268 

Robbins,  George  A 1134 

Robbins,  George  A.,  Residence 1134 

Rowell,  Eliphalet .514 

Sampson,  Thomas  B 679 

Sanborn,  Bigelow  T 97 

Savings  Institution,  Gardiner 627 

Searls,  William  T 762 

Shores,  George  E 595 

Sidney,  Sketch  Map  of 1035 

Small,  Abner  R 1089 

Smith,  David  T 704 

Smith,  E.  H.  W 481 

Smith,  William  R 482 

Snell,  William  B 332 

Snow,  Albion  P . .  .\ 371 

Springer,  David  S 706 

State  House,  Augusta 80 

St.  Augustine  Church,  Augusta 436 

St.  Joseph's  Church,  Gardiner 635 

St.  Mary's  Church,  Augusta 432 

Stevens,  Greenlief  T 92 

Stevens  Homestead 1028 

Sturgis,  Ira  I ) 484 

Strout,  Albion  K.  P.,  Residence. . .     373 

Taylor,  Joseph 1030 

Thayer.  Frederick  C 375 

"The  Elms"— Res.  Geo.  H.  Crosby.  1209 

Thing,  Daniel  H 949 

Thomas,  Joseph  B 736 

Tinkham,  Andrew  W 804 

Titcomb,  Samuel 336 

Torsey,  Henry  P 926 

Towne,  Benjamin  F. ,  Residence  . .     567 

Trott,  Freeman 664 

"Uncle  Tom's  Cabin." 705 

Underwood,  Joseph  H 971 

Underwood  Homestead 972 

\^assalboro,  Plan  of 1096 

Vining,  Marcellus 1192 

Ware,  John 598 

Webb,  E.  F 338 

West  Gardiner  Map 669 

Whitehouse,  Seth  C 486 

Whitehouse,  William  Penn 297 

Whitehouse  Homestead 1137 

Whitmore,  Chadbourn  W 378 

Whitmore,  Nathaniel  M 342 

Whitmore,  Stephen 376 

Whittier  Homestead 984 

Williams,  Joseph  H 487 

Williams,  Joseph  H.,  Residence.  . .     487 

Williams,    Reuel 310 

Williams,  Seth 166 

Winslow,  Map  of 538 

Winslow,  Alfred 1092 

Woodbury,  John 710 

Woods,  Jacob  S 986 



By  Hiram  K.  Morrell. 

Geographical  and  Astronomical  Position. — Rocks. — Fossils. — Clay-beds. — Drain- 
age.— Streams. — Ponds. — Hills. — Climate. — Karnes. — Shell  Deposits. — Min- 
eralogy.— Primitive  and  Present  Forests. — Landscapes. — Game. — Fishes. 

THAT  portion  of  south-central  Maine  now  embraced  within  the 
county  of  Kennebec — lying  on  either  side  of  the  Kennebec 
river  and  almost  wholly  drained  by  its  tributaries — has  an  area 
of  nearly  a  half  million  acres.  Its  southern  boundary,  thirty  miles 
from  the  ocean,  is  in  north  latitude,  44°,  whence  it  extends  northward 
to  44°  31'.  It  is  from  twenty  to  thirty-five  miles  wide,  lying  between 
meridians  69°  20'  and  70°  10',  Its  greatest  diameter  from  north- 
east to  southwest  is  48.5  miles.  With  the  ultimate  purpose  of  tracing 
the  course  of  human  events  within  this  territory,  our  more  immediate 
purpose  in  this  chapter  is  to  consider  the  county  as  a  physical  struc- 
ture, regardless  of  its  occupancy  by  man. 

The  indications  of  a  glacial  period  are  probably  as  well  shown  in 
this  county  as  anywhere  in  Maine.  Underlying  the  modified  drift 
are  often  found  masses  of  earth  and  rocks  mingled  confusedly 
together,  having  neither  stratification  nor  any  appearance  of  having 
been  deposited  in  water.  These  are  the  glacial  drift,  or  ////.  This 
drift  frequently  covers  the  slopes,  and  even  the  summits,  of  the 
greater  elevations.  It  contains  bowlders  of  all  diameters  up  to  forty 
feet,  which  have  nearly  all  been  brought  southward  from  their  native 
ledges,  and  can  be  traced,  in  some  instances,  for  a  hundred  miles, 
southward  or  southeastward.  Wherever  till  occurs,  the  ledges  have 
mostly  been  worn  to  a  rounied  form,  and,  if  the  rock  be  hard,  it  is 
covered  with  long  scratches,  or  striic,  in  the  direction  of  the  course 
taken  by  the  bowlders.  Geology  now  refers  these  to  a  moving  ice- 
sheet  which  spread  over  this  continent  from  the  north,  and  was  of 
sufficient  thickness  to  cover  even  Mount  Washington,  to  within  300 


feet  of  its  top.  This  ice-sheet  was  so  much  thicker  at  the  north  than 
in  this  latitude  that  its  great  weight  pressed  the  ice  steadily  onward 
and  outward  to  the  south-southeast.  The  termination  of  this  ice-sheet 
in  the  Atlantic,  southeast  of  New  England,  was  probably  like  the 
present  great  ice-wall  of  the  Antarctic  continent. 

Of  Maine  as  a  whole  the  rocks  are  both  vietaniorpliic  {i.  c,  changed 
from  the  original  sandstones,  shales,  conglomerates  and  limestones  by 
the  action  of  heat,  water  and  chemical  forces  into  other  kinds  of  rock 
than  their  first  character)  slxiA  fossi/ifcrous.  These  metamorphic  strati- 
fied rocks  occur:  gneiss,  mica  schist,  talcose  schist,  steatite,  and  ser- 
pentine, the  saccharoid  limestone,  clay  slate,  quartz,  and  conglomer- 
ates, jasper,  siliceous  slate,  and  hornstone.  The  unstra'tified  rocks  are 
mostly  granite,  sienite,  protogine,  porphyry,  and  trap  or  greenstone. 

The  fossiliferous  rocks  are  Paleozoic,  except  some  marine  alluvial 
deposits,  and  represent  the  Lower  Silurian,  Upper  Silurian,  Devon- 
ian, and  Drift  and  Alluvium  groups.  These  formations  have  been 
studied  but  superficially,  as  yet,  by  .scientific  men;  Prof.  C.  H. 
Hitchcock,  however,  gives  this  arrangement:  Champlain  clays,  terti- 
ary; Glacial  drift,  till;  Lower  Carboniferous  or  Upper  Devonian; 
Lower  Devonian,  Oriskany  group;  Upper  Silurian;  Silurian  and  Cam- 
brian clay  slates;  Cambrian  and  Huronian  with  Taconic;  Montalban; 
Laurentian;  Granite;  Trap  and  altered  slates.  The  topographical 
survey  by  the  government  is  not  yet  published,  and  Prof.  W.  S. 
Bayley,  of  Colby  University,  says  that  not  even  a  nucleus  of  a  repre- 
sentative collection  of  the  minerals  of  the  state  exists  anywhere  in  it, 
although  Maine  possesses  unique  minerals  unknown  elsewhere. 

The  accepted  theory  of  many  geologists,  among  them  Miller, 
Lyell  and  Darwin,  is  that  there  was  a  time  during  the  Pleistocene 
period  when  most  of  this  continent  was  under  water;  when  the  whole 
of  Kennebec  county  was  submerged;  and  that  millions  of  immense 
icebergs  were  carried  by  the  currents,  bringing  large  bowlders  frozen 
firmly  to  their  bottoms.  These,  passing  over  the  submerged  ledge, 
ground  to  impalpable  powder  that  which,  precipitated  in  layers  on  the 
then  ocean  bottom,  formed  the  clay  layers  of  to-day.  The  subsequent 
gradual  elevation  of  the  eastern  coast  of  this  continent  left  above  tide 
water  many  of  the  characteristics  of  the  former  ocean  bottom,  and 
now  at  various  depths  below  the  surface  layers  of  marine  shells  may 
be  found. 

The  surface  in  many  sections  is  of  slate  of  the  lower  Silurian 
formation,  which,  having  been  ground «o  a  fine  paste,  makes  the  gray 
clay,  frequently  tinged  with  oxide  of  iron  and  containing  fossil  marine 
shells.  Where  these  clay-beds  are  deepest  the  clay  is  very  salt  and 
sometimes  contains  water-worn  pebbles,  on  some  of  which  fossil 
barnacles  have  been  found.  Under  the  gray  clays  is  the  blue  clay 
deposit,  doubtless  antedating  them  by  many  ages,  and  formed  in  part 


from  the  ocean  ooze.  These  original  day  deposits  are  thirty,  sixty, 
and  in  places,  more  than  one  hundred  feet  thick,  through  which  the 
streams  have  cut  deep  channels,  leaving  the  clay  hills  of  irregular 

Of  the  county  as  a  place  of  residence  it  hardly  seems  necessary 
to  speak.  Those  who  have  always  lived  in  it  show,  from  that  fact, 
their  appreciation  of  it.  Those  who  have  gone  from  it  have  either 
come  back,  or  intend  to,  if  they  can.  Those  who  have  been  away  from 
it  and  returned,  think  most  of  it.  and  the  more  they  have  traveled, 
the  more  they  appreciate  good  "  Old  Kennebec  "  as  a  home. 

I  was  born  in  it  and  always  lived  in  it  except  about  two  j^ears  in 
Minnesota,  aiid  then  I  had  a  home  here.  I  have  been  young  and  now 
I  am  old,  yet  never  have  I  seen  the  Kennebecker  forsaken,  nor  his 
seed  begging  bread — and  never  expect  to — unless  he  is  too  lazy  to 
work.  I  have  traveled  in  twenty-six  states,  both  of  the  Canadas,  New 
Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia,  and  I  honestly,  after  mature  deliberation, 
believe  that  in  no  other  land  can  one  with  honesty  and  thrift  get  more 
of  the  good  things  of  life— of  all  that  makes  life  enjoyable  to  the  hon- 
est, intellectual  man — than  in  Kennebec  county. 

The  county  is  one  of  the  highly  favored  places  of  the  world  as  to 
its  water  and  drainage  systems.  The  splendid  water  power  at  Water- 
ville,  known  as  Ticonic  (anciently  spelled  Teconnet)  falls,  is  the  head 
of  navigation  for  large  boats. 

The  total  fall  of  the  Kennebec  from  the  foot  of  Ticonic  falls  to 
Augusta  is  36.6  feet.  The  dam  at  Augusta,  which  is  passed  by  a  lock, 
makes  still  water  for  several  miles.  Just  below  Ticonic  falls  the 
Sebasticook  river,  having  drained  Winslow,  Benton  and  Clinton,  and 
many  towns  in  Somerset  county,  joins  the  Kennebec  near  the  old  Fort 
Halifax  of  1746.  The  Messalonskee  stream,  having  drained  the  lake  of 
the  same  name  and  five  towns  and  several  large  ponds,  at  Oakland  tum- 
bles in  a  beautiful  cascade  of  forty  feet  and  soon  enters  the  Kennebec, 
just  below  and  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Sebasticook.  , Several  large 
brooks  or  streams,  which  would  be  called  rivers  in  the  western  part  of 
the  state,  enter  the  Kennebec  between  Waterville  and  Gardiner,  where 
the  Cobbosseecontee — the  prettiest,  merriest  and  busiest  of  streams — 
having  drained  the  towns  of  Wayne,  Winthrop,  Monmouth,  Litchfield 
and  West  Gardiner,  in  Kennebec  county,  and  several  in  Androscoggin 
and  Sagadahoc,  after  a  vexed  and  troubled  journey  of  a  mile  over 
eight  dams,  with  a  fall  of  128  feet,  laughingly  and  gleefully  enters 
placidly  the  Kennebec. 

The  Cobbossee  is  the  outlet  of  Cobbossee  Great  pond,  which  re- 
ceives also  the  waters  of  Aunabessacook  and  Maranocook  ponds.  It 
also  receives  the  discharge  from  Lake  Tacoma,  or  "  Shorey  pond," 
Sand,  Buker,  Jimmy  and  Wood  ponds,  which  are  nearly  on  a  level,  and 
known  on  the  map  as  Purgatory  ponds.    It  is  one  of  the  best  and  most 


available  water  powers  in  the  state.  Worromontogus  stream,  the  out- 
let of  the  pond  of  the  same  name — usually  abbreviated  to  "  Togus  " — 
forms  the  line  between  Randolph  and  Pittston,  where  it  forms  a  valu- 
able water  power  before  its  entrance  into  the  Kennebec.  The  south- 
ern and  eastern  portions  of  Pittston  are  drained  by  the  Eastern  river, 
which  joins  the  Kennebec  at  Dresden,  opposite  Swan  island.  Windsor 
is  drained  by  the  eastern  branch  of  the  Sheepscot.  The  towns  in  the 
extreme  west  of  the  county  contain  sixteen  ponds  which  drain  into 
the  Androscoggin.  As  a  whole,  the  water  that  falls  on  Kennebec 
county  flows  into  the  ocean  through  the  Kennebec,  for  it  receives  all 
of  the  water  of  the  Androscoggin  at  Merrymeeting  bay. 

Of  course  this  imperfect  sketch  of  these  leading  drainage  systems 
gives  but  a  faint  idea  of  the  water  system  of  the  county.  On  Half- 
penny's atlas  of  Kennebec  county,  some  seventy-five  named  ponds  are 
laid  down,  which  number  of  course  does  not  include  all.  Some  of 
these  ponds,  several  miles  in  extent,  would  be  called  lakes  in  other 
places.  Cobbossee  Great  pond  forms  the  boundary,  in  whole  or  in 
part,  of  five  towns;  and  there  are  several  others  nearly  as  large.  I 
will  not  consider  the  water  powers  of  these  ponds  and  streams,  but 
their  natural  beauties  and  attractions.  I  know  them  and  love  them, 
but  it  will  take  an  abler  pen  than  mine  to  picture  even  a  small  part  of 
their  loveliness.  If  I  cared  to  tempt  the  hunter  and  fisherman — but  I 
do  not — I  could  tell  wondrous  tales,  and  wondrous  because  they  are 
true,  of  the  trout,  black  bass,  white  perch,  pickerel,  and  many  other 
kinds  of  fishes  I  have  seen,  which  were  taken  from  our  beautiful 
brooks  and  ponds:  and  of  the  woodcocks,  partridges,  ducks  and  other 
game  that  others  shot — others  I  say,  for  I  never  fired  a  gun  in  my  life. 

One  can  hardly  go  amiss,  who  seeks  for  pleasure  with  the  gun  or 
rod  in  almost  any  town  in  the  county.  It  is  the  sportsman's  paradise. 
But  to  me,  and  such  as  I,  her  ponds  and  cascades,  her  placid  streams 
and  murmuring  brooks,  her  ever-verdant  fields  and  forest-clad  hills, 
have  a  deeper  and  nobler  attraction  than  merely  as  a  haunt  for  the 
slayer.  If  everybody  saw  the  natural  beauties  of  Kennebec  county, 
as  the  true  lover  of  nature  sees  them,  and  enjoyed  them  as  he  enjoys 
them,  the  county  would  not  be  large  enough  for  those  who  would 
want  to  live  in  it.  She  has  no  mountains  to  awe  or  weary  the  trav- 
eler and  take  up  the  room  of  better  scenery,  but  she  has  picturesque 
hills  and  bluffs,  overlooking  smiling  valleys,  dotted  with  lovely  vil- 
lages; hills  from  which  Mounts  Kearsage,  Washington  and  the  whole 
Presidential  range  may  be  seen,  as  well  as  Mt.  Blue,  Mt.  Saddleback, 
Abraham,  Bigelow  and  others.  The  views  from  Oak  hill,  in  Litch- 
field, and  from  Monmouth  Ridge  and  Pease's  hill  in  Monmouth,  Cross 
hill  in  Vassalboro,  Deer  hill  in  China  and  Bolton  hill  in  Augusta,  are 
as  fine  as  one  needs  to  see. 

The  climate  is  the  best  abused  thing  in  Maine,  the  abuse  coming 


mostly  from  those  who  do  not  know  what  a  good  climate  is.  I  used 
to  think  that  Maine  was  hardly  decent  for  any  man  to  attempt  to  live 
in;  but  having  spent  three  winters  in  Florida,  and  having  sampled 
the  winter  climate  of  the  much  bepraised  western  highlands  of 
Georgia,  South  Carolina  and  North  Carolina,  and  spent  nearly  two 
years  in  Minnesota  and  Iowa,  I  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  Ken- 
nebec county  is  the  best  county  for  me  to  live  in,  summer  or  winter. 
There  are  some  days  in  dog-days,  and  perhaps  some  weather  in  March 
and  November,  that  might  be  improved,  but  take  it  as  a  whole,  one 
season  with  another,  Kennebec  has  as  good  a  climate  as  any  place  in 
the  world;  and  her  sons  and  daughters,  physically,  mentally  and  mor- 
ally, will  compare  favorably  with  the  men  and  women  of  any  land. 
We  are  too  warm  in  winter,  but  the  climate  is  not  to  blame  for  that. 
Maine  people  keep  themselves  warmer  in  the  winter  than  in  summer. 

We  are  far  enough  from  the  ocean  to  escape  its  damp,  salt,  chilly 
air,  yet  near  enough  to  temper  our  summer  heat  with  the  sea  breezes. 
For  forty  years  our  average  annual  rainfall,  including  melted  snow, 
has  been  43.24  inches,  which  is  about  '35  per  cent,  in  excess  of  six 
other  states  west  of  Maine,  where  records  have  been  kept.  The  mean 
rainfall  in  Kennebec  county,  between  May  31st  and  September  14th, 
is  11.11  inches;  the  winter  precipitation  is  10.13  inches,  and  that  of 
fall  and  spring  10.50  inches.  (3ur  rainfall  is  .so  evenly  distributed  that 
the  county  rarely  suffers  from  excessive  storms,  or  from  droughts. 
In  fine,  if  one  cannot  live  here  to  a  good  old  age,  he  is  likely  to  die 
young  anywhere,  and  not  necessarily  because  he  is  beloved  of  the 
gods  either.  Octogenarians  are  common,  and  centenarians  are  by 
no  means  rare.  But  one's  life  in  Kennebec  county,  be  it  longer  or 
shorter,  is  worth  a  good  deal  more  than  it  would  be  anywhere  else. 

While  the  chief  industrial  wealth  of  Kennebec  county  is  in  her 
agriculture  and  her  varied  manufactures  noticed  in  subsequent  chap- 
ters, she  also  utilizes  her  di.sadvantages,  and  her  frozen  river  and  her 
rocky  hills  become  a  source  of  employment  for  thousands,  of  business 
and  revenue  to  many,  and  of  general  welfare  to  the  whole  community. 
Her  ice  business  alone  probably  brings  a  million  dollars  a  year  to  the 
county,  while  her  granite  quarries  furnish  work  for  scores  of  skilled 
laborers,  and  the  leading  cities  of  almost  every  state  are  proud  of 
their  architectural  specimens  of  the  enduring  productions  of  Ken- 

In  general  the  river  banks  along  the  Kennebec  are  high,  the  soil 
rocky  or  clayey,  there  being  but  few  sections  of  alluvial  soil  along  its 
banks,  and  these  of  small  extent.  The  surface  in  Rome,  Vienna,  Mt. 
Vernon  and  Fayette  is  broken,  the  soils  rocky  and  strong.  In  Wins- 
low  the  soil  bordering  the  Kennebec  and  vSebasticook  rivers  is  a  fine, 
deep  loam;  while  the  eastern  part  of  the  town  is  ledgy.  In  Litchfield 
and  West  Gardiner  are  quite  extensive   tracts  of  light,  plains  land. 


Wayne  abounds  in  large  extents  of  blowing  sands,  soil  largely  com- 
posed of  fine  sand,  not  containing  sufficient  clay  or  aluminous  matter 
to  give  them  cohesion,  and  for  years  hundreds  of  acres  of  these  shift- 
ing sands  have  been  moved  by  the  winds,  covering  up  other  hundreds 
of  acres  of  valuable  land.  Her  soils  comprise  specimens  of  almost 
everything.  In  the  main  they  are  strong  rather  than  deep;  in  many 
sections  ledgy,  in  some  very  rocky,  in  a  few  porous  and  light.  In 
places,  glacial  deposits  have  formed  kames,*  horse  backs,  or  ridges  of 
sand.  In  others,  fields  buried  in  bowlders  show  where  were  ancient 
moraines  of  the  glacial  period. 

"  Int  all  the  regions  which  in  .some  former  age  were  overrun  by 
glaciers,  there  are  found  certain  curious  ridges  of  sand,  gravel  or 
pebbles,  often  in  places  where  no  ordinary  stream  could  have  flowed. 
Because  of  their  remarkable  shapes  and  situations  they  have  always 
attracted  attention  wherever  they  are  found,  and  hence  they  have  re- 
ceived many  local  names.  They  are  known  as  kames  in  Scotland, 
eskars  in  Ireland,  aasar  in  Sweden,  and  in  Maine  they  are  called  horse- 
backs, whalebacks,  hogbacks,  ridges,  turnpikes,  windrows  and  sad- 
dles. A  kame  often  spreads  out  into  a  very  broad  ridge  or  plain,  also 
into  a  series  of  ridges  connected  by  cross  ridges  called  plains  or  kame- 
plains.  They  frequently  contain  conical  or  rounded  depressions  called 
sinks,  hoppers,  pounds,  kettles,  bowls,  punch-bowls,  potash  kettles,  and 
one  at  Bryant's  pond  is  known  as  the  '  Basin.'  The  gravel  stones 
and  pebbles  in  these  formations  are  more  or  less  washed  and  rounded, 
like  found  on  the  sea  beach  or  in  the  beds  of  rapid  streams.  The 
large  pebbles  are  called  cobble  stones  in  the  Middle  states  and  pumple 
stones  in  the  East.  Often  there  are  gaps  in  these  ridges,  but  when 
mapped  they  are  plainly  seen  to  be  arranged  in  lines  or  systems  like 
the  hills  in  a  row  of  corn." 

One  of  these  kames  forms  both  sand  hills  and  plains  in  Wayne; 
marked  bluffs  or  hills  of  sand  in  Monmouth;  and  in  Litchfield  it  forms 
what  is  known  as  "  The  Plains."  Profe.ssor  Stone  mentions  one  kame 
as  "  the  eastern  Kennebec  system,  that  extends  through  Mayfield, 
Skowhegan,  Augusta,  South  Gardiner  and  beyond."  There  is  no  trace 
of  it  in  Gardiner  but  a  singular  sugar-loaf  shaped  hill  at  South  Gardi- 
ner. This  was  noticed;);  by  Reverend  Mr.  Bailey,  of  Pownalboro,  over 
a  hundred  years  ago,  and  also  a  similar  one  across  the  river,  a  short 
distance  below.  He  thought  they  were  the  work  of  human  hands. 
Professor  .Stone's  theory  is  that  these  kames  are  the  old  beds  of  rivers 
which  ran  on  the  surface  of  the  ice  in  the  glacial  period,  and  formed 
by  their  deposits  these  various  phenomena.  His  theory,  I  think,  is 
generally  adopted  as  the  only  one  which  accounts  for  them. 

In  Wayne  and  Monmouth  in  some  places  these  sands  are  shifted  by 
the  wind,  and  beds  of  simply  barren  sand  occur.     At  Augusta  and 

*  The  Kame  theory  was  developed  by  George  H.  Stone,  while  a  professor  at 
Kents  Hill  Seminary. 

t  Prof.  George  H.  Stone,  in  Maine  Farmer. 

\  Vide  Frontier  Missionary. 


Gardiner,  along  the  river  banks;  in  Winthrop  and  in  other  towns 
marine  fossil  shells  of  living  species  are  found,  some  of  which  species 
are  not  now  found  so  far  south. 

A  scallop — Pcctcn  Is/aiidiats,  a  shell  common  to  Newfoundland — has 
been  found  at  Gardiner.  I  once  bored  through  72  feet  of  clay  in 
Gardiner  and  struck  what  was  undoubtedly  river  gravel.  The  line  of 
these  fossil  shells  is  as  much  as  150  feet  above  the  present  level  of  the 
sea.  These  clay  hills  in  many  places  have  deep  valleys  between, 
doubtless  eroded  in  glacial  times.  In  all  these  river  towns  there  are 
also  high  granite  hills  and  bluffs,  with  the  exception  of  Waterville, 
where  the  lower  Silurian  slates  outcrop.  The  oldest  and  newest 
formations  lie  side  by  side,  with  no  intermediate  ones. 

Kennebec  county  has  several  kinds  of  minerals,  of  which  a  few 
may  be  mentioned.  Litchfield,  which  is  quite  a  place  of  pilgrimage 
for  mineralogists,  contains  sodalite,  cancrinite,  elaeolite,  zircon,  spodu- 
mene,  muscovite,  pyrrhotite,  hydronephelite,  pyrite,  arsenopyrite, 
lepidomelane,  muscovite,  jasper.  Hydronephelite  is  a  new  mineral 
recently  determined  by  F.  W.  Clarke,  curator  of  the  mineralogical 
department  of  the  National  Museum,  Washington.  The  deep  blue 
sodalite  and  brilliant  yellow  cancrinite  of  Litchfield  and  hydronephe- 
lite have  never  been  found  anywhere  else  in  equally  as  fine  specimens. 
A  gold  mine  was  opened  a  few  years  ago  on  the  east  side  of  Oak  hill, 
in  Litchfield,  but  it  did  not  enrich  its  owners,  although  it  is  laid  down 
on  the  atlas  before  mentioned. 

Monmouth  produces  actinolite,  apatite,  elseolite,  zircon,  staurolite, 
plumose  mica,  beryl,  rulite.  Pittston  contains  fine  specimens  of 
graphite  and  pyrrhotite.  Several  attempts  at  mining  gold  have  been 
made  there,  and  favorable  assays  published.  In  Waterville  are  found 
fine  specimens  of  crystallized  pyrite.  Winthrop  shows  fine  specimens 
of  staurolite,  pyrite,  hornblende,  garnet  and  copperas.  Crystallized 
quartz,  small  garnets,  tourmaline  and  traces  of  iron  are  common 
throughout  the  county. 

Dana,  in  his  System  of  Mineralogy,  says  "  gold  has  been  found  at 
Albion."  This  is  doubtless  an  error  into  which  the  elder  Dana  wa-; 
led  by  Professor  Cleaveland,  of  Brunswick,  who  was  inveigled  into 
investing  by  some  crooks  in  a  bogus  gold  mine  in  Albion. 

The  original  forest  was  largely  of  pme.  as  the  gigantic  stumps 
attest.  Our  forests  are  composed  of  the  various  species  of  pine,  hem- 
lock, spruce,  fir,  hackmatack  and  cedar;  birch,  beech,  oak,  hornbeam, 
ash,  elm,  poplar,  willow,  cherry  and  basswood — in  fact  of  about  all  the 
trees  and  shrubs  of  Maine.  Her  forests  are  her  crowning  glory,  both 
when  their  leafage  is  coming  out  and  in  autumn,  when  their  gorgeous 
coloring  is  the  despair  of  the  artist  and  the  wonder  of  the  world;  for 
no  other  part  of  the  earth  claims  to  approach  the  beauty  of  the  Maine 


woods.  The  man  who  has  never  stood,  some  lovely  October  day,  on 
Oak  hill,  Monmouth  ridge.  Pease's  hill,  or  some  other  hilltop  over- 
looking- onr  beautiful  ponds,  the  mountains  towering  on  our  northern 
horizon;  with  the  clear  blue  sky  above  him,  and  around  hundreds  of 
forest-clad  hills,  with  all  the  gorgeous  colorings  of  the  rainbow — yes, 
with  hundreds  of  tints  and  shades  of  colors— has  yet  to  learn  what  it 
is  to  live,  and  what  a  lovely  world  this  is.  As  the  sun  sinks  slowly  in 
the  west,  and  gradually,  gently  and  reluctantly  draws  the  mantle  of 
night  over  the  earth,  as  though  he  hated  to  leave  so  much  beauty, 
then  one  knows  what  a  sunset  is.  Talk  of  skies!  As  Bryant  says: 
The  sunny  Italy  may  boast 

The  beauteous  tints  that  flush  her  skies, 
And  lovely  round  the  Grecian  coast 
May  thy  blue  pillars  rise  ! 

I  only  know  how  fair  they  stand 
Above  my  own  beloved  land. 

Our  ponds  and  streams  have  economic  as  well  as  esthetic  excel- 
lence. Our  ponds  teem  with  good  fish,  while  each  week  in  the  spring- 
time a  new  migratory  fish  makes  its  appearance.  The  purity  of  water 
in  the  Kennebec  makes  its  fish,  like  its  ice,  the  best  of  their  kind.  In 
winter  the  lower  Kennebec  swarms  with  smelts  that  used  to  come  in 
millions  to  Gardiner  and  Hallowell— and  would  now  if  legally  pro- 
tected; alewives  come  in  early  spring;  then  the  .shad,  the  mackerel,- 
the  striped  bass;  then  cod,  cusk,  haddock,  halibut  and  hake,  all  the 
year.  Twenty  years  ago  one  could  hardly  look  at  the  river  in  June 
without  seeing  the  sturgeon  jumping,  but  three  years  of  fishing  by  a 
German  company  almost  exterminated  them.  "  Kennebec  Salmon," 
always  named  on  the  bills  in  city  restaurants,  had  been  practically 
extinct  for  years,  until  recently  some  efforts  have  been  made  toward 
re-stocking  the  river. 

In  several  of  the  inland  ponds  are  smelts.  In  Belgrade  pond  is  a 
variety  so  large  that  naturalists  have  given  it  a  special  name.  Lamprey 
and  eels  are  plenty  in  the  Cobbossee — the  latter  taken  by  tons — but 
the  natives  seldom  eat  them. 

Thus  it  would  seem  that  nature  has  in  every  way  made  generous 
provision,  in  the  valley  of  the  Kennebec,  for  the  welfare  and  happi- 
ness of  man.  Of  course  man  here  does  not  live  forever,  but  it  is  a 
proportionately  cheerful  and  pleasant  place  to  die  in.  Skillful  physi- 
cians and  careful  nurses  smooth  his  pillow  and  ease  his  pains,  till  the 
grim  messenger  is  almost  tired  of  waiting;  and  when  the  inevitable  is 
passed,  genial  and  liberal  clergymen  will  do  the  ver}^  best  that  can  be 
done  for  him,  and  elegant  undertakers  will  make  his  last  ride  the 
most  expensive  one  he  ever  had;  and  when  all  is  done  a  monument  of 
Kennebec  granite  will  rear  its  lordly  head  above  his  peaceful  grave, 
and  "  after  life's  fitful  fever  he  sleeps  well." 



DuMont  and  Champlain. — The  Popham  Colony. -^Captain  Gilbert's  trip  up  the 
River. — Sebenoa  the  Sagamore. — Visit  to  the  Indian  Village. — Erection  of 
the  Cross  of  Discovery. — Visit  of  Biencourt  and  Father  Biard. — Interviews 
with  the  Indians. — First  Ceremony  of  the  Mass  on  the  Coast  of  Maine. — The 
French  Mission  at  St.  Sauveiir  (Mt.  Desert)  destroyed  with  Bloodshed.— 
The  Contest  for  Acadia  begun.— Captain  John  Smith. — Samoset  and  Captain 
Leverett. — First  Sale  of  Land  by  Indians. 

THE  story  of  the  aborigines  of  Maine  blends  inseparably  with  the 
history  of  the  struggle  that  lasted  for  a  century  and  a  half  be- 
tween France  and  England  for  supremacy  in  the  New  World. 
In  the  first  decade  of  the  17th  century,  Henry  IV  of  France  and  James 
I  of  England,  grasped  simultaneously  as  jewels  for  their  respective 
crowns,  the  greater  part  of  North  America.  Spain,  the  patron  and 
the  beneficiary  of  Columbus,  had  enjoyed  exclusively  for  three  gener- 
ations the  wealth  of  the  western  hemisphere,  whose  productions  of 
"  barbaric  pearl  or  gold  "  had  spoiled  the  Spaniard  to  the  point  of  sur- 
feit and  effeminacy,  and  made  him  look  lightly  on  all  territory  that 
was  destitute  of  the  glittering  ores.  Northward  from  Florida  the 
latitudes  were  open  to  any  nation  that  could  maintain  itself  against 
the  jealousy  of  its  rivals.  The  mosses  of  an  hundred  years  had  gath- 
ered on  Columbus'  tomb  before  the  impulse  of  his  mighty  achieve- 
ment aroused  the  statesmen  of  central  Europe  to  schemes  of  empire 
on  the  continent  to  which  he  had  shown  the  way  across  a  chartless 
ocean.  France  took  the  initiative.  Henry  vaguely  lined  out  as  his  own 
in  1603,  by  royal  patent,  the  most  of  the  territory  of  the  present  United 
States.  James  asserted  a  like  claim  to  the  same  vast  tract,  with  con- 
siderably enlarged  boundaries.  Frenchmen  broke  ground  for  coloni- 
zation at  Passamaquoddy  in  1604.  Englishmen  followed  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Kennebec  in  1607.  Neither  colony  was  successful,  but  the  two 
begin  the  history  of  New  France  and  New  England,  and  introduce  to 


US  the  Indians  who  inhabited  the  land  in  the  shadow  of  the  untrimmed 
forest.  The  claim  of  France  to  Acadia,  whose  western  bound  was  de- 
fined by  the  Kennebec  (where  DuMont  and  Champlain  raised  the 
fleur-dc  lis  in  1605),  and  the  counter-claim  of  the  English  to  the  Penob- 
scot (or  actually  to  the  St.  George,  where  Weymouth  erected  his  cross 
of  discovery  the  same  year),  made  the  territory  of  future  Maine  from 
its  earliest  occupation  by  the  whites  the  prolific  source  of  interna- 
tional irritation  and  intrigue;  and  the  theater  of  a  series  of  sanguin- 
ary conflicts  that  ended  only  when  New  France  was  expunged  from 
the  map  of  America  by  the  fall  of  Quebec  in  1759.  Ancient  Acadia 
passed  nine  times  between  France  and  England  in  the  period  of  127 
years.  In  this  eventful  contest — the  issue  of  which  left  North 
America  to  the  English  people — the  uncivilized  red  men  in  their 
native  wilds  were  prominent  participants — the  dupes  and  victims  of 
the  one  side  and  the  other — until  the  tribes  were  decimated  and  one 
by  one  extinguished.  It  is  our  present  task  to  study  the  history  of 
the  famous  tribe  that  dwelt  in  the  valley  of  the  Kennebec. 

On  Wednesday,  the  23d  day  of  September,  1607,  Captain  Gilbert 
and  nineteen  men  embarked  in  a  shallop  from  the  new  fort  of  the 
Popham  colony,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec,  "  to  goe  for  the  head 
of  the  river;  they  sayled  all  this  daye,  and  the  24th  the  like  untill  six 
of  the  clock  in  the  afternoone,  when  they  landed  on  the  river's  side, 
where  they  found  a  champion  land  [camping  ground],  and  very  fer- 
tile, where  they  remayned  all  that  night;  in  the  morning  they  de- 
parted from  thence  and  sayled  up  the  river  and  came  to  a  flatt  low 
island  where  ys  a  great  cataract  or  downfall  of  water,  which  runneth 
by  both  sides  of  this  island  very  shold  and  swift.  .  .  They  haled 
their  boat  with  a  strong  rope  through  this  downfall  perforce,  and  went 
neare  a  league  further  up,  and  here  they  lay  all  night;  and  in  the  first 
of  the  night  there  called  certain  savages  on  the  further  side  of  the 
river  unto  them  in  broken  English;  they  answered  them  againe  and 
parled  [talked]  long  with  them,  when  towards  morning  they  departed. 
In  the  morning  there  came  a  canoa  unto  them,  and  in  her  a  sagamo 
and  four  salvages,  some  of  those  which  spoke  to  them  the  night  be- 
fore. The  sagamo  called  his  name  Sebenoa,  and  told  us  how  he  was 
lord  of  the  river  Sachadehoc.  They  entertayned  him  friendly,  and 
took  him  into  their  boat  and  presented  him  with  some  trifiiing  things, 
which  he  accepted;  howbeyt,  he  desired  some  one  of  our  men  to  be 
put  into  his  canoa  as  a  pawne  of  his  safety,  whereupon  Captain  Gil- 
bert sent  in  a  man  of  his,  when  presently  the  canoa  rowed  away  from 
them  with  all  the  speed  they  could  make  up  the  river.  They  followed 
with  the  .shallop,  having  great  care  that  the  sagamo  should  not  leape 
overbourde.  The  canoa  quickly  rowed  from  them  and  landed, 
and    the   men    made   to  their  howses,  being  neere  a  league  on    the 


the  land  from  the  river's  side,  and  carried  our  man  with  them.  The 
shallop  making  good  waye,  at  length  came  to  another  downfall,  which 
was  soe  shallow  and  soe  swift,  that  by  no  means  could  they  pass  any 
further,  for  which.  Captain  Gilbert,  with  nine  others,  landed  and  tooke 
their  fare,  the  savage  sagamo,  with  them,  and  went  in  search  after 
those  other  salvages,  whose  howses,  the  sagamo  told  Captain  Gilbert, 
were  not  farr  off;  and  after  a  good  tedious  march,  they  came  indeed 
at  length  unto  those  salvages'  howses  wheere  [they]  found  neere  fifty 
able  men  very  strong  and  tall,  such  as  their  like  before  they  had  not 
seene;  all  newly  painted  and  armed  with  their  bowes  and  arrowes. 
Howbeyt,  after  that  the  sagamo  had  talked  with  them,  they  delivered 
back  againe  the  man,  and  used  all  the  rest  very  friendly,  as  did  ours 
the  like  by  them,  who  .showed  them  their  comodities  of  beads,  knives, 
and  some  copper,  of  which  they  seemed  very  fond;  and  by  waye  of 
trade,  made  shew  that  they  would  come  downe  to  the  boat  and  there 
bring  such  things  as  they  had  to  exchange  them  for  ours.  Soe  Cap- 
tain Gilbert  departed  from  them,  and  within  half  an  howre  after  he 
had  gotten  to  his  boat,  there  came  three  canoas  down  unto  them,  and 
in  them  sixteen  salvages,  and  brought  with  them  some  tobacco  and 
certayne  small  skynnes,  which  were  of  no  value;  which  Captain  Gil- 
bert perceaving,  and  that  they  had  nothing  else  wherewith  to  trade^ 
he  caused  all  his  men  to  come  abourd,  and  as  he  would  have  put  from 
the  shore;  the  salvages  perceiving  so  much,  subtilely  devised  how 
they  might  put  out  the  tier  in  the  shallop,  by  which  means  they  sawe 
they  should  be  free  from  the  danger  of  our  men's  pieces  [firelocks], 
and  to  perform  the  same,  one  of  the  salvages  came  into  the  shallop 
and  taking  the  fier-brand  which  one  of  our  company  held  in  his  hand 
thereby  to  light  the  matches,  as  if  he  would  light  a  pipe  of  tobacco, 
as  sone  as  he  had  gotten  yt  into  his  hand  he  presently  threw  it  into 
the  water  and  leapt  out  of  the  shallop.  Captain  Gilbert  seeing  that, 
suddenly  commanded  his  men  to  betake  them  to  their  musketts  and 
the  targettiers  too,  from  the  head  of  the  boat,  and  bade  one  of  the  men 
before,  with  his  target  [shield]  on  his  arme,  to  stepp  on  the  shore  for 
more  fier;  the  salvages  resisted  him  and  would  not  suffer  him  to  take 
any,  and  some  others  holding  fast  the  boat  roap  that  the  shallop  could 
not  put  off.  Captain  Gilbert  caused  the  musquettiers  to  present  [aim] 
their  peeces,  the  which,  the  salvages  seeing,  presently  let  go  the  boat 
rope  and  betook  them  to  their  bowes  and  arrowes,  and  ran  into  the 
bushes,  nocking  their  arrowes,  but  did  not  shoot,  neither  did  ours  at 
them.  So  the  shallop  departed  from  them  to  the  further  side  of  the 
river,  where  one  of  the  canoas  came  unto  them,  and  would  have  ex- 
cused the  fault  of  the  others.  Captain  Gilbert  made  show  as  if  he 
were  still  friends,  and  entertayned  them  kindly  and  soe  left  them,  re- 
turning to  the  place  where  he  had  lodged  the  night  before,  and  there 


came  to  an  anchor  for  the  night.  .  .  Here  they  sett  up  a  crosse, 
and  then  returned  homeward."* 

This  graphic  and  artless  account  of  the  earliest  recorded  visit  by 
white  men  to  the  region  above  Merrymeeting  bay,  was  apparently 
copied  with  but  few  changes  from  Captain  Gilbert's  log-book,  made 
by  the  scribe  of  the  Popham  colony,  who  probably  was  one  of  the 
party.  The  facts  and  circumstances  lead  irresistibly  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  Kennebec  (and  not  the  Andro.scoggin)  was  the  river  which 
the  colonists  explored.  fThe  camping  place  at  the  close  of  the  second 
day  after  leaving  the  fort  may  have  been  the  plateau  where  now  the 
village  of  Randolph  stands,  or  that  other  one  two  miles  above  in 
Chelsea,  nearly  opposite  Loudon  hill,  in  Hallowell.  The  boatmen 
encountered  the  next  day,  a  few  miles  above  their  camping  place, 
"  a  flat  low  island  in  the  midst  of  a  great  downfall  of  water,"  This 
felicitously  described  the  Kennebec  at  the  place  where  the  Augusta 
dam  now  stands,  before  the  peculiar  features  of  the  spot  were  obliter- 
ated by  the  building  of  that  structure  (1835-7).  The  rapid  and  island 
are  unmistakable  features  of  identification.  The  island  has  disap- 
peared by  the  building  of  the  dam  and  the  rapid  has  become  an  arti- 
ficial cascade  for  the  uses  of  civilized  industry,  yet  the  transformation 
of  the  river  at  this  place  since  that  early  day,  has  scarcely  been  greater 
than  in  many  other  places  along  its  course. 

The  next  camping  place  was  about  a  league  above  the  island, 
where  first  the  natives  accosted  them,  shyly,  hallooing  in  shibboleth 
through  the  darkness.  The  place  was  probably  the  intervale  that  is 
now  divided  into  portions  of  several  farms,  near  Gilley's  point,  where 
there  are  still  many  vestiges  of  Indian  encampments.  The  next  morn- 
ing, after  exchanging  hostages,  the  explorers  continued  their  journey 
until  their  boat  grounded  on  shallows.  This  may  have  been  in  the 
swift  water  since  that  day  known  as  Bacon's  rips,  in  the  course  of 
which  the  river  has  a  natural  fall  of  about  thirteen  feet.  The  farthest 
point  reached  by  Gilbert  in  his  wood-tramp  was  a  wigwam  village 
about  a  league  from  the  river,  within  the  limits  of  the  present  town 
of  Vassalboro,  or  of  Sidney.  Night  found  the  party  reunited  at  the 
last  camping  place.  There,  the  next  morning  (Sunday,  September 
27),  they  performed  the  ceremony  of  taking  possession  of  the  country 

*  Historic  of  Travaile  into  Virginia,  by  William  Strachey,  Gent.  Maine  His- 
torical Society's  Collections,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  304-307. 

+  The  Androscoggin  theory  was  first  advanced  by  able  students  of  Maine 
history,  but  it  meets  many  obstacles  in  Strachey's  account.  The  Kennebec 
theory  meets  with  but  few  difficulties  and  harmonizes  rationally  with  the  record. 
See  Remarks  on  Waymouth's  Voyage,  by  John  McKeen,  Vol.  \,  Me.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.  Rev.  WilHam  S.  Bartlett,  same  series,  Vol.  HI,  p.  304.  Dr.  William  B. 
Lapham  in  Daily  Kennebec  journal,  December,  1889.  For  description  of  the 
'■flat  low  island."  see  North's  History  of  Augusta,  pages  4.)0-4r)8. 


for  their  king,  by  erecting  in  his  name  the  cross  of  Christianity  at  the 
place  where  they  had  twice  lodged.  Then  leaving  the  sacred  emblem 
standing  as  the  official  vestige  of  their  visit,  they  departed.  It  would 
be  interesting  to  know  precisely  the  spot  where  the  cross  was  planted, 
and  how  long  it  remained  as  an  object  of  awe  to  the  savages.  We 
never  hear  more  of  Sebenoa;  he  was  the  first  in  the  long  line  of  Ken- 
nebec chiefs  whose  names  have  been  preserved  in  the  white  man's 
annals;  his  dust,  with  that  of  his  bedizened  warriors  who  posed  so 
grandly  before  their  visitors,  has  long  mingled  with  the  mold  of  the 
forest  where  he  reigned,  but  his  peaceful  welcome  to  the  white 
strangers  who  earliest  set  foot  on  the  soil  of  the  capital  of  Maine,  in- 
vests his  name  with  a  charm  that  will  preserve  it  while  the  language 
of  the  race  that  has  supplanted  his  own  is  spoken  or  read. 

Captain  Popham  died  before  the  winter  bad  passed;  and  in  the 
spring,  leaving  the  dismantled  fort  to  be  his  sepulcher,  the  homesick 
colonists  fled  back  to  England.  Father  Pierre  Biard,  a  Jesuit  mis- 
sionary, visited  the  vSagadahoc  (Kennebec)  three  years  later  (October, 
1611):  he  accompanied  an  expedition  under  Biencourt,  then  vice- 
admiral  of  New  France,  on  a  cruise  from  the  eastward  along  the  coast 
to  the  western  boundary  of  Acadia,  in  quest  of  food  for  the  French 
colony  at  Port  Royal  (now  Annapolis).  The  Father  says  his  own  rea- 
sons for  the  journey  were,  first,  "  to  act  as  spiritual  adviser  [chaplain] 
to  Sieur  de  Biencourt  and  his  crew,  and,  second,  to  become  acquainted 
with  and  learn  the  disposition  of  the  natives  to  receive  the  gospel." 
He  gives  a  few  interesting  glimpses  of  scenes  on  the  lower  Kennebec 
281  years  ago.  The  vessel  entered  the  river  by  way  of  Seguin,  and 
the  party  eagerly  landed  to  inspect  the  vacant  fort,  which  they  thought 
was  poorly  located,  and  which  Father  Biard  intimates,  with  a  half- 
secular  chuckle,  redoubtable  Frenchmen  could  have  easily  taken.  He 
says  the  departed  Popham  colonists  treated  the  natives  with  cruelty, 
and  were  driven  away  in  retaliation.  This  was  the  boastful  statement 
of  the  Indians  themselves  to  the  willing  ears  of  the  French,  who  were 
fain  to  believe  it;  but  the  testimony  is  too  biased  and  shadowy  to  be 
accepted  as  true. 

After  a  delay  of  three  days  at  Popham's  fort,  by  reason  of  adverse 
winds,  Biencourt  abandoned  his  purpose  of  sailing  further  westward, 
and  turned  the  prow  of  his  vessel  up  the  river;  after  going  with  the 
tide  about  nine  miles,  a  party  of  Indians  came  into  view;  they  be- 
longed either  to  the  later  named  Kennebec  or  Androscoggin  tribe; 
Biard  calls  them  Armouchiquoys;  he  says:  "  There  were  twenty-four 
people,  all  warriors,  in  six  canoes;  they  went  through  a  thousand  an- 
tics before  coming  up  to  us;  you  would  have  rightly  likened  them  to 
a  flock  of  birds,  which  wishes  to  enter  a  hemp-field,  but  fears  the  scare- 
crow.   This  amused  us  very  much,  for  our  people  needed  time  to  arm 


themselves  and  cover  the  ship.  In  short,  they  came  and  went,  they 
reconnoitered,  they  looked  sharply  at  our  muskets,  our  cannon,  our 
numbers,  our  everything;  and  the  night  coming  on,  they  lodged  on 
the  other  bank  of  the  river,  if  not  beyond  the  range,  at  least  beyond 
the  sighting  of  our  cannon.  All  that  night  there  was  nothing  but 
haranguing,  singing,  dancing;  for  such  is  the  life  of  these  people  when 
they  assemble  together.  But  since  we  presumed  that  probably  their 
songs  and  dance  were  invocations  to  the  devil,  and  in  order  to  thwart 
this  accursed  tyrant,  I  made  our  people  sing  a  few  church  hymns,  such 
as  the  Salve  Regitia,  the  Ave  Mari's  Stella  and  others;  but  being  once 
in  train,  and  getting  to  the  end  of  their  spiritual  .songs,  they  fell  to 
singing  such  others  as  they  knew,  and  when  these  gave  out  they  took 
to  mimicking  the  dancing  and  singing  of  the  Armouchiquoys  on  the 
other  side  of  the  water;  and  as  Frenchmen  are  naturally  good  mimics, 
they  did  it  so  well  that  the  natives  stopped  to  listen;  at  which  our 
people  stopped,  too;  and  then  the  Indians  began  again.  You  would 
have  laughed  to  see  them,  for  they  were  like  two  choirs  answering 
each  other  in  concert,  and  you  would  hardly  have  known  the  real 
Armouchiquoys  from  the  sham  ones."  * 

Biencourt  had  impressed  into  his  service  at  the  river  St.  John  two 
Maoulin  (Etechemin)  savages,  as  interpreters  on  his  journey.  He 
caused  them  to  be  taught  a  smattering  of  the  French  language,  and 
then  used  them  as  a  means  of  conversation  between  himself  and  their 
fellow-savages  along  his  route.  At  that  time  the  tribes  of  New 
England  spoke  a  common  tongue,  which  was  varied  and  enlarged  by 
local  dialects.  Biencourt's  Etechemin  captives  from  the  vSt.  John 
could  talk  readily  with  the  natives  of  the  Sagadahoc.  On  the  morn- 
ing after  the  singing  and  dancing,  the  Frenchmen  resumed  their 
journey  up  the  river;  the  Indians,  in  a  rabble,  accompanied  them,  and 
were  soon  coaxed  to  terms  of  familiarity.  They  told  the  strangers 
that  if  they  wanted  sovn.& piousqiionin  (corn)  they  need  not  go  further 
up  the  river,  but  by  turning  to  the  right,  through  an  arm  of  the  river 
that  was  pointed  out,  they  could  in  a  few  hours  reach  the  tent  of  the 
great  sachem  Meteourmite,  whom  they  themselves  would  do  the 
honor  to  visit  at  the  same  time;  Biencourt  cautiously  followed  their 
guideship;  he  passed  his  vessel  through  the  strait  that  is  now  spanned 
by  a  highway  bridge  between  Woolwich  and  Arrowsic,  and  entered 
what  Biard  calls  a  lake,  but  what  is  now  named  Pleasant  cove  (or 
Nequasset  bay);  here  he  found  the  water  shallow,  and  he  hesitated 
about  venturing  further;  but  Meteourmite,  having  been  informed  of 
the  approach  of  the  ship,  was  hastening  to  meet  it;  he  urged  the 
Frenchmen  to  proceed,  which  they  did.  Presently  their  vessel  be- 
came subject  to  the  sport  of  the  dangerous  currents  of  the  Hellgates. 

*  Pioneers  of  France  in  the  New  WorUI,  by  Francis  Parkman,  p.  292. 


Biard  says:  "•  We  thought  we  should  hardly  ever  escape  alive;  in  fact, 
in  two  places,  some  of  our  people  cried  out  piteously  that  we  were  all 
lost;  but  praise  to  God,  they  cried  out  too  soon." 

Biencourt  ptit  on  his  military  dress  and  visited  Meteourmite,  whom 
he  found  alone  in  his  wigwam,  which  was  surrounded  by  forty  young 
braves,  "each  one  having  his  shield,  his  bow  and  his  arrows  on  the 
ground  before  him."  The  sachem  having  led  the  Frenchmen  to  visit 
him  by  promising  to  sell  them  corn,  now  confessed  that  his  people  did 
not  have  any  to  spare,  but  that  they  would  barter  some  skins  instead. 
Biencourt,  with  a  mind  for  business,  was  ready  to  trade,  and  a  truce 
for  barter  was  agreed  upon.  When  the  time  arrived,  Biard  says, 
'■  our  ship's  people,  in  order  not  to  be  surprised,  had  armed  and  barri- 
caded themselves.  The  savages  rushed  very  eagerly  and  in  a  swarm 
into  our  boat,  from  curiosity  (I  think),  because  they  did  not  often  see 
such  a  spectacle;  our  people,  seeing  that  notwithstanding  their  remon- 
strances and  threats  the  savages  did  not  cease  entering  the  procession, 
and  that  there  were  already  more  than  thirty  upon  the  deck,  they 
imagined  that  it  was  all  a  clever  trick,  and  that  they  were  intending 
to  surprise  them,  and  were  already  lying  upon  the  ground  prepared 
to  shoot.  M.  Biencourt  has  often  said  that  it  was  many  times  upon 
his  lips  to  cry,  '  Kill !  Kill  f !  '  .  .  Now  the  savages  themselves, 
perceiving  the  just  apprehensions  which  their  people  had  given  our 
French,  took  it  upon  themselves  to  retire  hastily  and  brought  order 
out  of  confusion."  Father  Biard  says  the  reason  why  Biencourt  did 
not  order  his  men  to  shoot  was  because  he  (Father  Biard)  was  at  that 
hour  upon  the  land  (an  island),  accompanied  by  a  boy,  celebrating  the 
holy  mass;  if  any  savage  had  been  hurt,  the  priest  would  have  been 
massacred.  Father  Biard  says  "  this  consideration  was  a  kindness  to 
him,  and  saved  the  whole  party,  for  if  we  had  begun  the  attack  it  is 
incredible  that  one  could  have  escaped  the  fierce  anger  and  furious 
pursuit  of  the  savages  along  a  river  that  has  so  many  turns  and  wind- 
ings and  is  so  often  narrow  and  perilous."  * 

Father  Biard  appeared  before  the  savages  twice  in  the  character 
of  officiating  priest.  The  rude  altar  improvised  by  him  was  the  first 
one  ever  erected  for  the  Catholic  service  on  the  Kennebec  (or  Sheep- 
scot,  near  which  he  seems  to  have  been).  He  says  he  "  prayed  to  God 
in  their  [the  Indians']  presence,  and  showed  them  the  images  and 
tokens  of  our  belief,  which  they  kissed  willingly,  making  the  sign  of 
the  cross  upon  their  children,  whom  they  brought  to  him  that  he 
might  bless  them,  and  listening  with  great  attention  to  all  that  he 
announced  to  them.  The  difficulty  was  that  they  had  an  entirely  dif- 
ferent language,  and  it  was  necessary  that  a  savage  [one  of  the  St. 
John  captives]  should  act  as  interpreter,  who,  knowing  very  little  of 

*  Relation  lie  la  Nouvellc  France,  \o\.  I,  Chap.  XVII.  p.  36. 


the  Christian  religion,  nevertheless  acquitted  himself  with  credit 
toward  the  other  savages;  and  to  see  his  face  and  hear  his  slow 
speech,  he  personated  the  Doctor  [Biard]  with  dignity."  The  natives 
seem  to  have  had  great  admiration  for  the  Father,  whose  priestly  at- 
tire and  non-combative  character  made  him  conspicuous  among  his 
countrymen;  speaking  of  one  occasion,  he  says:  "  I  received  the  larger 
share  of  the  embraces;  for  as  I  was  without  weapons,  the  most  distin- 
guished [Indians]  forsaking'the  soldiers,  seized  on  me  with  a  thousand 
protestations  of  friendship;  they  led  me  into  the  largest  of  all  the 
huts,  which  held  at  least  eighty  people;  the  seats  filled,  I  threw  my- 
self on  my  knees,  and  having  made  the  sign  of  the  cross,  recited  my 
Pater,  Ave,  Credo,  and  some  prayers;  then,  at  a  pause,  my  hosts,  as 
though  they  understood  me  well,  applauded  in  their  way,  shouting, 
'  Ho,  ho,  ho!'  I  gave  them  some  crosses  and  images,  making  them 
understand  as  much  as  I  could."  ■•■  It  is  not  possible  to  identify  pre- 
cisely the  place  where  these  interviews  and  proceedings  occurred;  it 
was  in  the  vicinity  of  the  mouth  of  the  Sheepscot  and  not  distant  from 
the  lower  Hellgate,  which  the  French  at  that  time  called  one  of  the 
mouths  of  the  Quinibequi  (Kennebec).  After  sojourning  about  a 
week,  Biencourt,  finding  out  that  the  natives  had  little  surplus  food 
for  themselves  and  none  to  sell,  hoisted  sail  for  Port  Royal. 

Two  years  later  (1618)  we  see  Father  Biard,  with  Ennemond  Masse 
and  two  other  Jesuits,  in  the  retinue  of  M.  de  LaSaussaye,  on  the 
island  of  Mount  Desert,  planting  a  mission  colony  by  the  name  of  St. 
Sauveur.  The  settlement  was  hardly  established  when  Captain  Argal, 
from  the  English  colony  in  Virginia,  sailed  up  to  the  little  village  and 
destroyed  it,  killing  one  of  the  missionaries  and  two  other  French- 
men. This  was  the  beginning  of  bloodshed  between  the  English  and 
French  on  this  continent.  Brother  Gilbert  du  Thet  was  the  first 
Jesuit  martyr.  He  was  buried  by  his  sorrowing  black-robed  brethren 
at  the  foot  of  the  great  cross  that  stood  in  the  center  of  the  ruined 
mission,  where  in  the  thin  soil,  by  the  surf -washed  shore,  his  dust 
.still  reposes.  Father  Masse  afterward  labored  in  Canada,  where  he 
died  and  was  buried  in  the  mission  church  of  Saint  Michael  at  Sillery, 
in  1646.  Father  Biard,  after  many  other  adventures  and  perils,  finally 
returned  to  France,  where  he  died  in  1622.  He  was  the  first  to  lift 
the  cross  before  the  aborigines  of  Maine. 

The  next  well-identified  visitor  to  the  Kennebec  was  Captain  John 
Smith,  in  1614,  eight  years  after  his  life  was  so  gracefully  saved,  as 
he  tells  us,  by  Pocahontas.  He  cruised  the  coast  for  peltry,  was  agree- 
able to  the  Indians,  and  filled  his  ship  with  merchandise  that  brought 
riches  in  Europe.  He  found  Nahanada  (one  of  Weymouth's  returned 
captives),  ''  one  of  the  greatest  lords  of  the  country."    About  this  time 

*  Letter  of  Father  Biard,  1611. 


Samoset,  afterward  the  benefactor  of  the  Pilgrims,  was  taken  from 
his  tribe  and  carried  to  Europe.  He  appears  to  have  been  a  Wawe- 
nock.  The  circumstances  of  his  capture  are  unknown.  His  notable 
visit  to  the  Plymouth  colony  was  in  March,  1621;  two  years  later  he 
seems  to  have  been  at  home  (as  much  as  a  wandering  Indian  can  be) 
at  Capemanwagan  (Southport),  whence  Captain  Christopher  Leverett 
met  him  with  his  family:  he  showed  his  liking  for  Leverett  by  offer- 
ing his  new-born  son  as  a  perpetual  brother  in  moitcliickc-leganiatch 
(friendship)  to  the  son  of  the  Englishman.  Leverett  describes  him  as 
"  a  sagamore  that  hath  been  found  very  faithful  to  the  English,  and 
hath  saved  the  lives  of  many  of  our  nation,  some  from  starving,  others 
from  killing."  *  The  last  glimpse  we  have  of  this  ideal  savage,  whose 
character  ennobles  in  a  degree  his  humble  and  benighted  race,  is  when 
he  joined  his  fellow-sagamore  LTnongoit  in  deeding  to  John  Brown  of 
New  Harbor  (afterward  of  the  Kennebec),  a  tract  of  land  at  Pemaquid, 
July  25,  1625.  f  He  had  been  the  first  to  welcome  the  Englishmen  to 
his  country,  and  he  was  the  first  to  supplement  the  greeting  by  sharing 
with  them  his  hunting  grounds.  The  deed  was  acknowledged  before 
Abraham  Shurte,  the  worthy  magistrate  of  Pemaquid,  who  fifty-one 
years  afterward  ascended  the  Kennebec  to  Teconnet  (Winslow)  as 
peacemaker  to  the  then  angry  chiefs. 


The  English  Names  of  the  Maine  Tribes. — The  French  Names  of  the  same 
Tribes. — Origin  of  the  Name  of  the  Kennebec  River. — The  Indians'  mode  of 
Life. — Vestiges  of  their  Villages. — Their  Language  and  the  Names  derived 
from  it. — Present  Indian  Names  of  Places  on  the  River. — The  Plymouth 
Trading  Post  at  Cushnoc  (Koussinok). 

When  the  aboriginal  people  of  Maine  first  came  into  historic 
view,  we  find  them  grouped  by  the  English  into  five  tribes  and 
occupying  several  principal  river  valleys.  The  Tarratines  dwelt  on 
the  Penobscot;  the  Wawenocks  from  Pemaquid  to  Sagadahoc  (Ken- 
nebec); the  Sohokas  (Sacos)  from  the  Saco  to  the  Piscataqua;  the 
Androscoggins  lived  on  the  river  that  has  taken  their  name;  atid  the 
Canibas  (Kennebecs)  from  Merrymeeting  bay  to  Moosehead  lake. 
In  the  beginning  of  Indian   history  a  personage  called  the  Bashaba 

*  Leverett' s  Voyage  into  New  England.  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll..  Vol.  II,  pp. 
87,  93. 

\  Ancient  Pemaquid,  by  J.  Wingate  Thornton.  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  V. 
pp.  188-193.  Journal  of  the  Pilgrims,  by  George  B.  Cheever,  D.D.,  pp.  41-43. 
Bradford  says  Samoset  ' '  became  a  special  instrument  sent  of  God  for  their  [the 
Pilgrims']  good  beyond  their  expectation."     See  Popham  Memorial,  p.  297. 


presided  on  the  Penobscot:  Champlain  (1605)  met  him  there  with 
Cabahis,  a  chief  of  less  dignity;  Manthoumermer  ruled  on  the 
Sheepscot;  Marchim  on  the  Androscoggin,  and  Sasanoa  on  the  vSaga- 
dahoc.  Champlain's  guides,  whom  he  took  at  the  Penobscot,  deserted 
his  vessel  at  the  St.  George,  "  because  the  savages  of  the  Quinibequy 
were  their  enemies."  At  Saco  Champlain  bartered  a  kidnapped 
Penobscot  boy  "  for  the  products  of  the  country."  Three  years  after- 
ward (1608)  he  was  founding  Quebec*  The  English  names  and 
grouping  of  the  tribes  differed  from  those  of  the  French.  The  early 
French  visitors  used  the  name  Armouchiquoys  to  designate  the  na- 
tives of  Acadia  westward  of  the  St.  Croix.  They  soon  discarded  it  for 
the  more  comprehensive  name  of  Abenaquiois  (Abenakis) — meaning 
people  of  the  east,  easterners — which  included  all  the  natives  between 
Nova  Scotia  and  the  Connecticut  river.  This  great  tribe  was  divided 
by  the  French  into  seven  sub-tribes,  three  of  which  were  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Maine,  namely — the  Sokwakiahs  or  Sacos,  the  Pentagoets  or 
Penobscots,  and  the  Narhantsouaks  or  Norridgewocks  (called  also 
Canibas  or  Kennebecs).  As  the  French  influence  declined  in  Acadia, 
the  name  Abenaquiois  lost  its  wide  application,  and  finally  became 
limited  to  the  Indians  who  lived  on  the  Kennebec.  It  was  a  common 
French  soubriquet  for  a  century  and  a  half  before  its  use  became 
familiar  to  the  English.  As  gradually  the  tribes  broke  up,  those  sur- 
vivors who  sought  refuge  on  the  Kennebec,  and  mixed  with  the 
Abenakis,  came  under  the  ancient  name. 

The  name  borne  by  the  Kennebec  river  is  another  enduring  trace 
of  the  Frenchman  as  well  as  of  the  Indians.  Champlain  was  the  first 
(1605)  to  receive  from  the  Indians  the  word  Quinibequi  (or  Kinibeki), 
which,  it  seems,  they  associated  with  the  narrow  and  sinuous,  though 
now  much  traveled,  passage  between  Bath  and  Sheepscot  bay.  Then, 
as  to-day,  the  water  there  boiled  and  eddied  as  the  tides  ebbed  and 
flowed  through  the  ledgy  gates.  It  was  a  place  of  danger  to  the  native 
navigators  in  their  frail  canoes;  they  had  no  understanding  of  the 
real  causes  of  the  manifestation;  they  knew  nothing  of  natural  laws, 
but  believed  all  physical  phenomena  to  be  the  work  of  genii  or  demons 
and  the  expression  of  their  caprices  and  ever  varying  moods.  In  their 
mythology  they  peopled  the  water,  forest  and  air  with  gross  gods  who 
ruled  fhe  world;  their  name  for  serpent  or  monster  was  Kiiiai-hik,  an 
Algonquin  word  that  has  the  same  meaning  among  the  kindred  Chip- 
pewas  to-day .f  Obviously  as  given  to  Champlain  it  referred  to  the 
mighty  dragons  that  lay  coiled  in  the  mysterious  depths  about  the 

*  Champlain's  Exploration  of  the  Coast  of  Maine  in  1605,  by  Gen.  J.  Marshall 
Brown.     Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  VII. 

^Language  of  the  Abanaquies,  by  C.  E.  Potter  of  New  Hampshire.  Me.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  IV,  p.  190.     H.  R.  Schoolcraft's  American  Indians,  part  3,  p.  465. 


Hellgates;  whose  angry  lashings  or  restless  writhings  made  the  waters 
whirl  and  foam  in  ceaseless  maelstrom.  The  evil  reputation  of  the 
locality  yet  survives  in  the  word  Hockomock  (the  Indian  bad  place), 
a  name  borne  by  a  picturesque  headland  at  the  upper  gate. 

Champlain  explored  to  Merrymeeting  bay,  where  he  ascertained 
that  his  Ouinibequi  came  from  the  northward.  Father  Biard  followed 
Champlain's  chart,  and  in  speaking  of  the  Ouinibequi,  remarks  that  it 
has  more  than  one  mouth.  The  Indians  had  no  geographical  desig- 
nations, but  named  spots  and  places  only;  they  had  no  name  for  any 
river  as  a  whole,  and  it  is  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  they  did  more  in 
the  naming  of  the  Kennebec  than  to  furnish  from  their  mythological 
vocabulary  the  word  which  the  French  explorer  caught  from  their 
lips  and  wrote  upon  his  map.*  The  English  having  named  the  river 
Sagadahoc  (from  Sunkerdahunk),  called  it  by  that  name  below  Merry- 
meeting  bay  for  more  than  a  century.  Above  Merrymeeting  Cham- 
plain's  Quinibequi  (with  changes  in  orthography)  was  never  dis- 
placed, but  became  permanent.  After  the  successive  wasting  by  the 
Indians  of  the  settlements  on  the  banks  of  the  Sagadahoc,  that  vener- 
able name,  as  applied  to  any  part  of  the  river,  faded  out,  and  by  un- 
conscious popular  selection  the  one  given  by  Champlain  was  restored 
to  its  place.  Some  writers  have  fancied  that  the  river  was  named  by 
Canibas,  a  chief,  whose  habitat  was  on  Swan  island,  but  long  before 
that  personage  had  entered  upon  his  sachemship  Quinibequi  had  been 
written  indelibly  on  the  French  map  of  Acadia. 

The  memory  of  the  Abenakis  or  Kennebec  tribe  of  Indians  will 
endure  as  long  as  the  Kennebec  shall  continue  to  flow.  We  get  our 
first  glimpse  of  these  savages  in  the  visit  of  Captain  Gilbert;  the  pic- 
ture is  momentary  and  faint,  yet  real.  Sebenoa  and  his  warriors  are 
dimly  seen  in  the  shadow  of  their  native  forest,  among  their  people. 
Up  to  that  moment  their  tribe  has  no  history;  it  is  not  for  us  to  know 
how  long  their  ancestors  had  dwelt  upon  the  river,  nor  to  inquire 
whether  they  were  of  a  race  that  was  in  the  process  of  evolution  from 
a  lower  state,  or  descending  in  reversion  from  a  higher.  We  find 
them  here,  a  little  branch  of  the  human  family,  in  possession  of  the 
river  valley.  They  gleaned  their  subsistence  from  forest  and  stream. 
The  river  was  their  highway  and  its  banks  their  home.  Their  lives 
were  spent  in  seeking  the  means  of  existence.  They  obeyed  the  mi- 
gratory impulse  of  the  seasons  like  their  not  yet  extinct  contempo- 
raries, the  moose,  deer  and  caribou.  In  the  winter  they  moved  north- 
ward to  hibernate  with  the  game  in  the  recesses  of  the  upper  Kenne- 
bec and  Moosehead  lake.  There  they  kept  the  wolf  from  the  door  by 
snaring  him  in  his  lair,  and  chasing  through  the  snows  the  fiounder- 

*  Champlain  wrote  Quinibequy  and  Quinebeque;  Lescarbot  wrote  Kinibeki; 
Jean  de  Laet  wrote  Quinibequin;  on  Dutch  map  of  1616  it  is  written  Qui-mo- 


ing  moose  and  more  helpless  deer,  and  by  catching  through  the  ice  of 
the  lakes  the  gorgeous  trout,  whose  descendants  the  sportsmen  of  to- 
day delight  to  capture.  In  the  spring,  when  the  lengthening  days  had 
melted  the  snow  and  cleared  the  rivers,  and  the  nobler  game  that  had 
sought  the  secluded  valleys  began  to  disperse  to  browse  on  the  swell- 
ing buds  and  springing  grasses,  the  Indians,  too,  would  leave  their 
winter  haunts  and  migrate  southward.  Trimming  with  squaw  and 
papooses  their  skin-laden  canoes  to  even  keel,  they  glided  down  the 
swollen  river  toward  new  supplies  of  food.  They  were  accustomed 
in  their  migrations  to  tarry,  according  to  mood  or  circumstance,  for 
days  or  weeks  at  sundry  places — at  the  mouths  of  tributary  streams 
and  at  the  falls  where  the  migrating  sea  fishes  congregated  in  great 
numbers  during  their  passage  to  their  native  beds.  These  fishes — • 
the  salmon,  shad  and  alewives — have,  like  the  Indian,  now  disappeared 
from  the  river.  These  general  migrations  sometimes  extended  to  the 
sea,  but  usually  no  further  than  Merrymeeting  bay,  where  other  tribes 
assembled,  and  all  had  merrymeeting. 

The  Indians  were  truly  children  of  the  wilderness;  they  lived  close 
to  nature;  the  chemistry  of  food  and  climate  had  brought  them  in 
complete  rappoj-t  with  their  surroundings.  The  forest  had  assimilated 
them  to  itself;  they  were  of  its  growth,  like  the  pines  and  ferns.  The 
harsh  conditions  of  their  existence  sharpened  their  senses  and  intensi- 
fied their  instincts.  Their  lives  were  of  the  utmost  simplicity.  Their 
weapons  were  stone-headed  clubs  and  bows  and  arrows.  Their  work- 
ing tools  were  of  stone,  flint  and  bone;  their  clothing  was  the  skins  of 
beasts  and  plaited  grasses  and  even  boughs.  As  the  bee  makes  its 
perfect  cell  at  the  first  attempt,  and  the  beaver  is  an  accomplished 
engineer  from  its  youth,  so  the  Indian,  without  apprenticeship  or 
master,  fashioned  with  his  flint  knife  and  bone  awl  the  ideal  boat — 
the  bark  canoe  {agivideii).  It  was  adapted  to  his  needs;  without  it  he 
could  not  have  lived  his  nomadic  life — which,  amid  his  environments, 
was  the  only  mode  of  existence  possible  to  him.  The  trackless  forest 
on  either  side,  like  a  hedge,  kept  him  near  the  river's  bank;  he  must 
needs  roam  for  his  food  and  raiment;  this  his  canoe  enabled  him  to 
do;  it  would  glide  over  shallows  and  shoot  rapids,  and  could  be  taken 
upon  his  shoulders  and  carried  around  dangerous  cascades;  in  it  he 
traversed  lakes  and  rivers  with  ease  and  speed,  and  in  it  he  made  all 
of  his  long  journeys,  both  of  peace  and  war.  The  white  man  has 
copied  its  model  for  three  centuries,  but  has  not  been  able  to  improve 
it.  In  the  winter  his  snow-shoes  (angemaK)  were  of  an  importance 
equal  to  that  of  the  canoe  in  summer;  they  were  the  sole  means  by 
which  the  hunter  could  pursue  the  game  through  the  deep  snows. 

Their  fishing  and  hunting  encampments  were  the  nearest  approach 
to  their  villages;  their  dwellings,  constructed  of  poles  and  bark,  were 
only  huts  of  shelter,  and  could  not  be  called  houses;  they  were  aban- 


doned  when  the  builders  removed  to  another  spot,  and  soon  tumbled 
in  decay,  leaving  no  trace  save  that  of  the  fires.  But  the  sites  of  many 
of  their  principal  camps  can  be  identified  at  the  present  day,  both  by 
the  vestiges  of  their  fires  and  the  debris  of  their  weapon  and  tool 
makers.  Flint  and  stone  chippings,  with  arrow-heads  and  other  arti- 
cles in  all  stages  of  manufacture,  are  found  mixed  with  the  soil  where 
their  wigwams  stood.  Unlike  the  white  man's  metals,  the  material 
composing  these  relics  defies  the  corroding  power  of  time,  and  .some 
of  the  articles  are  as  bright  and  perfect  as  when  centuries  ago  they 
left  the  hands  of  the  dusky  artisans.  The  prevailing  substance  is  the 
silicious  slate  or  hornstone  of  Mt.  Kineo,  from  whose  rugged  cliffs  it 
was  quarried.  Many  spots  where  wigwam  fires  once  glowed  are  yet 
marked  by  burned  and  crumbling  stones  and  by  fragments  of  the 
earthen  vessels  in  which  the  feasts  were  cooked.  These  relic  places 
abound  all  along  the  Kennebec,  from  Popham  beach  to  Moosehead 
lake,  but  they  are  almost  continuous  on  the  alluvial  banks  between 
Augusta  and  Waterville,  which  seems  to  have  been  a  favorite  resort 
or  metropolis  of  the  tribe.  The  plow  of  civilization  has  been  obliter- 
ating for  five  generations  these  vestiges  of  a  vanished  people. 

We  first  see  the  Indian  as  the  proprietor  of  all  these  lakes  and 
rivers,  and  hills  and  meadows;  his  subjects  were  the  beasts  and  birds 
and  fishes;  his  scepter  was  the  tomahawk,  his  chariot  was  the  bark 
canoe;  from  Moosehead  to  the  waters  of  the  sea  he  exerci.sed  his  sov- 
ereignty, and,  monarch  like,  made  progress  through  his  forest  realm, 
levying  tribute  according  to  his  humble  needs.  His  language  had 
never  been  spelled  into  words  and  written  in  books;  it  was  the  artless 
tongue  of  the  realm  of  nature.  Philologists  have  written  learnedly 
upon  it,  and  exhibited  specimens  of  it  in  dictionaries,  but  like  the 
people  who  spoke  it,  it  eludes  domestication,  and  like  them  it  has 
passed  away.  Many  fragments,  however,  have  been  saved  in  the  form 
of  names  attached  to  the  rivers,  lakes  and  mountains  of  our  state;  they 
were  caught  from  the  closing  lips  of  a  departing  race;  the  nomencla- 
ture of  the  Kennebec  valley  is  greatly  enriched  by  them.  In  the  ab- 
sence of  geographical  names,  a  river  to  the  Indians  was  a  series  of 
places  where  food  could  be  procured  at  certain  moons  or  in  a  special 
manner;  a  range  of  mountains  was  divided  by  them  into  the  abodes 
of  different  genii.  A  river  was  named  only  in  places  or  in  sections; 
we  have  seen  that  it  fell  to  the  white  man  to  confer  upon  the  Kenne- 
bec its  name  as  an  hydrographic  unity.  What  our  form  of  expression 
makes  it  convenient  to  call  Indian  names  were  not,  in  fact,  originally 
names  at  all.*     They  were  laconic  descriptions  of  the  physical  or 

*That  accomplished  Abenakis  scholar,  Rev.  C.  M.  O'Brien,  says:  "To 
understand  Indian  names  it  must  always  be  borne  in  mind  that  they  rarely,  if 
ever,  gave  names  to  territories  large  or  small,  but  only  to  spots."— Letter  to 
Hon.  James  P.  Baxter,  quoted  in  Trelaivnev  Papers,  p.  325.  Note  (Me.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll..  3d  series.  Vol.  HI). 


mystical  characteristics  of  the  places  referred  to,  which  the  white  man 
has  softened  and  changed  by  his  cultured  tongue,  and  converted  into 
permanent  names  as  his  reparation  and  memorial  to  the  race  which  he 
has  driven  from  the  earth. 

Among  the  earliest  names  derived  from  the  Indian  tongue  on  the 
Kennebec,  we  find  Sagadahoc  and  Sabiiio;  they  were  both  associated 
with  the  mouth  of  the  river;  Sabino  referred  to  the  peninsula  where 
the  Popham  colony  located.  Erascolicgan  was  the  present  Georgetown: 
Arro7vsic  is  the  ancient  name  of  the  island  adjoining;  other  familiar 
names  in  the  same  region  are.  IVimiegancc  (Bath),  Ncquasset  (Wool- 
wich) and  Qiiabacook  (Merrymeeting  bay).  The  Indians  invariably 
designated  the  mouths  of  rivers  and  tributary  .streams  by  mentioning 
some  characteristic  peculiar  to  each.  Thus,  Nahiinikcag  (in  Pittston) 
means  the  place  where  eels  can  be  caught;  Cobbosseecontee  (Gardiner), 
sturgeon-place;  Sebasticook  (Winslow)  is  a  comparatively  modern 
Indian  corruption  of  the  French  pronunciation  of  St.  John  the  Bap- 
tist's place  (or  the  place  where  an  Indian  lived  who  had  been  chris- 
tened St.  John  the  Baptist).  The  original  meanings  of  many,  and  in- 
deed of  most  of  the  Indian  names,  have  been  lost.  The  best  students 
of  the  tongue  seldom  agree  in  their  analyses  and  definitions,  and 
usually  confuse  more  than  they  explain.  Names  derived  from  the 
Indians  have  attached  to  all  the  considerable  streams  that  feed  the 
Kennebec.  Beside  those  already  mentioned  there  are  the  Worronion- 
togus  (at  Randolph);  Kedumcook  (Vaughan  brook,  Hallowell);  Cuslicnoc 
(Bond  brook,  Augusta);  Magorgooniagoostick  (Seven-mile  brook,  Vassal- 
hoxo);  Messeclo7iskce  (Emerson  stream,  Waterville);  Wesserjinsett  (in 
Skowhegan);  Norridgcwock  (Sandy  river,  at  Old  Point);  Carrabassctt 
(at  North  Anson).  Mecseccontee  applied  to  Farmington  falls,  on  the 
Sandy  river.  The  Kennebec,  falling  1,()5()  feet  between  Moosehead 
and  the  tide  at  Augusta,  is  a  remarkably  swift  river,  full  of  rapids 
and  falls,  which  the  Indian  canoeists  well  knew  how  to  shoot  or  when 
to  avoid.  All  of  these  places  bore  appropriate  designations,  such  as 
Teconiiet  at  Waterville,  Skozv/ugan  at  the  village  of  that  name,  and 
Carrattink  at  Solon.  Above  Carratunk  only  a  few  Indian  names  sur- 
vive. Moxa  mountain  was  named  for  a  modern  Indian  hunter.  At 
Moosehead  lake,  where  the  shores  are  rich  with  relics  of  the  Indians, 
Kineo  is  the  only  ancient  name  that  remains.  Ongueclwnta  was  the 
name  of  Squaw  mountain,  when  Montressor  passed  by  its  massive 
slope  on  his  way  from  Quebec  to  Fort  Halifax,  about  the  year  1760. 
This  dearth  of  Indian  names  in  a  region  where  once  they  must  have 
been  very  numerous,  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  river  was  de- 
populated of  natives  and  their  local  names  on  its  upper  waters  forgot- 
ten, before  the  white  men  had  pushed  their  settlements  so  far  inland 
as  to  learn  and  preserve  them. 


The  next  recorded  visit  by  white  men  to  the  Kennebec  Indians 
after  Captain  Gilbert  had  erected  a  cross  among  them,  was  by  Edward 
Winslow  and  a  few  others  of  the  Plymouth  colony,  in  the  fall  of  1625. 
During  twenty-two  years  great  events  had  taken  place  in  New  Eng- 
land— and  among  them  was  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrims,  who,  having 
founded  a  settlement,  were  now  struggling  for  its  continuance.  At 
first  they  sought  among  the  Indians  only  a  market  for  their  surplus 
corn  in  exchange  for  peltry,  but  they  found  the  region  .so  rich  in  the 
latter  commodity  that  they  presently  applied  for  and  obtained  from 
their  English  patrons  a  patent  or  deed  of  about  450  square  miles  of 
territory  in  the  center  and  best  part  of  the  Kennebec  valley.  They 
established  (in  1628)  a  trading  house  at  Cushnoc  (now  Augusta),  and 
there  trafficked  with  the  natives  for  a  period  of  thirty-four  years. 
Singularly  enough  during  this  era  of  intimate  and  friendly  relation- 
ship with  the  Pilgrim  fathers,  when  the  means  were  excellent  for  pre- 
serving information,  the  Kennebec  tribe  is  nearly  destitute  of  any 
history.  The  names  of  its  chiefs,  the  places  of  its  villages,  its  rela- 
tions with  neighboring  tribes,  its  grand  hunts  and  councils,  and  a 
thousand  incidents  illustrating  the  Indians'  mode  of  life,  were  consid- 
ered too  trivial  for  the  white  traders  to  record;  perhaps  as  business 
men  in  the  pursuit  of  gain,  they  preferred  that  the  public  should  not 
know  much  about  the  affairs  of  the  patent.  They  made  no  effort 
toward  ameliorating  the  hard  condition  of  their  Indian  wards;  they 
gave  them  no  teachers,  either  secular  or  religious,  but  looked  upon 
them  much  as  they  did  upon  the  other  inhabitants  of  the  wilderness. 
When  trade  ceased  to  be  profitable  they  abandoned  them. 


The  first  Mission  in  Canada.— Father  Masse  at  the  Residence  of  St.  Joseph  of 
Sillery.— Father  Druillettes  among  the  Algonquins.— Intercourse  between 
the  Kennebec  and  St.  Lawrence. — St.  Lawrence  Indian  killed  on  the  Kenne- 
bec—Treaty  between  the  Algonquins  and  Abenakis.— The  Latter  ask  for 
a  Missionary.— Father  Druillettes  sent  to  them.— His  Visit  to  Pentagoet.— 
Chapel  built  near  Cushnoc  and  named  the  Mission  of  the  Assumption.— 
Father  Druillettes'  return  to  Quebec. 

It  was  left  to  the  people  of  the  French  nation,  who  once  dis- 
played the  symbol  of  Christianity  to  the  Indians  on  the  lower  Ken- 
nebec (1611),  to  undertake  the  conversion  of  the  Abenakis.  The  first 
missions  on  the  St.  Lawrence  were  begun  in  1614,  under  the  patronage 
of  Champlain;  they  were  reinforced  in  1625  by  the  arrival  of  three 
Jesuits,  one  of  whom  was  Father  Ennemond,  who  was  driven 
by  Argal  from  St.  Sauveur  with  Father  Biard  twelve  years  before. 


Quebec  was  captured  by  Englishmen  in  1629,  when  Father  Masse 
was  again  expelled  from  the  country,  with  his  associates.  Three 
years  later  (1632)  France  by  treaty  resumed  dominion  over  both 
Canada  and  Acadia;  the  suspended  missions  were  immediately  re- 
vived, and  a  system  of  evangelizing  labor  was  soon  established,  under 
which  in  a  few  years  heroic  priests  had  carried  the  gospel  to  the  na- 
tives of  every  part  of  New  France.  Quebec  was  the  central  radiating 
point.  By  the  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  about  four  miles  above 
Quebec  and  nearly  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Chaudiere,  there  was  an 
Indian  village  (called  Ka-miskoua-ouangachit'),  where  the  missionaries 
built  a  church;  in  1637  Father  Masse  became  a  resident  pastor  there; 
two  years  later  (1639)  the  mission  was  endowed  by  a  gift  of  twenty 
thousand  livres  by  a  converted  French  courtier,  and  in  honor  of  its 
benefactor  was  given  the  name  of  the  Residence  of  St.  Joseph  of  Sil- 
lery.  The  establishment  became  the  seminary  of  the  missionaries, 
for  the  acquiring  of  the  various  Indian  languages,  preparatory  to 
their  going  forth  to  their  fields  of  labor.  To  this  place  came  in  1648, 
Father  Gabriel  Druillettes,  the  first  regular  missionary  to  the  Kenne- 
bec. He  first  essayed  to  learn  the  tongue  of  the  Algonquins  or  St. 
Lawrence  tribe,  and  soon  went  among  them.  The  smoke  of  the  wig- 
wams inflamed  his  eyes  and  made  him  blind;  he  was  led  about  in  his 
helplessness  by  an  Indian  boy;  he  implored  his  neophytes  to  join  him 
in  offering  prayer  for  his  recovery;  this  they  did  and  his  sight  was 
from  that  hour  restored!  He  ever  after  believed  that  his  cure  was  a 
miracle  in  answer  to  the  prayers  of  his  converts.  Weakened  by  the 
sufferings  attending  his  first  year's  labors,  he  was  given  the  second 
year  a  less  exacting  service  near  the  mission  of  Sillery.  The  gently- 
bred  scholar  and  priest  was  seasoning  and  hardening  for  the  wonder- 
ful apostolic  career  that  was  before  him. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  long  before  the  written  history  of  the 
Indians  begins  there  were  occasional  exchanges  of  visits  between  the 
natives  on  the  St.  Lawrence  and  those  who  lived  in  the  valley  of  the 
Kennebec.  It  is  said  in  the  Jesuit  Relations  that  in  the  year  1637  a 
party  of  Abenakis  (Kennebecs)  Indians  went  to  Quebec  to  buy  beaver 
skins  to  sell  to  the  English  traders;  a  jealous  Montanais  (mountaineer) 
chief  denounced  them  before  the  French  governor,  Montmagny,  and 
offered  to  go  and  shut  the  rivers  against  their  return  to  their  country. 
The  governor  forbade  bloodshed,  but  allowed  the  mountaineers  to  rob 
the  strangers  and  send  them  home.  In  1640  an  English  trader  (prob- 
ably one  of  the  Plymouth  colony's  men)  accompanied  by  twenty  Ken- 
nebecs, undertook  the  journey  from  Maine  to  Quebec.  After  he  had 
reached  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  French  governor  ordered  him  to  return 
immediately;  but  this  he  could  not  do  as  the  rivers  were  low  and  some 
of  the  streams  were  dry;  so,  without  allowing  him  to  visit  Quebec,  the 


governor  sent  him  down  to  Tadoussac  (at  the  mouth  of  the  Saguenay) 
from  whence  he  was  shipped  to  Europe.  The  same  year  an  Algon- 
quin (St.  Lawrence)  Indian  named  Makheabichtichiou,  came  to  the 
Kennebec  with  his  family,  to  escape  the  reproaches  of  the  missionaries 
for  his  persistency  in  continuing  his  heathen  practice  of  polygamy. 
In  the  course  of  the  winter  following  he  was  killed  by  a  drunken 
Abenakis;  while  his  two  widowed  wives  were  journeying  back  to  their 
kindred  in  Canada,  one  died  miserably  of  grief  and  famine.  Under 
the  Indian  code  the  tragedy  was  liable  to  be  avenged  on  the  whole 
tribe — to  avoid  which  two  chiefs  were  sent  to  Canada  to  announce  the 
affair  with  the  regret  of  their  people,  and  to  offer  satisfaction  in  the 
form  of  presents  to  the  parents  of  the  deceased.  It  seems  probable 
that  the  ambassadors  would  have  been  summarily  tomahawked  in 
retaliation  for  the  deed  they  had  come  to  excuse,  if  John  Baptist 
Etiuechkawat  and  Christmas  Negabamat,  two  baptized  chiefs  of  Sil- 
lery,  had  not  interceded  eloquently  for  them.  It  was  declared  that 
the  murder  was  not  committed  by  the  tribe,  which  on  the  contrary 
wholly  disapproved  of  it,  but  that  it  was  the  act  of  an  individual  san- 
nup  while  frenzied  by  the  English  traders'  fire-water.  Finally  the 
exasperated  tribesmen  and  bereaved  relatives  were  soothed  by  words 
and  gifts,  and  a  treaty  of  friendship  was  made  between  their  tribe 
and  the  Abenakis,  which  was  never  broken.  Thereafter  the  two 
tribes  were  inseparable  allies  in  peace  and  war.  Father  Marault 
says  in  his  Histoirc  dcs  Abenakis,  that  thenceforth  the  latter,  until  their 
final  emigration  to  Canada  and  extinction  on  the  Kennebec,  annually 
sent  envoys  to  Quebec  to  renew  and  celebrate  this  alliance. 

In  the  fall  of  1643  a  Christianized  St.  Lawrence  Indian  named 
Charles  Mejachkawat,  came  from  Sillery  to  the  Kennebec,  and  passed 
the  winter  among  the  Abenakis.  He  seems  to  have  been  sent  pur- 
posely to  extol  on  the  Kennebec  his  conception  of  the  gospel  which 
the  missionaries  were  preaching  on  the  St.  Lawrence.  His  visit 
aroused  the  interest  or  curiosity  of  many  in  the  mysterious  ceremonies 
of  baptism  and  the  mass,  which  he  described.  During  his  stay  he 
visited  the  English  trading  house  at  Cushnoc  (Augusta),  and  there 
had  occasion  to  defend  his  faith  with  spirited  words  against  the 
humorous  raillery  of  the  Puritan  heretics.  He  returned  to  Sillery  in 
the  spring  (1641),  accompanied  by  one  of  the  chiefs  who,  three  years 
before,  had  been  sent  to  requite  the  killing  of  the  refugee.  The  life 
of  this  chief  had  been  saved  with  that  of  his  associate,  and  war  averted 
by  the  good  offices  of  the  proselytes  of  Sillery,  whom  he  had  prom- 
ised in  the  fullness  of  his  gratitude  to  join  in  accepting  the  religion  of 
the  Black-gowns;  he  was  now  going  to  Sillery  to  crave  baptism.  The 
rite  was  duly  administered  by  the  priest  in  the  Sillery  chapel,  Gov- 
ernor Montmagny  acting  as  his  godfather;  the  church  christened  him 


John  Baptist,  but  his  Indian  name  is  not  recorded.  He  was  the  first 
Kennebec  chief  on  whom  holy  water  was  placed.  He  started  alone 
on  his  journey  back  to  his  people,  and  sad  to  relate,  fell  into  the  hands 
of  a  party  of  the  merciless  Iroquiois  and  was  cruelly  killed. 

The  history  of  the  Jesuit  missions  shows  the  remarkable  fact  that 
while  most  tribes  received  the  missionaries  with  indiiference  or 
apathy,  and  some  murdered  them,  the  Abenakis  asked  for  them.  The 
frequent  visits  between  the  Kennebec  and  the  St.  Lawrence  that  fol- 
lowed the  treaty  of  1641,  brought  favorably  to  the  attention  of  the 
Abenakis  the  meek  and  peace-loving  Black-robes,  who,  unlike  other 
white  men,  did  not  greedily  grasp  their  beaver,  but  appeared  to  be 
unselfishly  anxious  for  their  comfort  and  welfare.  In  the  .spring  of 
1646,  several  Abenakis  returned  to  the  Kennebec  from  Sillery,  full  of 
enthusiasm  which  the  Fathers'  zeal  had  inspired  in  them  for  the 
Christian  faith.  After  having  visited  the  families  and  chiefs  of  their 
tribe,  they  journeyed  back  to  Sillery,  bearing  the  request  of  their 
people  for  a  missionary.  They  arrived  at  Sillery  on  the  14th  of 
August;  the  next  day,  after  participating  in  the  celebration  of  the 
Assumption,  they  went  before  an  assembly  of  the  Fathers  and  in  the 
customary  Indian  form  of  proceeding  in  council,  delivered  an  oration. 
They  said  that  their  tribe  on  the  Kennebec  had  been  deeply  moved 
by  the  kindness  of  Noel  (Christmas)  Negabamat;  that  the  treaty  of 
friendship  which  had  been  made  would  end  with  this  earthly  life; 
that  the  bond  of  faith  would  continue  after  death  eternally;  that  they 
had  been  told  of  the  beauties  of  heaven  and  the  horrors  of  hell;  that 
thirty  men  and  six  women  of  their  tribe,  having  already  endorsed 
the  new  belief,  now  begged  for  a  Father  to  come  from  Quebec  to  in- 
struct and  baptize  them,  and  that  the  ears  of  the  chiefs  and  people 
would  be  open  to  the  preaching  of  the  gospel.  The  record  says: 
"  The  Fathers  acceded  to  the  pious  desire  of  these  good  Christians, 
and  selected  Father  Gabriel  Druillettes  to  go  and  establish  a  mission 
on  the  river  Kennebec."  "•'" 

Father  Druillettes  accepted  the  choice  of  his  brethren  as  the  voice 
of  God,  and  prepared  for  his  journey;  he  had  little  to  do  to  make 
ready.  Besides  the  parcels  containing  the  missal  and  crucifix,  his 
outfit  consisted  of  only  a  few  articles  of  priestly  apparel,  a  little  box 
of  medicines  and  some  bread  and  wine  for  the  mass — made  into  a 
pack  that  could  be  slung  on  the  shoulders  or  laid  in  the  canoe.  On 
the  29th  of  August,  he  started  with  the  Christianized  chief  Negaba- 
mat, and  a  few  Abenakis  who  were  to  be  his  guides.  He  ascended  the 
rapid  Chaudiere  about  ninety  miles,  to  its  source  in  Lake  Megantic; 
from  the  waters  of  that  lake  he  followed  the  trail  that  led  across  the 
divide  through  swamp  and  logan  to  the  waters  of  the  Kennebec;  these 
*Re/atioiis  of  the  Jesuits  in  New  Fraiiee  for  the  year  IQ.'fC..  Chap  \\  p.  19. 


he  descended  to  the  main  river,  and  by  the  middle  of  vSeptember 
reached  the  upper  village  of  the  Abenakis  (probably  Nanrantsouack 
— now  called  Old  Point,  in  Norridgewock).  Here  he  seems  to  have 
tarried  for  a  week,  and  then  resumed  his  journey  down  the  river,  call- 
ing at  the  different  villages  and  conferring  with  the  chiefs  and  people 
about  their  souls'  salvation.  By  the  end  of  September  he  had  pro- 
gre.ssed  as  far  as  the  Plymouth  trading  post  at  Cushnoc,  where  he 
called  and  was  kindly  received  by  John  Winslow,  the  agent,  who  in- 
vited him  to  become  his  guest.  The  missionary  gladly  accepted  the 
Pilgrim's  hospitality,  and  enjoyed  for  a  few  days  the  comforts  of  the 
trading  house,  which,  though  few  and  humble,  were  great  in  contrast 
with  those  found  in  the  huts  of  the  natives.  The  Father  was  the  first 
white  man  who  had  ever  entered  the  Kennebec  from  Canada  and  ap- 
proached the  trading  house  from  the  north.  He  was  a  Frenchman, 
and  neither  he  nor  Winslow  could  converse  in  the  language  of  the 
other,  but  by  signs  and  pantomimes  and  the  spirit  of  Christian  kind- 
ness that  knows  all  languages,  the  host  and  guest  soon  became  mu- 
tually intelligible,  and  by  the  help  of  Indian  interpreters  were  able  to 
understand  each  other. 

Father  Druillettes  remained  a  few  days  as  the  distinguished  guest 
of  the  Pilgrim  trader,  and  then  went  back  to  the  cabins  of  the  Indians, 
where  he  found  pressing  employment  in  the  nursing  of  the  sick,  the 
baptizing  of  the  dying,  and  the  instructing  of  the  living.  In  about 
two  weeks,  partly  to  finish  his  reconnaissance  of  the  country,  but 
chiefly  to  confer  with  some  fellow-missionaries  of  the  Capuchin  order 
on  the  Penobscot,  Father  Druillettes  started  in  a  canoe  with  a  native 
guide  down  the  river,  and  went  along  the  sea-coast  to  Pentagoet  (now 
Castine),  "  visiting  seven  or  eight  English  habitations  on  the  way." 
Father  Ignace  de  Paris,  the  superior  at  Pentagoet  (which  was  then  a 
French  post),  "  saluted  him  lovingly,"  and  approved  of  the  planting  of 
a  Jesuit  mission  on  the  Kennebec — which  river  was  then  regarded  by 
Frenchmen  as  the  western  boundary  of  Acadia.  Father  Druillettes 
soon  started  on  his  return,  encouraged  in  his  heart  by  the  benediction 
of  his  brother  missionary,  and  the  courteous  treatment  given  him  at 
the  English  habitations,  where  he  again  called  as  a  wayfarer  for 
nightly  shelter  and  rest.  At  one  of  these—"  Mr.  Chaste  gave  to  him 
food  abundantly  for  his  voyage  and  some  letters  for  the  English  at 
Kennebec  [Cushnoc].  In  these  he  protested  that  he  had  seen  nothing 
in  the  Father  which  was  not  praiseworthy;  that  he  carried  nothing  to 
trade.  The  savages  gave  him  this  testimony:  that  he  labored  only 
for  their  instruction;  that  he  came  to  procure  their  salvation  at  the 
risk  of  his  life;  and  that,  in  a  word,  he  admired  his  courage."  '-^ 

*Who  this  kind  "Mr.  Chaste  "  was  we  do  not  know;  we  like  to  believe  the 
name  is  a  misspelled  rendering  of  Mr.  Shurt — good  Abraham  Shurt  of  Pemaquid 


The  priest,  with  his  dusky  guide,  paddled  back  to  the  Plymouth 
trading-  house  at  Cushnoc;  he  presented  his  letters  to  Winslow,  and 
then  showed  his  commission  as  missionary  from  the  Jesuit  superior  at 
Quebec;  the  commission  was  in  French  and  the  Englishman  could 
not  read  it,  but  with  his  own  hand  carefully  made  a  copy  to  carry  to 
Plymouth.  He  then  extended  to  the  Father  all  the  kindness  in  his 
power;  he  consented  to  the  planting  of  a  mission  within  the  Plymouth 
jurisdiction,  and  gave  his  active  assistance  to  the  undertaking.  Father 
Druillettes  then  chose  for  his  mission  a  place  near  the  river  a  league 
above  the  trading  post,  in  the  vicinity  of  what  has  since  been  named 
Gilley's  point  in  Augusta;  his  record  says  "  the  savages  had  there  as- 
sembled to  the  number  of  fifteen  large  cabins,"  and  that  there  "  they 
made  for  him  a  little  chapel  of  planks  built  in  their  own  fashion  "  [ils 
luy  bastirent  une  petite  cliapelle  de  planches,  faite  d  leur  mode).  He  be- 
stowed upon  this  chapel  the  name  selected  for  it  by  the  Fathers  at 
Siller}' — The  Mission  of  the  Assumption  on  the  Kennebec  {La  Mission  de 
I'Assoinption  au  pays  des  Abnaquiois).*  It  v.'as  on  the  anniversary  of  the 
Assumption  (August  15)  that  Father  Druillettes  arrived  in  Canada, 
and  on  the  same  calendar  day  he  had  been  assigned  to  the  Kennebec 
by  his  brethren,  who,  in  compliment,  gave  him  a  name  for  his  mission 
to  commemorate  those  events.  "It  was  there  that  the  Father,  acquiring 
sufficiently  their  [the  Indians']  language,  instructed  them  zealously: 
making  them  listen  to  the  subject  that  kept  him  with  them,  and  telling 
them  of  the  importance  of  confessing  Him  who  had  created  them  and 
who  punished  or  blessed  them  according  to  their  deeds."  His  humble 
parishioners  appear  to  have  been  willing  listeners  and  docile  pupils, 
for  he  says:  "  Seeing  that  a  large  part  professed  to  love  the  good  news 
of  the  gospel,  he  [the  missionary]  demanded  of  them  three  things,  as 
tokens  of  their  good  will  and  desire  to  receive  the  faith  of  Jesus 
Christ.  The  first  was  to  leave  the  beverages  of  Europe  [the  brandy 
of  the  traders],  from  which  followed  much  drunkenness  among  the 
savages;  secondly,  he  asked  them  to  live  peaceably  together  and  to 
put  an  end  to  the  jealousies  and  quarrels  which  were  often  occurring 
between  them  and  members  of  other  tribes;  thirdly,  he  required  that 
they  throw  away  their  Manitous  or  demons  or  mysterious  charms; 
there  were  few  young  men  who  had  not  some  stone  or  other  thing 

—whose  long  life  was  full  of  deeds  of  kindness  toward  the  Indians,  and  who,  if 
satisfied  that  the  priest  was  their  real  friend,  would  have  written  such  a  letter. 
The  Father  must  have  met  some  French  and  English  speaking  person  by  whom, 
as  interpreter,  his  character  as  a  missionary  could  be  expressed  in  English  as 
certified  by  "Mr.  Chaste."  Of  the  "  seven  or  eight  English  settlements  "  along 
the  route,  Pemaquid  was  the  oldest  and  largest:  the  others  may  have  been 
Pejepscot,  Sagadahoc,  Sheepscot,  Capenewaggen,  Damariscotta,  New  Harbor 
and  St.  George. 

*  Jesuit  Relations  for  the  year  1G],7,  Chap.  X,  p.  52. 


which  they  held  as  a  propitiation  to  their  demon  for  his  kindness  in 
the  chase  or  the  games,  or  in  war;  it  is  given  to  them  by  some  sor- 
cerer [medicine  man]  or  they  dream  that  they  found  it,  or  that  the 
Manitou  gave  it  to  them.  .  .  Many  who  had  charms  or  Manitous 
drew  them  from  their  pouches — some  threw  them  away  and  others 
brought  them  to  the  Father.  Some  sorcerers  or  jugglers  burned  their 
drums  and  other  implements  of  their  trade;  so  that  no  longer  were 
heard  in  their  cabins,  the  yellings,  and  cries  and  hubbub  which  they 
made  around  their  sick,  because  the  greater  part  protested  stoutly  that 
they  wanted  refuge  in  God.  I  say  the  greater  part,  but  not  all;  some 
never  liked  the  change,  so  they  carried  a  sick  man  to  be  whispered 
and  chanted  over  by  cheats.  But  the  poor  man,  being  well  pre- 
pared for  heaven,  said  that  if  he  recovered  his  health  he  would  hold  it 
as  a  gift  from  Him  who  alone  can  give  and  take  away  as  it  pleases 
Him.  The  Father  stayed  among  these  fifteen  cabins,  teaching  in 
public  and  private,  making  the  savages  pray,  vi.siting,  consoling  and 
relieving  the  sick;  with  much  suffering  it  is  true,  but  tempered  by  a 
blessing  and  inspiration  from  heaven  which  sweetens  the  most  bitter 
trials.  God  does  not  yield;  He  scatters  his  blessings  as  well  upon  the 
cross  of  iron  as  upon  the  cross  of  silver  and  gold.  It  is  not  a  small 
joy  to  baptize  thirty  persons  prepared  for  death  and  paradise.  The 
Father  had  not  yet  wished  to  entrust  the  holy  waters  to  those  who 
were  full  of  life;  he  only  .scattered  them  upon  the  dying,  some  of 
whom  recovered,  to  the  surprise  of  their  comrades."  * 

In  the  month  of  January  (1647)  the  Father  went  with  the  Indians 
on  their  winter  hunt  to  Moosehead  lake,  where,  "  being  divided  into 
many  bands,  they  wage  war  against  deer,  elk  and  beaver,  and  other 
wild  beasts;"  the  Father  stayed  with  one  party,  "  following  it  in  all  its 
journeys."  In  the  spring,  "  the  chase  ended,  all  the  savages  reassem- 
bled upon  the  banks  of  this  great  lake  [Moosehead]  at  the  place  where 
they  had  stopped  [before  the  dispersion].  Here  the  sorcerers  lost 
credit,  for  not  only  those  who  prayed  to  God  had  not  encountered 
misfortune  but  the  Father  and  his  company  had  not  fallen  into  the 
ambush  of  the  Iroquiois,  but  instead  had  been  favored  with  a  fortu- 
nate chase,  and  some  sick  persons  separated  from  the  Father,  having 
had  recourse  to  God  in  their  agonies,  had  received  the  blessing  of  a 
sudden  return  to  health."  The  reassembling  of  the  tribe  at  the  close 
of  the  hunt  was  at  the  outlet  of  the  lake  and  such  occasions  were  cele- 
brated by  feasting  and  dancing,  until  the  canoes  were  ready  for  the 
descent  of  the  river.  When  Father  Druillettes  arrived  with  his  com- 
pany at  the  place  of  the  mission  house,  he  found  that  Winslow  had 
already  reached  the  trading  house  three  miles  below.  Winslow  had 
spent  the  winter  in  Plymouth  and  Boston;  he  told  the  missionary  that 
*  Jesuit  J^c/atioiis,  1647,  Chap.  X.  pp.  o;^-o4. 


he  "  had  shown  the  letter  of  Mr.  Chate  to  twenty-four  persons  of  im- 
portance in  New  England,  atnong  whom  were  four  famous  ministers; 
and  that  they  all  approved  his  plan,  saying  boldly  that  it  was  a  good 
and  praiseworthy  and  generous  action  to  instruct  the  savages,  and 
that  God  must  be  praised  for  it.  '  The  gentlemen  of  the  Kennebec 
company  [the  Plymouth  colony]  charged  me,'  said  Mr.  Houinslaud 
[Winslow],  '  to  bring  you  [Father  Druillettes]  word  that  if  you  wish 
for  some  French  to  come  and  build  a  house  [mission  establishment] 
on  the  Kennebec  river,  they  will  gladly  allow  it;  and  that  you  will 
never  be  molested  in  your  ministry;  if  you  are  there,'  added  he, 
'  many  English  will  come  to  visit  you;'  giving  us  to  understand  that 
there  are  some  Catholics  in  these  countries.  The  Father,  having  no 
orders  on  this  proposition,  replied  to  Winslow  that  he  would  write  to 
him  soon  if  the  plan  was  judged  practicable."  * 

Father  Druillettes  left  the  Mission  of  the  Assumption  on  the  20th 
of  May,  1647,  "  going  to  visit  all  the  places  where  the  savages  were, 
baptizing  the  sick  and  thus  rescuing  those  beyond  all  hope.  .  . 
There  were  neither  small  nor  great  who  did  not  express  sorrow  at  the 
departure  of  their  Patriarch  "  (the  name  of  endearment  which  the 
missionary's  neophytes  had  given  him).  Thirty  Indians  accompanied 
him  to  Quebec,  where  he  arrived  on  the  15th  of  June  "  full  of  health." 
The  disciples  who  escorted  him  besought  him  to  return  with  them 
after  eleven  days'  rest,  "  but  the  Jesuit  Fathers  for  sufficient  reasons, 
did  not  grant  their  request,  and  the  savages  returned  to  their  country, 
afflicted  by  the  refusal." 


The  Kennebec  Mission  Field  reopened. — Iroquiois  Enemies. — Scene  at  the 
Cushnoc  Trading  House. — Father  Druillettes  and  Negabamat  go  to  Boston 
and  Plymouth.— The  Father  meets  the  Governors.— He  visits  John  Eliot 
and  John  Endicott. — Resumes  Labor  in  his  Mission. — Returns  to  Quebec. — 
Sent  back  to  New  England.— Lost  in  the  Forests  on  the  St.  John.— Reaches 
Nanrantsouak. — Welcomed  with  Joy.— Visits  the  four  Colonies.— Last  Labors 
on  the  Kennebec. — Painful  Journey  to  Quebec. 

The  next  year  (1648)  the  neophytes  of  the  Kennebec  went  to  Que- 
bec and  repeated  their  request  for  the  return  of  Father  Druillettes, 
but  the  Jesuit  Fathers,  thinking  that  the  distant  Abenakis  could  be 
sufficiently  ministered  unto  by  the  Capuchins  of  Pengbscot,  and  hav- 
itig  great  need  in  Canada  of  all  of  the  missionaries  of  their  own 
society,  did  not  yield  to  the  petition.  The  next  year  (1649)  the  .same 
request  was  made  with  the  same  result;  but  in  1650,  the  persistency 

*  /fsiat  Relatiotis,  1647,  Chap.  X,  p.  56. 


and  earnestness  of  the  appeals,  supported  by  a  letter  from  Father 
Come  de  Mante  of  the  Pentagoet  mission,  were  sitccessful.  Father 
Druiliettes  was  appointed  to  reopen  his  Kennebec  mission.  He  left 
Quebec  (or  Sillery)  September  1st,  accompanied  by  his  faithful  disci- 
ple and  constant  companion,  Noel  Negabamat.  On  reaching  the  Ken- 
nebec, he  visited  hastily  the  several  villages,  and  received  the  joyful 
welcome  of  his  former  pupils.  On  St.  Michael's  eve  (September  29) 
he  arrived  at  the  Plymouth  trading  house,  at  Cushnoc.  To  his  great 
pleasure  he  there  met  again  his  foi'mer  friend,  "  the  agent,  by  name 
Jehan  Winslau  [John  Winslow],  a  citizen  merchant  of  Plymouth." 

At  the  time  of  Father  Druiliettes'  first  labors  on  the  river  four 
years  before,  there  was  a  feeling  of  unrest  among  the  Abenakis  arising 
from  the  dread  of  their  enemies,  the  Mohawks  (one  of  the  celebrated 
Iroquiois  tribes),  whose  raids  from  their  country  beyond  the  western 
highlands  had  reached  even  to  the  Kennebec.  Since  1646,  six  French 
missionaries*  had  been  massacred  by  the  Mohawks  and  their  kindred 
tribes,  and  marauding  parties  were  yearly  roaming  the  banks  of  the 
St.  Lawrence,  with  hatchets  and  knives  bought  of  the  Dutch  and 
English  traders  on  the  Hudson.  The  governor  of  Canada  (D'Alli- 
boust),  to  protect  his  own  people  and  the  far  more  numerous  friendly 
natives  of  his  domain,  sought  to  repel  the  invaders;  and  he  gave  to 
Father  Druiliettes  on  his  departure  for  the  Kennebec,  "  a  letter  of 
credit  to  speak  on  behalf  of  Sieur  d'AUiboust  to  the  governor  and 
magistrates  of  said  country  "  (New  England).  It  was  therefore  in  the 
dual  capacity  of  missionary  and  envoy  that  Father  Druiliettes  made 
his  second  visit  to  the  Abenakis.  The  then  existing  colonies  (Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts,  New  Haven,  Connecticut,)  had  formed  (in 
1643)  a  confederation  to  promote  their  common  interests,  and  espe- 
cially to  enable  them  to  deal  as  a  unit  with  the  neighboring  Dutch 
and  French  colonies.  This  confederacy — the  embryo  of  our  great 
republic— prohibited  the  individual  colony  from  going  to  war  alone 
and  from  concluding  a  peace  without  the  consent  of  the  others. 

Before  1650,  this  confederacy  had  proposed  a  system  of  commer- 
cial reciprocity  between  New  England  and  New  France.  Father 
Druiliettes  was  now  instructed  to  agree  on  behalf  of  his  government 
to  the  proposed  treaty,  provided  New  England  would  unite  with 
Canada  in  keeping  the  Iroquiois  from  the  war  path  against  the  tribes 

*  They  were  all  of  the  Society  of  Jesus.  Father  Isaac  Jogues  (killed  October 
18,  1646)  was  sent  to  the  Mohawk  country  at  the  same  time  that  Father  Druil- 
iettes was  ordered  to  the  Kennebec.  The  two  Fathers  received  their  assign- 
ments on  the  same  day.  The  other  victims  to  Iroquiois  cruelty  were:  Fathers 
Antoine  Daniel,  killed  July  4.  1648;  Jean  de  Brebeuf,  March  16,  1649;  Gabriel 
Lallemant,  March  17,  1649;  Charles  Gamier,  December  7,  1649;  Noel  Chobanel, 
December  8,  \&i^.—Al>ri(fgeJ  Relations  of  the  Missions  of  the  Jesuits  in  New 
Fiance.     By  Father  P.  F.  J.  Bressani,  16.53.     Montreal,  1853. 


that  were  friendly  to  the  French.  In  the  light  of  these  facts  we  can 
understand  the  proceedings  at  the  Kennebec  trading  house  on  the 
30th  of  September,  1650.  Father  Druillettes,  with  Negabamat  and  a 
throng  of  Indians  who  had  followed  them  from  the  different  villages, 
met  with  ceremony  the  representative  of  the  colony  of  Plymouth  at 
the  trading  house.  Negabamat,  addressing  John  Winslow  and  hand- 
ing to  him  a  bundle  of  beaver  skins,  said  in  his  mother  tongue  (the 
Algonquin,  and  interpreted  into  French  for  us  by  the  missionary): 
"  The  governor  of  the  river  St.  Lawrence,  by  the  Father  who  stands 
here,  to  those  of  your  nation,  and  I  as  ally  join  my  word  to  his;  Not 
to  speak  to  thee  alone,  but  rather  to  tell  thee  to  embark  my  word,  that 
is  to  say  my  present  [the  beaver  skins],  to  carry  it  to  the  governor  of 
Plymouth."  Winslow  answered  that  he  would  do  with  the  governor 
and  magistrates  all  that  could  be  expected  from  a  good  friend;  where- 
upon Negabamat  and  the  other  Indians  asked  that  the  Father  should 
go  with  him  (Winslow)  to  present  in  person  d'Alliboust's  letter  and 
"  explain  his  intentions  according  to  the  letter  of  credit  which  he  had, 
and  to  bear  the  words  of  the  Christians  of  Sillery  and  the  catechumens 
of  the  river  Kennebec."  Winslow  replied:  "  I  will  lodge  him  in  my 
house,  and  I  will  treat  him  as  my  own  brother;  for  I  well  know  the 
good  that  he  [the  missionary]  does  among  you,  and  the  life  that  he 
leads  there."  The  record  adds:  "  This  he  said  because  he  had  a  par- 
ticular zeal  for  the  conversion  of  the  Indians." 

Thus  accredited  by  the  Kennebec  Indians  as  well  as  by  the  Cana- 
dian governor,  to  negotiate  against  the  Iroquiois,  the  missionary-envoy 
started  about  the  20th  of  November  for  Boston;  he  says:  "  I  left  Cous- 
sinoc  by  land,  with  the  said  agent  [Winslow],  inasmuch  as  the  vessel 
that  was  to  carry  us  had  some  cause  for  delay  in  waiting  for  the  In- 
dians; and  fearing  to  be  surprised  by  the  ice,  we  were  therefore 
obliged  to  go  ten  leagues,  to  embark  by  sea  at  Marimiten  [Merry- 
meeting],  which  the  Indians  call  Nassouac.  This  was  a  painful  march, 
especially  to  the  agent,  who  is  already  somewhat  in  years  [born  in 
1597]  and  who  assured  me  that  he  would  never  have  undertaken  it  if 
he  had  not  given  his  word  to  Noel  "  (Negabamat).  They  embarked 
at  Tameriskau  (Damariscove  ?)  on  the  25th,  but  the  winds  and  storms 
drove  them  ashore  at  Cape  Ann,  from  whence  "  partly  by  land  and 
partly  by  boat,"  they  reached  Boston  on  the  8th  of  December.  The 
incidents  of  this  embassy  were  quite  fully  recorded  by  Father  Druil- 
lettes, '•■■  but  it  would  be  apart  from  the  present  purpose  to  recite  them 
all.     He  was  blandly  received  by  the  principal  personages  of  Boston, 

*  "  Narrative  of  a  voyage,  made  for  the  Abenaquiois  mission  and  information 
acquired  of  New  England  and  the  magistrates  of  that  republic,  for  assistance 
against  the  Iroquiois.  The  whole  by  me,  Gabriel  Druillettes,  of  the  Society  of 
Jesus."— Trans,  from  the  original  MS.  by  John  Gilmary  Shea.  Coll.  New  York 
Hist.  Society  (2d  series),  Vol.  Ill,  part  1. 


■who,  because  he  was  a  foreign  envoy,  did  not  inflict  upon  him  the 
execution  which  one  of  their  laws  made  the  earthly  doom  of  a  Jesuit. 
After  receiving  many  courteous  attentions  and  an  audience  and  din- 
ner with  the  governor  (Thomas  Dudley)  and  magistrates,  he  was  at 
last  told  that  in  consequence  of  the  character  he  had  assumed  as  am- 
bassador of  the  Kennebec  Indians,  Boston  had  no  interest  in  the  sub- 
ject; and  he  was  referred  to  Plymouth.  He  then  went  to  Plymouth 
(December  21-22),  and  saw  the  Pilgrim  fathers  at  their  homes.  The 
Father  says:  "The  governor  of  the  place  John  Brentford  [William 
Bradford]  received  me  with  courtesy,  and  appointed  the  next  day  for 
audience,  and  then  invited  me  to  a  dinner  of  fish  which  he  had  pre- 
pared on  my  account,  seeing  that  it  was  Friday.  I  met  with  much 
favor  at  this  settlement,  for  the  farmers  [lessees  of  the  Plymouth 
patent],  and  among  others  Captain  Thomas  Willets,  spoke  to  the  gov- 
ernor on  behalf  of  my  negotiation.  .  .  The  governor  .  .  with  all 
the  magistrates,  not  only  consents  but  presses  this  affair  in  favor  of 
the  Abenaquois.  The  whole  colony  has  no  trifling  interest  in  it,  be- 
cause by  its  right  of  seigniory,  it  annually  takes  the  sixth  part  of  all 
that  arises  from  the  trade  on  that  river  Quinebec;  and  the  governor 
himself  in  particular,  who  with  four 

other  of  the  most  considerable  citi-  S*'^'>'i^A'  'iVi>-i^f<^es  SecJ-J"- 
zens,  are  as  it  were,  farmers  of  this 

trade,  who  lose  much,  losing  all  hope  of  the  commerce  of  the  Kenne- 
bec and  Quebec,  by  means  of  the  Abnaquiois,  which  will  soon  infalli- 
bly happen,  if  the  Iroquois  continues  to  kill  and  hunt  to  death  the 
Abenaquiois  as  he  has  done  for  some  years  past." 

The  sanguine  Father  returned  to  Boston,  where  he  wrote  to  Gov- 
ernor d'Alliboust  his  official  report,  from  which  the  last  few  preceding 
lines  are  copied.  He  had  the  faith  of  the  enthusiast  that  the  purpose 
of  his  embassy  would  be  accomplished.  It  was  winter  and  the  season 
when  vessels  seldom  ventured  along  the  coast;  consequently  his  de- 
parture was  delayed  a  few  days,  during  which  time  he  was  the  guest 
of  distinguished  people,  one  of  whom  was  John  Eliot,  the  Protestant 
Indian  apostle,  at  Roxbury,  who  hospitably  invited  him  to  stay  at  his 
house  all  winter.  On  the  5th  of  January  he  embarked  on  "  a  vessel 
clearing  for  the  Kennebec;"  bad  weather  stopped  it  for  a  week  or 
more  at  Marblehead;  the  envoy  improved  the  time  by  going  up  to 
Salem,  to  see  John  Endicott,  "  who,"  says  the  Father,  "  seeing  that  I 
had  no  money,  defrayed  my  expenses."  *  On  the  24th  of  January  the 
bark  reached  Piscataqua,  and  on  the  7th  of  February  anchored  at 
Tameriskau.     The  next  day  the  missionary  reached  the  Kennebec,  up 

*  Which  kind  act  gives  us  a  rare  glimpse  into  the  inner  nature  of  the  man 
who  soon  after  as  governor  was  led  by  his  infuriated  zeal  for  Puritanism,  to  have 
Quakers  tortured  and  put  to  death. 


which  on  its  frozen  and  snow  covered  surface  he  laboriously  tramped 
to  resume  his  interrupted  labors.  From  the  comforts  of  guest  cham- 
bers and  the  luxuries  of  governors'  tables,  he  returned  unflinchingly 
to  the  squalid  huts,  and  pitiful,  uncertain  fare  of  the  savages,  whom 
he  had  been  called  to  serve.  In  the  spring,  on  his  return  to  Cushnoc 
with  the  tribe  from  the  winter  hunt  at  Moosehead,  he  found  John 
Winslow  had  returned  from  Plymouth,  bringing  the  message  that  "  all 
the  magistrates  and  the  two  commissioners  of  Plymouth  have  given 
their  word,  and  resolved  that  they  must  press  the  other  colonies  to 
join  them  against  the  Iroquiois  in  favor  of  the  Abnaquiois,  who  are 
under  the  protection  of  the  colony  of  Plymouth."  This  cheering  re- 
sponse to  the  Father's  visit  to  Plymouth  was  supplemented  by  letters 
brought  to  him  by  Winslow  from  men  in  Boston,  representing  the 
common  opinion  to  be  that  "  if  the  republic  will  not  undertake  this 
aid  against  the  Iroquiois  .  .  individuals  are  ready  as  volunteers  for 
the  expedition."  With  these  hopeful  assurances,  Father  Druillettes, 
taking  affectionate  leave  of  his  neophytes,  returned  in  the  month  of 
June  (1651)  to  Quebec,  and  reported  in  person  to  his  government  the 
apparent  result  of  his  embassy. 

But  so  active  and  malignant  was  the  enemy  and  so  unhappy  the 
outlook,  that  after  a  rest  of  only  fifteen  days  Father  Druillettes  and 
Negabamat  were  sent  back  to  the  Kennebec,  "  Negabamat  being  com- 
missioned as  before  by  the  Algonquins  of  the  Great  River  [St.  Law- 
rence], and  the  Father  by  both  the  governor  of  Canada  and  the  good 
Abenaquiois  catechumens."  This  last  trip  of  Father  Druillettes  was 
exceedingly  painful — almost  tragical  in  its  beginning  and  ending — and 
bitterly  disappointing  in  its  political  result.  He  was  accompanied  by 
one  Frenchman  (Jean  Guerin)  and  several  Abenakis,  who  had  fol- 
lowed him  to  Quebec.  In  the  hope  of  finding  a  shorter  route  than  the 
usual  one  up  the  Chaudiere  to  Lake  Megantic.  the  guides  took  one 
with  which  they  were  not  acquainted;  "  after  having  rowed  and  walked 
for  fifteen  days  by  torrents  and  through  many  frightful  ways,"  they 
saw  with  dismay  that  they  had  mistaken  the  river  down  which  they 
should  have  glided,  and  that  instead  of  being  in  the  country  of  the 
Abenakis  they  were  at  Madawaska  (on  the  St.  John).  But  a  worse 
feature  of  their  condition  was  food-famine.  The  provisions  taken  for 
the  two  weeks'  journey  to  the  Kennebec  were  exhausted;  the  com- 
pany were  weak  from  hunger  and  unable  to  perform  the  labor  of 
stemming  the  current  of  the  river  which  they  must  ascend  before 
they  could  reach  the  route  to  their  destination.  In  this  dark  hour 
Father  Druillettes  piously  re.sorted  to  the  resources  of  his  religion;  in 
the  solitude  of  the  immense  forest  he  proceeded  to  offer  the  sacrifice 
of  the  holy  mass  for  relief  and  deliverance.  He  had  just  concluded 
the  ceremony  when  one  of  the  Indians  came  running  to  the  spot  with 
the  joyful  news  that  the  party  had  killed  three  moose.     The  lives  of 


the  famishing-  wanderers  were  thereby  saved.  The  Father  deemed  it 
the  visible  interposition  of  God  as  he  did  the  restoration  of  his  eye- 
sight seven  years  before. 

After  having  restored  their  strength  with  the  miraculously  sent 
moose  meat  and  preserved  by  the  process  of  smoking  enough  to  last 
until  some  could  be  procured  in  the  ordinary  way,  the  party  started 
to  return  up  river.  There  were  rapids,  falls  and  difficulties  number- 
less; one  of  the  Indians — an  Etechemin  from  the  St.  John — attributed 
all  of  the  party's  bad  luck  to  the  presence  of  the  Black-robe;  some  of 
the  streams  were  too  low  to  float  the  canoes,  so  the  Father  prayed  for 
rain — which  came  and  the  water  rose;  but  the  ill  will  and  persecu- 
tions of  the  savage  compelled  the  Father  to  cast  off  his  luggage  in 
order  to  lighten  the  boat,  and  finally  to  separate  himself  from  the 
party  and  grope  his  way  in  loneliness  among  rocks  and  windfalls  and 
dismal  stretches  of  swamp;  be  "  rose  at  break  of  day  and  traveled  till 
night  without  eating;  his  supper  was  a  little  piece  of  smoked  meat 
hard  as  wood,  or  a  small  fish  if  he  could  catch  it,  and  after  having  said 
his  prayers  the  earth  was  his  bed,  his  pillow  a  log."  *  At  last,  after 
twenty-two  or  twenty-three  days  from  Quebec,  the  party  reached  Nan- 
rantsouak  (Norridgewock).  The  chief,  Oumamanradock,  welcomed 
the  Father  with  a  salute  of  musketry,  and  embraced  him,  saying:  "  I 
see  now  that  the  Great  Spirit  who  rules  in  heaven  has  looked  upon  us 
with  a  kind  eye  since  he  has  sent  us  our  Patriarch  again."  The  chief 
inquired  of  the  attendants  if  the  Father  had  been  well  and  well  treated 
on  the  journey,  and  when  told  of  the  harsh  conduct  of  the  Etechemin, 
he  berated  the  fellow  roundly,  saying:  "  If  you  were  one  of  my  sub- 
jects or  of  my  nation,  I  would  make  you  feel  the  grief  which  you  have 
caused  the  whole  country."  The  culprit  admitted  his  guilt  and  con- 
fessed— "  I  am  a  dog  to  have  treated  the  Black-gown  so  badly."  The 
rec6rd  says,  "  there  was  no  man,  woman  or  child  who  did  not  express 
to  the  Father  the  joy  that  was  felt  at  his  return;  there  were  feasts  in 
all  the  cabins:  he  was  taken  possession  of  and  carried  away  with  love." 
It  was  probably  about  this  time  that  "  in  a  great  meeting  "  they 
"  naturalized  and  admitted  the  Father  to  their  nation."  Subsequently, 
when  he  was  at  the  village  near  Cushnoc,  an  attache  of  the  trading 
post,  who  had  entered  a  wigwam  where  the  priest  was  conversing,  re- 
ported to  Winslow  his  employer,  that  the  missionary  was  declaiming 
against  the  English.  This  offended  Winslow,  but  the  Indians  went 
to  the  trading  house  and  declared  that  the  tattler  lied— that  he  did  not 
understand  the  Abenakis  tongue  from  which  he  pretended  to  quote, 
and  in  their  resentment  of  the  injustice  done  to  their  missionary, 
said:  "  We  have  adopted  him  for  our  comrade,  we  love  him  as  the 
wisest  of  our  captains,  .  .  and  whoever  assails  him  attacks  all  the 

*  Jesuit  Relations  for  1002,  Chap.  VII,  p.  23.   >  _m  ^  Q^^'^OQ 


Father  Druillettes'  third  arrival  on  the  Kennebec  caused  a  round 
of  profound  welcome  and  rejoicing.  Friends  old  and  new  flocked 
from  all  sides  to  see  him;  he  made  a  tour  of  the  "  twelve  or  thirteen 
villages  which  are  ranged  partly  upon  the  river  Kennebec,  and  partly 
upon  the  coast  of  Acadia.  .  .  He  was  everywhere  received  as  an 
angel  from  heaven."  The  warmth  of  his  reception  impressed  him, 
and  in  alluding  to  it  he  wrote:  "  If  the  years  have  their  winter  they 
have  also  their  spring-time;  if  these  missions  have  their  afifiictions, 
they  are  not  deprived  of  their  joys  and  consolations.  I  have  felt  more 
than  I  can  express,  seeing  the  gospel-seed  which  I  have  sown  for  four 
years,  which  produced  in  the  ground  in  so  many  centuries  only  briars 
and  thorns,  bring  forth  fruit  worthy  of  the  table  of  God.  .  .  One 
captain  [chief]  broke  my  heart;  he  repeated  to  me  often  in  public  and 
private  that  he  loved  his  children  as  himself;  '  I  have  lost  two  of  them 
since  your  departure;  their  death  is  not  my  greatest  sorrow,  but  you 
had  not  baptized  them;  that  is  what  distresses  me.  It  is  true  that  I 
have  done  for  them  what  you  recommended  me  to  do,  but  I  do  not 
know  whether  I  have  done  well,  or  if  I  shall  ever  see  them  in  heaven; 
if  you  had  baptized  them  I  would  not  grieve  for  them;  I  would  not  be 
sorry  for  their  death,  on  the  contrary  I  would  be  consoled;  at  least  if 
to  banish  my  sorrow  you  will  promise  not  to  think  of  Quebec  for  ten 
years,  and  will  not  depart  during  that  time,  you  will  see  that  we  love 
you.'  Besides  he  led  me  to  the  graves  of  his  two  children,  upon  which 
he  had  erected  two  beautiful  crosses,  painted  red,  which  he  came  to 
salute  from  time  to  time  in  sight  of  the  English  at  Koussinok  [Cush- 
noc],  where  the  cemetery  of  these  good  people  is,  because  they  hold  at 
this  place  two  great  meetings,  one  in  tine  spring  and  the  other  in  the 
autumn."  *  children  were  probably  buried  in  ground  that  had 
been  consecrated  for  burial  purposes  by  Father  Druillettes  during  one 
of  his  previous  visits.  Its  location  was  probably  near  the  Mission  of 
the  Assumption.  Ancient  human  skeletons  were  plowed  up  by  the 
early  settlers  in  the  vicinity  of  Gilley's  point,  where  the  chapel  must 
have  stood,  f 

After  Father  Druillettes  had  spent  several  weeks  "  in  instructing 
the  villages  that  were  farther  inland  and  more  remote  from  the 
English,  he  took  with  him  Noel  Negabamat  and  went  down  to  New 
England."  This  time,  besides  visiting  Boston  and  Plymouth,  they 
went  to  the  two  other  colonies  (New  Haven  and  Connecticut),  implor- 
ing for  their  people  protection  from  the  Iroquiois;  but  the  fervent  de- 
sire of  Plymouth  to  save  the  inhabitants  of  its  domain  on  the  Kenne- 
bec from  the  Mohawk  hatchet  was  neutralized  by  Massachusetts' 
indifference  and  the  reluctance  of  the  other  colonies  toward  disturb- 

*  Jesuit  Relations,  1G52,  Chap.  VII,  p.  25. 

t  This  fact  was  communicated  by  the  late  Mrs.  Robert  Dennison,  an  aged 
lady  of  North  Augusta,  who  died  in  the  early  part  of  1892. 


ing  the  relations  that  existed  between  themselves  and  the  Dutch  in 
the  territory  that  is  now  the  state  of  New  York.  So  the  tremendous 
and  patient  labors  of  the  embassy  were  fruitless.  Christian  New 
England  would  not  be  aroused  to  protect  the  Christianized  Indians  of 
the  Kennebec.  Father  Druillettes  returned  with  his  companion  to 
the  mission  field  in  the  depths  of  the  wilderness,  where  he  passed  the 
dreary  winter  among  his  neophytes,  destitute  of  every  physical  com- 
fort, the  menial  servant  of  savages,  the  target  of  the  jealous  jugglers' 
spite;  tramping  from  village  to  village  at  the  call  of  the  sick  and 
dying;  always  preaching  by  act  and  word  the  sublime  gospel  of  divine 
humanity.  At  the  beginning  of  March  (1652)  he  departed  wearily  for 
Quebec.  The  hardships  of  his  journey  hither  were  far  exceeded  by 
those  of  his  return.  The  party  started  on  snow-shoes;  we  are  not  told 
their  route.  The  time  occupied  was  more  than  a  month.  The  supplj' 
of  food  gave  out,  and  some  of  the  Indians  died  of  exhaustion.  All  of 
the  company  expected  to  perish  with  hunger  and  cold.  Father  Druil- 
lettes and  Negabamat  were  without  food  for  six  days  following  the 
fasting  season  of  Lent.  Finally  they  were  obliged  to  boil  their  moc- 
casins, and  then  the  Father's  gown  (camisole)  which  was  made  of 
moose  skin;  the  snow  melting,  they  boiled  the  braids  of  their  snow- 
shoes.  On  such  frail  broth  they  kept  sufficient  strength  to  finally 
reach  Quebec  on  Monday  after  Easter  (April  8),  "  having  no  more 
courage  or  strength  than  zeal  for  the  salvation  of  souls  can  give  to 
skeletons."  With  a  pale,  thin  face,  and  worn  body,  the  intrepid,  de- 
vout and  half-martyred  Druillettes  closed  his  labors  with  the  Indians 
of  the  Kennebec* 


English  and  French  irritation  in  Acadia. — Alienation  between  the  Indians  and 
the  EngHsh.— Afifinity  between  the  Indians  and  the  French.— Phihp's  War 
reaches  to  Maine.— Kennebecs  disarmed.— Robinhood  makes  Treaty  of 
Peace.— Outrageous  Affront  to  the  Saco  Chief. — War  begins  at  Merrymeet- 
ing  Bay. — Parley  at  Teconnet. — Hammond's  Fort  at  Woolwich,  and  Clark  & 
Lake's  Fort  at  Arrowsic,  captured. — Dreadful  Massacres.— Kennebecs  return 
Captives  and  ask  for  Peace. — Treaties  of  Casco  and  Portsmouth. 

The  history  of  the  Indians  on  the  Kennebec  is  nearly  a  blank  for 
a  quarter  of  a  century  after  the  retirement  of  Father  Druillettes.  The 
feeble  mission  of  the  Capuchins  on  the  Penobscot  was  broken  up  by 
the  Huguenot  Frenchman,  La  Tour,  in   his  quarrel  with  his  Catholic 

*  Father  Druillettes  was  born  in  France  in  the  year  1393.  After  his  retire- 
ment from  the  Kennebec  he  was  constantly  with  the  Montagnais,  Kristineaux, 
Papinachois,  and  other  tribes.  In  1661  he  ascended  the  Saguenay,  in  the  attempt 
to  reach  Hudson's  bay.  He  went  West  in  1666  with  the  celebrated  Marquette, 
and  labored  at  Sault  Ste.  Mary  till  1679,  when  he  returned  to  Quebec,  and  there 
died  on  the  8th  of  April,  1681,  after  a  missionary  career  of  nearly  forty  years. 


countryman,  D'Aulnay,  and  the  semi-Christianized  tribes  of  Maine 
were  left  for  awhile  to  revert  to  their  primeval  heathenism.  The 
English  traders  had  for  twenty-five  years  been  annoyed  by  the  French 
occupation  of  the  country  from  the  Penobscot  eastward,  and  in  1654, 
the  confederated  colonies  seized  with  force  and  arms  all  Acadia,  dis- 
possessing the  French  and  sending-  them  home  or  driving  them  in 
their  poverty  to  seek  subsistence  among  the  Indians,  and  frequently 
adoption  into  the  tribes.  The  natives  had  learned  to  confide  in  the 
French  and  distrust  the  English.  The  Kennebecs  had  found  out  that 
the  English  cared  only  for  their  furs;  to  add  to  their  jealousy  they 
believed  that  their  missionary  had  been  driven  away  from  them. 
They  attributed  all  of  their  woes  to  the  Englishmen.  Mohawk  parties 
came  oftener,  spoiling  the  villages  and  infesting  the  hunting  grounds. 
As  the  hunters  could  get  but  few  skins,  the  traders  finally  ceased 
coming  to  Cushnoc.  In  1661  the  Iroquiois  war-whoop  echoed  along 
the  vSt.  Lawrence  from  Montreal  three  hundred  miles  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Saguenay,  carrying  dismay  to  all  Canada.  A  party  penetrated  to 
the  Kennebec  and  surprised  a  village  near  the  outlet  of  a  lake;  all  the 
people  were  massacred,  save  one  old  chief  whom  the  murderers  led 
home  as  a  trophy,  and  afterward  tortured  to  death.*  This  cruel  event 
may  have  given  origin  to  the  tradition  among  the  Maine  Indians  in 
after  generations,  of  an  Iroquiois  victory  on  the  shores  of  Moosehead 
lake.  There  was  no  historian  to  describe  for  us  the  Indian  battles  on 
the  Kennebec;  the  only  record  ever  made  was  the  one  which  was 
deftly  woven  by  dusky  fingers  into  symbolic  figures  on  the  sacred 
wampum  belt,  that  the  duty  of  vengeance  might  not  be  forgotten  by 
warriors  yet  unborn. 

Most  of  the  causes  that  alienated  the  Kennebec  Indians  from  the 
English  were  the  same  that  drove  the  other  tribes  of  New  England 
into  a  pitiless  war  upon  the  settlements.  The  French  never  had  war 
with  their  Indian  subjects,  but  kept  their  loyalty  by  flattery,  charity 
and  religious  ceremonials.  The  English  used  no  such  arts;  Puritan- 
ism, whatever  its  triumphs,  was  a  failure  with  the  Indians;  it  neither 
converted  nor  attracted  them;  it  was  too  metaphysical  for  their  appre- 
hension— they  preferred  their  Manitous  and  medicine  men.  On  the 
contrary,  Catholicism  with  its  symbols,  and  gilded  images  displayed 
by  disciplined,  skillful  and  enthusiastic  priests  of  philanthropic  lives, 
impressed  them  strongly,  and  took  the  place  of  their  own  materialistic 
heathen  superstitions.  So  the  French  in  their  long  struggle  to  hold 
Acadia  had  the  natives  with  them.  When  the  irritations  and  wrongs 
of  half  a  century  of  English  occupation  came  to  be  avenged  by  the 

*  Histoire  des  Abeiiakis.  By  Father  J.  A.  Marault.  Sorel,  Canada,  1866.  At 
the  time  Father  Marault  wrote  his  history  he  had  been  for  nineteen  years  a  mis- 
sionary among  the  Indians  at  St.  Francis,  where  nearly  all  of  the  living  descend- 
ants of  the  Kennebec  tribe  reside. 


Indians  there  was  no  bond  of  religion  or  humanity  to  stay  the  hatchet 
and  scalping  knife.  The  catastrophe  of  Philip's  war  (1675-8)  had 
long  been  portending;  its  immediate  exciting  cause  was  the  execution 
by  Plymouth  of  three  of  Philip's  subjects  for  having,  by  Philip's 
order  and  according  to  Indian  law,  inflicted  the  punishment  of  death 
upon  an  Indian  traitor.  Philip,  as  leader,  was  suppressed  in  fourteen 
months — his  head  cut  off  and  carried  to  Plymouth,  there  to  dangle 
from  a  gibbet  for  twenty  years;  but  the  cause  to  which  he  had  called 
his  race  to  rally  did  not  die  with  him. 

The  first  victim  in  what  has  been  named  King  Philip's  war  was  an 
Indian  who  was  shot  while  marauding  with  his  fellows  in  a  settler's 
pasture,  for  food  (at  Swansey,  June  24,  1675).  His  death  was  avenged 
the  same  day  by  the  killing  of  three  white  persons.  Then  followed 
alarm  and  consternation  throughout  the  colonies.  In  a  few  weeks  the 
trader-settlers  on  the  lower  Kennebec  were  anxiously  astir.  Captains 
Lake,  Patteshall  and  Wiswell  had  been  appointed  by  the  general 
court  a  committee  of  safety  for  "  the  eastern  parts."  This  committee 
met  at  the  house  of  Captain  Patteshall  (on  the  island  that  for  many 
years  bore  his  name,  but  which  is  now  called  Lee's  island,  in  Phipps- 
burg),  and  after  consulting  with  the  settlers  concluded  to  disarm  the 
natives.*  A  party  ascended  the  river  for  the  purpose,  and  meeting 
five  Andro-scoggins  and  seven  Kennebecs,  persuaded  them  to  surren- 
der their  guns  and  knives.  During  the  proceeding,  a  Kennebec 
Indian  named  Sowen  struck  at  Hosea  Mallet,  a  bystander,  and  would 
have  killed  him  had  not  the  savage  been  seized;  the  other  Indians 
admitted  that  the  assailant  deserved  death,  yet  they  prayed  for  his  re- 
lease, offering  a  ransom  of  forty  beaver  skins  and  hostages  for  his 
future  good  behavior.  The  proposal  was  accepted  and  Sowen  was 
released.  The  traders  then  treated  the  Indians  with  food  and  tobacco, 
and  solemnly  promised  them  protection  and  favor  if  they  would  con- 
tinue peaceable.  The  principal  sagamore  in  the  party  was  Mahoti- 
wormet  {alias  Damarine),  called  by  the  English  Robinhood,  who  lived 
in  Nequasset  (Woolwichj.  The  next  day  he  assembled  as  many  of 
his  tribe  as  possible  and  celebrated  the  treaty  of  peace  with  a  great 
dance,  t 

*  Williamson's  History  of  Maine,  Vol.  I,  p.  519. 

tThis  chief,  who  was  a  Wawenoc,  had  been  intimate  with  the  English  during- 
his  whole  life,  and  never  so  far  as  we  know  became  their  enemy.  He  sold  in 
1639,  to  Edward  Butman  and  John  Brown  (who  bought  Pemaquid  of  Samoset 
and  another),  the  territory  of  the  present  town  of  Woolwich  (then  called  Nequas- 
set); he  also  sold  in  1649,  to  John  Parker,  the  island  of  Georgetown  (Erascohe- 
gan),  and  to  John  Richards,  the  island  of  Arrowsic;  also  in  16.58,  to  John  Parker, 
2d,  the  territory  that  now  makes  the  town  of  Phippsburg  as  far  south  as  "Cock's 
high  head;"  and  in  1661,  to  Robert  Gutch,  the  territory  now  included  within  the 
limits  of  Bath.  The  memory  of  Mahotiwormet  is  preserved  by  his  English  nick- 
name in  Robinhood's  cove,  the  long  arm  of  Sheepscot  bay  that  nearly  severs  the 
island  of  Georgeto'wn.     Hopegood,  the  warrior,  is  said  to  have  been  his  son. 


The  Indians  on  the  Sheepscot  were  likewise  prevailed  upon  to 
yield  up  their  arms,  and  there  seemed  to  be  good  reason  to  hope  that 
Philip's  influence  might  not  reach  disastrously  to  the  province  of 
Maine.  But  at  this  critical  hour  an  incident  occurred  which  neutral- 
ized all  the  efforts  that  had  been  made  to  stay  the  spreading  of 
Philip's  conflagration.  A  chief  of  the  Sacos,  named  Squando,  had 
suffered  an  outrage  that  sank  deep  into  his  heart.  Two  rollicking 
sailors  jocosely  threw  his  little  child  into  the  water  to  see  if  it  could 
swim  instinctively,  like  an  animal.  Though  the  infant  was  rescued 
alive  it  soon  died.  From  that  moment  the  grief  stricken  father  be- 
came the  inveterate  enemy  of  the  English;  no  overtures  could  reach 
him,  no  gifts  placate  him.  He  called  the  neighboring  tribes  to  war 
councils,  and  being  a  chief  of  great  influence,  war  dances  began.  Set- 
tlers from  the  Merrimac  to  Pemaquid  saw  with  grave  forebodings 
the  changed  behavior  and  increasing  insolence  of  the  Indians.  The 
first  overt  act  was  by  a  band  of  twenty  Indians,  who  sacked  the  house 
of  Thomas  Purchase  at  the  mouth  of  the  Androscoggin,  on  the  4th  or 
5th  of  September  (1675).  Purchase  had  lived  there  and  cheated  the 
Indians  for  fifty  years.  A  few  days  later  (September  12),  the  first 
Indian  massacre  in  Maine  took  place — that  of  Thomas  Wakeley  and 
his  family  of  eight  persons  at  Falmouth  on  the  Presumpscot  river. 

During  the  next  three  months  seventy-two  other  barbarous  mur- 
ders were  committed  between  Casco  and  the  Piscataqua.  This  series 
of  tragedies  was  mostly  the  work  of  the  Sacos  and  Androscoggins. 
The  traders  of  Sagadahoc  (on  the  lower  Kennebec)  were  putting  forth 
their  utmost  endeavors  to  prevent  the  terrible  contagion  from  spread- 
ing to  their  river.  They  employed  the  services  of  their  venerable 
trading  neighbor  of  Pemaquid,  Abraham  Shurte,  who  by  his  rugged 
honesty  and  kind  heart,  had  won  the  confidence  of  the  Indians.  He 
invited  some  of  the  sagamores  to  Pemaquid;  they  told  him  their 
grievances;  they  said  some  of  their  innocent  friends  had  been  treach- 
erously seized  and  sold  as  slaves  under  the  pretext  that  they  were 
conspirators  or  manslayers.  "  Yes,"  added  they,  "  and  your  people 
frightened  us  away  last  fall  [1675]  from  our  cornfields  about  Kenne- 
bec; you  have  since  withholden  powder  and  shot  from  us,  so  that  we 
have  not  been  able  to  kill  either  fowl  or  venison,  and  some  of  our 
Indians,  too,  the  last  winter,  actually  perished  of  hunger."  Shurte 
assured  them  that  all  of  their  wrongs  should  be  righted  if  they  would 
remain  friendly.  They  gave  him  a  wampum  belt  to  denote  their  de- 
sire for  peace,  and  a  captive  boy  to  be  returned  to  his  family.  This 
parley  was  soon  followed  by  an  invitation  to  Mr.  Shurte  to  meet  the 
sachems  of  all  the  tribes  in  council,  to  make  a  general  treaty  of  peace. 
The  message  was  borne  to  Pemaquid  by  an  Indian  runner  from 
Teconnet,  where  the  council  was  to  be  held.    Shurte  fearlessly  started 


on  his  errand,  probably  sailing  in  his  own  boat  from  Pemaquid  along 
the  coast  and  into  the  Kennebec.  At  Sagadahoc  he  took  council  with 
the  committee  of  safety,  who  selected  Captain  Sylvanus  Davis  to 
accompany  him.  The  two  a.scended  the  river  to  Teconnet  (now 
spelled  Ticonic)  where  they  found  a  large  number  of  Indians  awaiting 
them.  Five  chiefs  were  there:  Assiminasqua  and  Wahowa  {alias 
Hopegood)  of  the  Kennebecs;  Madockawando  and  Mugg  of  the 
Penobscots,  and  Tarumkin  of  the  Androscoggins;  but  Squando  of  the 
Sacos  was  ominously  absent. 

The  commissioners  were  welcomed  by  a  salute  of  musketry,  and 
conducted  into  the  great  wigwam  where  the  chiefs  were  seated,  each 
attended  by  his  people.  Assiminasqua  opened  the  proceedings,  say- 
ing: "  Brothers,  keep  your  arms,  they  are  a  badge  of  honor.  Be  at 
ease.  It  is  not  our  custom  like'  the  Mohawks  to  seize  the  messengers 
coming  unto  us;  nay,  we  never  do  as  your  people  once  did  with  four- 
teen of  our  Indians,  sent  to  treat  with  you;  taking  away  their  arms 
and  setting  a  guard  over  their  heads.  We  now  must  tell  you,  we  have 
been  in  deep  waters;  you  told  us  to  come  down  and  give  up  our  arms 
and  powder  or  you  would  kill  us,  so  to  keep  peace  we  were  forced  to 
part  with  our  hunting-guns,  or  to  leave  both  our  fort  and  our  corn. 
What  we  did  was  a  great  loss;  we  feel  its  weight."  To  this  Mr. 
Shurte  replied:  "  Our  men  who  have  done  you  wrong  are  greatly 
blamed;  if  they  could  be  reached  by  the  arm  of  our  rulers  they  would 
be  punished.  All  the  Indians  know  how  kindly  they  have  been  treated 
at  Pemaquid.  We  come  now  to  confirm  the  peace,  especially  to  treat 
with  the  Anasagunticooks  [Androscoggins].  We  wish  to  see  Squando 
and  to  hear  Tarumkin  speak."  Tarumkin  responded:  "  I  have  been 
westward,  where  I  found  three  sagamores  wishing  for  peace;  many 
Indians  are  unwilling.  I  love  the  clear  streams  of  friendship  that 
meet  and  unite.  Certainly,  I  myself,  choose  the  shades  of  peace.  My 
heart  is  true,  and  I  give  you  my  hand  in  pledge  of  the  truth."  Seven 
Androscoggins  echoed  the  sentiments  of  their  chief,  while  Hopegood 
and  Mugg,  representing  two  other  tribes,  likewise  declared  for  peace. 
But  the  absence  of  the  childless  chief  of  the  Sacos  was  fatal;  no  gen- 
eral treaty  could  be  made  without  him.  The  commissioners  were  dis- 
appointed and  anxious,  and  even  suspicious  of  the  fidelity  of  the 
tribes  present.  The  Indians  had  parted  with  their  guns  and  knives; 
they  were  unable  in  their  life  as  hunters  to  gain  their  sub.sistence 
without  them;  no  substitute  by  which  they  could  obtain 'food  was 
given  in  recompense;  they  were  now  pinched  with  hunger  and  threat- 
ened with  starvation;  some  they  declared  had  thus  died  already.  They 
now  asked  for  their  weapons  that  they  might  legitimately  follow  the 
game  of  the  forest.  The  cominissioners  could  not  conceal  their  mis- 
trust that  the  implements  might  be  misused.     Madockawando  then 


speaking  abruptly,  said:  "  Do  we  not  meet  here  on  equal  ground? 
Where  shall  we  buy  powder  and  shot  for  our  winter's  hunting,  when 
we  have  eaten  up  all  our  corn?  Shall  we  leave  Englishmen  and  turn 
to  the  French?  or  let  our  Indians  die?  We  have  waited  long  to  hear 
you  tell  us,  and  now  we  want  Yes,  or  No."  The  commissioners  could 
no  longer  hide  in  diplomatic  words  the  unhappy  condition  of  affairs; 
they  said:  "  You  may  have  ammunition  for  necessary  use;  but  you  say 
yourselves,  there  are  many  western  Indians  [the  Sacos]  who  do  not  peace.  Should  you  let  them  have  the  powder  we  sell  you, 
what  do  we  better  than  cut  our  own  throats?  This  is  the  best  answer 
we  are  allowed  to  return  you,  though  you  wait  ten  years."*  The 
chiefs  would  neither  hear  more  nor  talk  longer;  they  rose  abruptly 
and  ended  the  parley,  their  flashing  eyes  announcing  to  the  assembly 
the  hopeless  answer  of  the  English.  The  commissioners,  discomfited,, 
withdrew  to  their  boat  and  embarked  for  home  with  painful  appre- 

The  condition  of  the  Indians  was  pitiable.  In  their  destitution 
and  wretchedness  they  had  vainly  asked  for  the  restoration  of  their 
hunting  outfits.  The  alternative  of  starvation  or  war  was  now  be- 
fore them.  If  the  forests  could  not  be  made  to  furnish  them  food 
should  not  the  plenty  of  the  white  man's  .settlements?  Emis.saries 
and  refugees  from  Philip's  shattered  band — each  on.e  an  incendiary, 
and  murderer  of  Englishmen — were  deploying  eastward  and  mixing 
with  the  tribes.  They  recounted  by  many  a  lodge  fire  the  deeds  of 
Philip's  warriors  and  awakened  in  the  hearts  of  their  excited  listeners 
the  wild  thoughts  of  English  extermination.  The  time  had  come 
when  the  Kennebecs  could  sit  peacefully  on  their  mats  no  longer. 
The  pangs  of  hunger  and  impending  famine  made  them  desperate, 
and  impelled  them  to  the  war  path  for  self-preservation. 

A  few  weeks  after  the  parley  at  Teconnet  some  Kennebecs  in  alli- 
ance with  some  Androscoggins  formed  their  first  war  party.  On  the 
13th  of  August  (1675)  they  went  forth  in  cruelty  against  the  trading 
fort  of  Richard  Hammond,  that  stood  at  the  head  of  Long  Reach,  just 
below  the  chops  or  outlet  of  Merrymeeting  bay  f  (in  the  present  town 
of  Woolwich).  Hammond  had  aforetime  kept  a  temporary  trading 
post  at  Teconnet;  the  Indians  said  he  had  made  them  drunk  and  then 
cheated  them.  They  ruthlessly  killed  him  and  two  of  his  men  — 
Samuel  Smith  and  John  Grant — and  took  sixteen  persons  captive, 
among  them  Francis  Card  and  his  family.  A  brave  young  woman 
e-scaped  from  the  bloody  scene  and  fleeing  in  the  darkness  of  night 
across  the  country  to  Sheepscot,  alarmed  that  settlement  and  saved  it 

*  Williamson's  History  of  Maine,  Vol.  I,  pp.  539,  533. 

t  Problem  of  Hammond's  Fort.  By  Rev.  H.  O.  Thayer,  in  Collections  of  the 
Maine  Historical  Society.     Quarterly  series  No.  3,  1890. 


from  surprise.  After  supplying  themselves  with  food  and  plunder, 
and  burning  the  buildings,  some  of  the  Indians  returned  up  river 
with  their  captives,  while  others  in  the  night  stole  down  to  Clark  & 
Lake's  trading  place  on  Arrowsic  island;  they  adroitly  entered  the 
fort  through  the  gate  behind  the  sleepy  sentinels  as  they  were  retir- 
ing from  their  posts  at  daybreak.  The  consternation  of  the  inmates 
of  the  garrison,  thus  aroused  from  slumber  in  the  early  morning,  was 
indescribable.  In  their  helplessness  they  could  make  no  resistance 
to  the  fearful  onslaught;  a  few  ran  out  of  the  fort  and  escaped.  Thirty- 
five  persons  were  either  killed  or  captured.  Among  the  slain  was 
Captain  Lake,  a  member  of  the  committee  of  safety,  and  one  of  the 
wealthy  proprietors  of  the  establishment.  Among  the  wounded  was 
Captain  Davis,  one  of  the  recent  peace  messengers  to  Teconnet,  who 
barely  escaped  capture  and  death  by  hiding  in  the  clefts  of  the  rocks 
by  the  water's  edge  until  the  savages  had  departed.  The  destruction 
of  these  forts,  which  was  only  a  small  part  of  the  general  devastation 
that  presently  marked  the  entire  coast  from  Piscataqua  to  Pemaquid, 
drove  all  the  English  settlers  from  the  Kennebec. 

Of  the  Indians  concerned  in  the  sacking  of  the  Nequasset  and 
Arrowsic  forts,  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  Kennebecs  were 
less  fierce  and  brutal  than  their  fellows;  indeed,  there  is  no  evidence 
that  the  Kennebecs,  like  some  of  their  allies,  ever  tortured  a  white 
captive.  This  omission  of  a  diabolical  superstitious  requirement  is 
traceable  to  the  teaching  of  Father  Druillettes,  and  the  softening  in- 
fluence of  the  missionaries  with  whom  the  tribe  had  contact  by  its 
intercourse  with  Quebec.  Many  of  the  unhappy  captives  who  were 
led  away  from  the  ruins  of  Sagadahoc,  never  returned,  and  their  sad 
fate  can  only  be  conjectured.  But  in  June  of  the  next  year  (1677)  the 
Kennebecs  sent  back  a  company  of  twenty,  as  is  shown  by  a  letter 
from  the  chiefs  "  to  the  governor  of  Boston,"  borne  by  Mrs.  Ham- 
mond, the  widow  of  the  trader.  This  unique  document,  illiterately 
written  by  some  captive  sitting  abjectly  among  the  chiefs  who  dic- 
tated it,  is  a  valuable  souvenir  of  the  comparative  humanity  of  the 
tribe.  The  chiefs  say  they  have  been  careful  of  the  prisoners;  that 
Mrs.  Hammond  and  the  rest  "  will  tell  that  we  have  drove  away  all 
the  Androscoggin  Indians  from  us,  for  they  will  fight  and  we  are  not 
willing  of  their  company.  .  .  We  have  not  done  as  the  Androscog- 
gin Indians  who  killed  all  their  prisoners.  .  .  We  can  fight  as  well 
as  others,  but  we  are  willing  to  live  peaceable;  we  will  not  fight  with- 
out they  [the  settlers]  fight  with  us  first;  .  .  We  are  willing  to  trade 
with  you,  as  we  have  done  for  many  years;  we  pray  you  send  us 
such  things  as  we  name:  powder,  cloth,  tobacco,  liquor,  corn,  bread — 
and  send  the  captives  you  took  at  Pemaquid.  .  .  Squando  is  minded 
to  cheat  you,     .     .     and   make  you  believe  that  it  is  Kennebec  men 


that  have  done  all  this  spoil."  The  names  of  eleven  Indians  are 
appended:  William  WoumWood,  HenNwedloked,  Winakeermit, 
Moxus,  Essomonosko,  Deogenes,  Pebemowoveit,  Tasset,  John,  Shyrot, 
Mr.  Thomas.*  These  are  some  of  the  actors  in  the  Sagadahoc  trage- 
dies, who  were  anxious  to  make  it  appear  that  their  tribe  had  not  for- 
feited all  claim  to  English  reconciliation.  As  a  chief  had  said  at 
Teconnet,  they  loved  "  the  clear  streams  of  friendship  that  meet  and 
unite;"  they  had  tasted  of  war  and  were  now  anxious  for  peace;  early 
in  the  strife  they  had  mostly  withdrawn  into  the  distant  forest,  and 
left  their  allies  to  murder  and  pillage  alone.  They  tardily  and  reluct- 
antly broke  with  the  English,  and  they  were  the  first  to  suggest  a 
return  to  peace. 

A  full  account  of  the  first  Indian  war  in  Maine,  covering  a  period 
of  about  three  years,  belongs  to  the  general  history  of  the  state,  and 
cannot  here  be  given.  It  makes  a  dreadful  chapter  of  surprisals,  mas- 
sacres and  conflagrations,  in  which  nearly  three  hundred  English 
people  were  killed  or  died  in  captivity.  The  region  was  made  deso- 
late. The  losses  and  sufferings  of  the  tribes  can  never  be  told. 
Finally,  after  a  mutual  cessation  of  hostilities  for  a  few  months,  the 
Kennebec  sagamores  gladly  joined  with  those  of  the  Androscoggin, 
Saco  and  Penobscot,  in  meeting  English  commissioners  at  Casco,  to 
make  a  treaty  of  peace  (April  12,  1678).  All  surviving  captives  were 
restored.  It  was  a  day  of  rejoicing.  The  settlements  that  had  been 
destroyed  soon  began  to  revive,  and  returning  prosperity  gradually 
cheered  again  the  coast  of  Maine.  But  the  tribes  were  broken  and 
their  condition  changed.  The  Mohawks  had  long  been  the  scourge  of 
the  Kennebecs  and  other  tribes,  the  English  had  ever  refused  pro- 
tection against  them;  in  the  late  war  they  had  been  employed  to  kill 
and  torture  by  the  side  of  the  English;  they  continued  their  warfare 
in  vagrant  bands  after  the  treaty  of  peace.  The  crippled  tribes  asso- 
ciated these  raids  with  English  perfidy.  The  terror  from  these 
Mohawk  parties  was  finally  allayed  by  the  governor  of  New  York 
(Edmund  Andros)  forbidding  his  friends  and  allies  up  the  Hudson 
from  further  molesting  the  conquered  subjects  of  his  master's  eastern 
dukedom  of  Pemaquid.  A  second  treaty  was  made  at  Portsmouth  in 
1685  (and  signed  on  behalf  of  the  Kennebecs  by  Hopegood),  wherein 
for  the  first  time  the  English  agreed  to  protect  the  tribes  of  Maine  so 
long  as  they  were  peaceable,  from  their  Mohawk  enemies.  Notwith- 
standing all  outward  promises  of  peace,  the  Indians'  nature,  their 
mode  of  life,  and  the  bitter  memories  of  the  past,  made  the  treaties 
little  else  than  temporary  truces.  The  two  races  were  mutually 

*Rev.  H.  O.  Thayer  in  article  on  Hammond's  fort,  quoting  Mass.  Archives, 
Vol.  XXX:  241,  242. 



Indian  Refugees  in  Canada.— New  Mission  established  for  them.— Fathers 
Jacques  and  Vincent  Bigot  on  the  Kennebec  and  Penobscot. — Castine 
inspires  the  Tribes  to  avenge  his  Wrong. — King  William's  War  begtui. — 
French  Intrigue  with  the  Indians. — Father  Rale  sent  to  the  Kennebec. — 
Bomaseen  Imprisoned. — Treaties  of  Ryswick  and  Mare-point. — Third  Indian 
War. — Parley  at  Casco. — Bounties  for  Scalps. — Arruawikwabemt  Slain. — 
Rebekah  Taylor  rescued  by  Bomaseen. — Acadia  ceded  to  England.— Treaties 
of  Utrecht  and  Portsmouth. 

In  a  few  years  following  the  war,  the  Kennebec  refugees,  mixing 
with  the  Canada  Indians,  so  overcrowded  the  Sillery  mission,  that  in 
1685  it  was  removed  to  the  opposite  side  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  a  few 
miles  up  the  Chaudiere.  The  new  village,  composed  mostly  of 
fugitives  from  the  Kennebec,  was  named  the  Mission  of  St.  Francis 
de  Sales,  and  given  to  the  care  of  two  brothers  and  Jesuit  fathers 
named  Jacques  and  Vincent  Bigot.  The  instruction  given  by  Druil- 
lettes  on  the  Kennebec  a  generation  before  had  nearly  if  not  quite 
faded  out,  and  the  new  missionaries,  like  their  predecessor,  had  to 
begin  their  labors  by  teaching  the  mere  rudiments  of  their  faith. 
But  they  found  their  flock  of  five  or  six  hundred  souls  altogether 
attentive  and  docile  to  priestly  influence;  they  endeavored  to  Christ- 
ianize anew  the  whole  tribe;  they  visited  the  head-waters  of  the 
Chaudiere  and  the  Kennebec,  where  many  Kennebecs  and  other  Maine 
Indians  had  permanently  collected  for  fishing  and  hunting,  in  their 
northward  hegira  from  their  English  neighbors.  The  two  Fathers 
extended  at  different  times  their  wandering  labors  down  the  Kennebec 
to  Nanrantsouak  (Indian  Old  Point),  and  even  as  far  as  Pentagoet 
(Castine),  where,  under  the  patronage  of  the  half  Indianized  French- 
man, Castine,  Father  Jacques  laid  the  foundation  of  a  church  in  1687. 
The  two  brothers  toiled  among  the  Maine  Indians  for  more  than 
twenty  years,  principally  in  the  villages  of  the  refugees  on  the  St. 
Lawrence.*  Their  visits  to  the  Kennebec  were  few  and  comparatively 
brief.  It  appears  that  a  chapel  was  built  by  them  at  Old  Point;  they 
revived  the  mission  that  had  been  closed  for  thirty  years,  and  pre- 
pared the  way  for  a  permanent  successor  to  Father  Druillettes,  who 
finally  came  in  the  remarkable  person  of  Father  Sebastian  Rale. 

The  first  war  in  Maine  had  been  wholly  between  the  natives  and 
the;  no  boundary  line  of  Acadia  was  involved.  The  French 
were  inactive  spectators,  harmlessly  sympathizing,  for  national  reasons, 
with  the  Indians.  But  ere  a  decade  had  passed,  events  were  leading 
to  a  war  in  which  all  of  the  natives  of  Maine  were  to  be  the  helpers 
of  France  in  a  national  struggle.     The  first  provocation  for  trouble 

*  Relation  of  Father  Jacques  Bigot. 


was  given  as  usual  by  the  English.  It  was  the  rifling  by  Governor 
Andres  of  the  house  of  Baron  St.  Castine  at  Pentagoet  (in  the  spring 
of  1688),  under  the  pretext  that  the  Penobscot  was  in  the  king's 
province,  and  that  Acadia  did  not  extend  westward  of  the  St.  Croix. 
The  haughty  governor  cared  as  little  for  human  rights  as  his  royal 
master  (James  II),  whom  he  fancied  he  was  pleasing  by  the  outrage. 
The  deed  brought  bitter  retribution.  Castine  was  a  naturalized  tribes- 
man, and  a  personage  of  unsurpassed  eminence  among  the  Penob- 
scots.*  He  easily  aroused  his  followers  to  war,  and  in  a  few  months 
he  led  them  remorselessly  against  the  English  settlements.  But 
Castine's  personal  quarrel  soon  became  lost  in  the  greater  one  between 
his  king  and  William  III  of  England.  James  II  had  been  driven 
from  his  throne  (1688);  fleeing  to  France  in  his  distress  he  received 
the  aid  of  Louis  XIV.  The  war  that  immediately  opened  extended  to 
the  French  and  English  possessions  in  America.  In  Maine  history  it 
has  been  called  King  William's  or  the  second  Indian  war.  It  was  a 
series  of  dreadful  massacres  and  reprisals — largely  predatory  on  the 
part  of  the  Indians,  who  marshalled  by  French  ofScers,  issued  in 
bands  from  Canada  to  rob,  murder  or  capture  the  English.  Every 
settlement  had  to  be  provided  with  a  fortress  or  defensible  place  into 
which  the  inhabitants  could  quickly  gather.  Such  an  one  was  at 
Pemaquid,  garrisoned  by  Captain  Weems  and  fifteen  men;  it  was  sur- 
prised and  captured  in  August,  1689,  and  the  place  made  desolate; 
another  at  Berwick  was  attacked  on  the  28th  of  March  following, 
when  thirty-four  persons  were  slain  and  many  more  than  that  num- 
ber captured;  another  (Fort  Loyal)  was  at  Falmouth  (now  Portland,  on 
the  site  of  the  Grand  Trunk  railroad  station);  the  place  was  attacked 
May  26,  1690,  by  a  force  of  five  hundred  French  and  Indians;  after 
four  days  the  inhabitants  were  forced  to  surrender  only  to  be  toma- 
hawked, and  their  mutilated  bodies  left  unburied  as  prey  for  the  wild 
beasts.  These  are  only  instances  of  the  sufferings  that  were  inflicted 
upon  the  English  during  a  period  of  ten  years.  Warriors  from  all  the 
tribes  participated. 

It  was  the  policy  of  the  French,  when  they  saw  their  ancient  Acadia 
passing  into  the  possession  of  the  English,  to  seek  to  draw  into  Canada 
through  the  missionaries  the  discontented  natives  of  Maine.  The 
Kennebecs  had  been  attracted  to  St.  Francis  de  Sales.  The  Sacos 
emigrated  nearly  en  masse  within  one  or  two  years  after  Philip's  war, 
and  assembled  in  Canada  near  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Francis  river, 
down  which  from  their  deserted  Saco  they  had  reached  the  St.  Law- 
rence. They  were  soon  gathered  into  the  parish  of  St.  Francis.  Their 
warriors,  like  those  of  the  Kennebecs  in  the  Chaudiere  village,  were 
utilized  by  the  French  to  fight  both  the  troublesome  Iroquiois  and  the 

*///j-/(VV  of  Aidi/ia,  by  James  Hannay.  pp.  215-216. 


hated  English.  It.  was  for  this  purpose  rather  than  from  a  sentiment 
of  philanthropy,  that  French  statesmen  and  Canadian  governors  had 
sought  through  the  machinery  of  the  church  to  manipulate  the  tribes 
of  Maine.  But  many  families  still  clung  to  the  Androscoggin  and 
Kennebec.  With  the  design  of  collecting  these  fragments  and  mak- 
ing them  useful  against  the  English,  the  Canadian  rulers  had  encour- 
aged the  sending  of  the  Fathers  Bigot  to  the  Kennebec  to  reconnoiter 
for  a  new  mission. 

Thus  it  was  amid  the  throes  of  war  and  for  reasons  more  political 
than  religious,  that  Father  Rale  was  sent  to  the  Kennebec  to  re- 
occupy  the  old  mission-field  of  Druillettes.  He  came  in  1693,  by  the 
well  traveled  route  that  had  been  followed  by  his  predecessor  in 
1646;  he  lingered  on  the  way  among  the  wigwams  at  Lake  Megantic 
•(from  Namesokantik — place  where  there  are  many  fishes),  and  the 
neighboring  waters;  in  1695  we  find  him  at  Nanrantsouak,  which  he 
■chose  for  the  center  of  his  field  of  labors.  Already  schooled  in  the 
arts  of  savage  living,  he  here  drew  by  the  persuasives  of  a  trained 
and  cultured  enthusiast,  the  remaining  families  of  the  shattered  tribes 
west  of  the  Penobscot.  The  history  of  his  mission  is  the  remaining 
history  of  the  Indians  on  the  Kennebec — who  from  the  location  of  the 
village  which  he  founded,  thenceforward  bore  the  Anglicised  name 
of  Norridgewocks.  The  Kennebec  was  again  a  Canadian  parish,  and 
a  semi-military  outpost  of  New  France.  Of  the  three  or  four  Indian 
routes  of  travel  between  the  St.  Lawrence  and  the  Atlantic  coast,  none 
was  more  direct  or  easy  than  the  one  up  the  Chaudiere  and  down 
the  Kennebec;  the  portage  between  the  waters  of  the  two  rivers  was 
.sometimes  made  from  an  upper  tributary  of  the  Chaudiere  to  one 
•of  the  Penobscot  and  from  thence  to  Moosehead  lake,  but  usually  from 
Lake  Megantic  to  the  nearest  stream  that  runs  into  Dead  river.  It 
was  by  this  thoroughfare  that  the  little  Catholic  village  of  Nanrant- 
souak maintained  its  communication  with  the  diocese  of  Quebec.  In 
war  it  was  often  the  route  of  the  French  captains  with  their  trains  of 
scarcely  more  savage  and  cruel  allies.  Nanrantsouak  was  a  village 
site  of  great  excellence;  the  circling  river,  foam-laden  from  the  wild 
falls  above,  almost  surrounds  it;  it  is  in  the  midst  of  hundreds  of  acres 
-of  mellow  land  suitable  for  corn  raising;  it  was  secluded  from  the 
English,  while  the  Sandy  river  made  it  accessible  from  the  Andros- 

The  tribal  distinctions  of  the  natives  of  Maine  began  to  dis- 
appear during  the  common  cause  against  the  English;  soon  after 
the  coming  of  Father  Rale  the  shreds  of  the  tribes  that  had  lingered 
on  the  Saco  and  Androscoggin,  united  with  the  Kennebecs  as  the 
Wawenocs  had  done  before.  The  Penobscots,  under  the  lead  of  the 
elder  and  younger  Castine,  maintained  themselves  as  a  tribe  and  so 


remain  to  this  day.  We  do  not  know  the  nature  or  extent  of  Father 
Rale's  influence  over  his  people  in  reference  to  the  war  in  which  he 
found  them  involved.  If  he  exerted  any*it  may  have  been  in  the 
direction  of  peace;  for  on  the  11th  of  August,  1693  (the  year  of  his 
earliest  intercourse  with  the  Abenakis),  thirteen  sagamores  appeared 
at  Pemaquid  and  offered  the  submission  of  their  tribes  to  the  English 
government;  among  them  were  Wassabomet,  Ketteramogis,  Wenob- 
son.  and  Bomaseen  from  the  Kennebec.  The  resident  Indians  were 
ready  for  peace,  but  the  French,  on  whom  the  war  pressed  less  sorely, 
were  not;  they  ignored  the  treaty  which  their  allies  had  made;  and  as 
a  part  of  their  endeavor  to  repossess  themiselves  of  Acadia,  which  had 
been  taken  from  them  by  Governor  Phipps  in  1690,  they  sent  a  party 
against  the  New  England  settlements  in  1694;  as  Cotton  Mather  says: 
"  What  was  talked  at  Quebec  in  the  month  of  May,  must  be  done  at 
Oyster  river  [in  New  Hampshire]  in  the  month  of  July."  Several 
dreadful  massacres  were  committed,  and  all  the  settlements  were 
again  filled  with  horror  and  fear. 

That  Bomaseen,  the  Kennebec  chief,  was  an  accomplice  in  those 
deeds  was  never  known;  but  the  public  exasperation  was  so  great,  and 
the  possibility  of  other  butcheries  so  imminent,  that  the  authorities 
felt  justified  in  seizing  and  imprisoning  every  prominent  or  doubtful 
Indian  it  could  lay  hands  upon.  Bomaseen  was  seized  November  19, 
1694,  at  Pemaquid  garrison,  whither  he  had  gone  with  a  flag  of  truce 
in  apparent  confidence  that  his  professions  of  regret  at  the  recent 
tragedies  would  relieve  both  himself  and  tribe  from  blame.  He  pro- 
tested his  innocence,  and  showed  that  he  felt  his  arrest  to  be  an  act 
of  perfidy.  Cotton  Mather  says,  "  he  discovered  a  more  than  ordi- 
nary disturbance  of  mind;  his  passions  foamed  and  boiled  like  the 
very  waters  of  the  fall  of  Niagara."  The  sagamore  was  immediately 
transported  to  Boston  and  there  put  in  prison.  The  injustice  of  his 
treatment — hardly  ever  questioned  by  dispassionate  Englishmen — 
turned  his  followers  back  to  their  French  alliance  and  to  a  renewal  of 
the  war  from  which  the  treaty  at  Pemaquid  a  year  before  had  freed 
them.  The  Norridgewock  warriors  returned  to  the  war  path,  and  two 
years  later  (1696)  helped  the  French  to  overawe  and  capture  even  the 
proud  Fort  William  Henry  of  Pemaquid,  whose  walls  had  been  the 
prison  of  Bomaseen.  The  French  participation  in  the  war  closed 
with  the  treaty  of  Ryswick  in  1697,  but  the  Indians,  cherishing  new 
as  well  as  old  resentments,  remained  in  hostility  two  years  longer. 
The  last  to  desist  from  their  attacks  and  acquiesce  in  a  treaty  with 
the  English,  were  the  Kennebecs,  whose  kidnapped  sagamore  was 
fretting  behind  prison  bars  in  Boston.  But  finally,  on  the  7th  of 
January,  1799,  at  Mare  point  (in  Brunswick)  Moxus  and  his  lieuten- 
ants of  the  Kennebec,  united  with  the  sachems  of  the  other  tribes  in 


humble  submission  to  King-  William  III.  Bomaseen  was  then  and 
there  restored  to  his  people,  and  the  latter  returned  as  many  of  their 
English  captives  as  Avere  able  to  make  the  terrible  journey  in  the  cold 
and  snow  of  winter  from  Nanrantsouak  to  Casco  bay.  Little  had 
been  accomplished  between  France  and  England,  for  Acadia  reverted 
by  treaty  to  the  former,  while  the  Indians  were  left  in  reduced  num- 
bers and  more  forlorn  and  miserable  than  before. 

The  treaty  of  Mare  point  was  a  truce,  that  lasted  only  until  another 
war  broke  out  between  England  and  France.  So  subtle  were  the  re- 
lations of  France  with  its  allies  in  the  new  world  that  a  royal  wish 
expressed  in  the  Tuilleries  could  reach  the  low-browed  savages  at  their 
camp  fires,  and  excite  them  into  the  frenzy  of  the  war  dance.  The 
exiled  James  II  died  September  16,  1701,  leaving  a  son — nicknamed 
the  Pretender — to  be  placed  by  the  power  of  France  if  possible  on  the 
throne.  William  III  died  March  8.  1702;  Anne,  the  Protestant  daugh- 
ter of  James,  was  given  the  English  crown;  she  immediately  declared 
war  against  France,  and  asserted  sovereignty  over  Acadia  to  the  St. 
Croix.  The  inevitable  result  of  another  war  in  America  followed. 
The  Indians  on  the  Kennebec  were  again  the  supple  instruments  of 
France.  Father  Rale  had  lived  in  companionship  with  them  for  ten 
years — ministering  to  their  ailments  of  sickness  and  wounds,  attach- 
ing them  to  his  person  and  faith,  and  trying  ever  to  better  their 
earthly  condition  and  save  their  souls.  His  influence  over  them  was 
great;  he  followed  and  yet  he  led  them — sometimes  yielding  to  their 
inconstant  humors,  yet  always  holding  them  loyal  to  France  and  con- 
formable to  the  wishes  of  the  Canadian  governors. 

The  warlike  premonitions  that  followed  the  crowning  of  Queen 
Anne,  led  the  governor  (Joseph  Dudley)  of  Massachusetts  to  solicit  a 
personal  conference  with  the  Maine  tribes,  to  renew  the  last  treaty 
(of  Mare  point).  The  Indians  responded  with  alacrity,  and  assembled 
in  large  numbers  at  Casco  (now  Portland),  June  20,  1703,  to  meet  the 
governor  and  his  suite.  It  was  agreed  with  great  ceremony  that  peace 
should  continue  (in  the  language  of  Bomaseen)  "  so  long  as  the  sun 
and  moon  shall  endure."  Moxus  and  a  new  chief  named  Captain 
Sam,  with  Bomaseen,  were  of  the  delegation  from  Nanrantsouak. 
Father  Rale  was  present,  but  stayed  in  the  background  until  his 
identity  was  accidentally  discovered  by  the  governor,  who  then  showed 
signs  of  annoyance  that  the  Indians  should  have  in  their  interest  a 
diplomat  as  watchful  and  suspicious  as  himself.  But  the  treaty, 
though  it  was  celebrated  with  more  pomp  than  any  .similar  one  ever 
made  in  Maine,  could  not  long  be  kept.  The  pressure  of  French  poli- 
tics was  too  strong  for  the  morally  weak  Indian  to  resist.  In  less  than 
two  months  after  the  treaty  was  made,  the  dogs  of  war  were  let  loose 
from  Canada,  and  stealing  through  Maine  with  increasing  numbers, 


they  rushed  upon  the  English  settlements  for  booty  and  scalps.  This 
was  the  beginning  of  Queen  Anne's  or  the  third  Indian  war  in  Maine. 
It  was  instigated  m  Canada  and  carried  on  by  the  French  with  such 
aid  as  their  Indian  allies  would  give  them. 

It  was  a  war  of  many  revolting  features.  In  the  winter  of  1705, 
an  English  party  of  270  men  under  Colonel  Hilton  went  on  snow- 
shoes  to  Nanrantsouak,  but  the  village  was  deserted.  The  "  large 
chapel  with  a  vestry  at  the  end  of  it,"  which  Father  Rale  had  built  for 
his  people,  was  set  on  fire  and  destroyed.  At  Casco,  in  January,  1707, 
the  same  officer  with  two  hundred  men,  killed  four  Indians  and  cap- 
tured a  squaw  and  child,  whereupon  the  woman,  to  save  her  own  life, 
conducted  the  party  to  a  camp  of  eighteen  sleeping  Indians,  seventeen 
of  whom  they  killed.  The  savages  themselves  could  not  have  been 
guilty  of  a  more  wanton  stroke  of  butchery.  It  was  a  war  of  exter- 
mination. The  government  offered  a  bounty  for  scalps.  In  1710 
Colonel  Walton  with  170  men,  surprised  a  company  of  Indians  on  the 
clam  beds  at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec;  Arruawikwabemt,  a  Nor- 
ridgewock  sachem,  was  captured;  Penhallow  says  he  was  "  an  active, 
bold  fellow,  and  one  of  unbounded  spirit;  for  when  they  asked  several 
questions  he  made  no  reply,  and  when  they  threatened  him  with 
death,  he  laughed  at  it  with  contempt;  upon  which  they  delivered 
him  up  unto  our  friend  Indians  [Mohawks],  who  soon  became  his 
executioners."*  The  French  are  known  to  have  barbarousl}'  surren- 
dered English  captives  to  a  similar  fate.  But  in  the  dreadful  chapter 
of  this  ten  years'  war,  one  act  of  Indian  compassion  shines  through 
the  smoke  and  gloom  of  ruined  settlements,  and  makes  us  grateful  to 
the  grim  warrior  whose  heart  is  shown  to  have  been  human  and  could 
be  touched  with  pity  for  his  enemy's  suffering  child.  It  was  in  1706 
that  Rebekah  Taylor  was  made  captive  by  a  huge  savage,  who,  while 
making  the  journey  to  Canada  to  sell  her  for  a  French  ransom,  be- 
came enraged  at  her  exhaustion,  and  untying  his  girdle  from  his  body 
wound  it  around  her  neck  and  hung  her  to  a  tree;  the  weight  of  the 
captive  broke  the  cord;  the  fiend  in  his  diabolism  was  again  hoisting 
his  victim  to  the  limb,  when  Bomaseen,  the  sachem  of  the  Kennebecs, 
came  by  chance  upon  the  scene,  and  by  overawing  the  executioner, 
prevented  the  consummation  of  the  tragedy.  Rebekah  was  afterward 
returned  to  her  friends,  and  her  own  lips  related  the  story  of  her 
deliverance,  f 

After  ten  years,  England  and  France  settled  their  dispute  by  the 
treaty  of  Utrecht  (March  30,  1713),  in  which  it  was  agreed  that 
"  Acadia  with  its  ancient  boundaries  .  .  are  resigned  and  made 
over  to  the  crown  of  Great  Britain  forever."     Thus  the  contest  for 

*  History  of  the  Wars  of  New  England.     By  Samuel  Penhallow,  pp.  65-66. 

\  Idem,  p.  47. 


Acadia  that  was  begun  with  bloodshed  at  St.  Sauveur  just  one  hun- 
dred years  before  (1613)  was  ended.  Four  months  after  the  treaty  of 
Utrecht,  the  Indians  of  Maine  sent  their  sachems  to  Portsmouth, 
-where  a  treaty  was  made  with  the  provincial  government  July  13, 
1713;  it  was  signed  in  behalf  of  the  Kennebecs  with  the  respective 
totem  characters  of  Warrakansit,  Bomaseen  and  Wedaranaquin. 
Moxus  was  present,  but  for  some  reason  did  not  place  his  hand  to  the 


Settlements  at  Sagadahoc— Pejepscot  Land  Company.— Conference  at  Aitow- 
sic. — Wiwurna's  Anger.— Fort  Richmond  built.— Father  Rale  with  an  Indian 
Embassy  at  Arrowsic— First  Attempt  to  seize  Father  Rale.— Warriors  make 
Captures  at  Merrymeeting. — Captain  Sam  slain. — Harmon's  Massacre. — War 
declared.— Arrowsic  burned.— Bounty  of  $1,000  for  Father  Rale.— Second 
Attempt  to  Capture  him.— Mohawks  invited.— Skirmish  above  Fort  Rich- 
mond.— Third  Attempt  to  Capture  Father  Rale. 

The  conquest  of  Acadia  and  the  treaty  of  Portsmouth  gave  confi- 
dence to  New  England  that  her  Indian  troubles  were  ended.  As  a 
result  the  abandoned  frontier  settlements  were  revived  and  new  ones 
begun.  Nowhere  were  the  happy  effects  of  peace  manifested  more 
strongly  than  in  Maine,  where  the  suffering  and  desolation  had  been 
the  greatest.  The  lower  Kennebec  (or  Sagadahoc)  was  perhaps  the 
first  devastated  region  that  rang  to  the  cheery  echoes  of  returning 
civilization.  The  heirs  and  assigns  of  early  proprietors  came  to  claim 
their  estates.  John  Watts,  whose  wife  (as  granddaughter  of  Captain 
Lake,  .slain  in  Philip's  war)  inherited  a  good  part  of  the  island  of 
Arrowsic,  came  to  the  Kennebec  in  1714,  and  settled  at  a  place  now 
called  Butler's  cove;  he  built  a  fine  dwelling  and  a  defensible  house 
or  fort,  and  by  the  next  year  had  drawn  hither  fifteen  families.  Soon 
following  the  Watts  enterprise  were  various  others  in  the  same 
region,  and  in  1716,  Georgetown  was  incorporated.  The  heirs  and 
assigns  of  other  land  claimants  through  ancient  Indian  deeds,  organ- 
ized themselves  into  the  Pejepscot  Company,  to  grasp  with  the 
strength  of  a  giant's  hands  their  vague  heritage  on  the  Androscoggin. 
This  territory,  like  that  of  the  lower  Kennebec,  had  suddenly  become 
of  great  prospective  value  by  the  treaties  of  Utrecht  and  Portsmouth. 
It  was,  however,  all-important  to  the  land  company  that  the  Indians 
should  be  kept  peaceable.  To  learn  their  temper  and  test  their 
amiability  the  device  of  a  conference  between  them  and  the  governor 
was  hit  upon. 

The  suggestion  met  with  official  favor,  and  in  the  summer  of  1717, 
■Governor  Shute  attended  by  his  councilors  and  other  important  gen- 


tlemen,  sailed  from  Boston  to  the  Kennebec  in  the  royal  ship  The 
Squirrel.  The  gallant  ship,  with  her  colors  gaily  flying,  arrived  on 
the  morning  of  August  9th  opposite  the  Watts  settlement  and  there 
dropped  anchor.  The  Indians  were  already  at  their  rendezvous  on 
Patteshall's  island.  They  sent  a  message  asking  his  excellency  when 
it  would  be  his  pleasure  for  them  to  attend  him;  he  replied  at  three 
o'clock  that  afternoon,  "  when  he  would  order  the  Union  flag  to  be 
displayed  at  the  tent  erected  near  Mr.  Watts,  his  house,"  and  ordered 
a  British  flag  to  be  delivered  to  the  Indians  "  for  them  to  wear  when 
they  came,  in  token  of  their  subjection  to  his  majesty  King  George  "  I; 
"  at  the  time  appointed,  the  flag  being  set  up,  the  Indians  forthwith 
came  over,  with  the  British  flag  in  their  headmost  canoe."  Eight 
sagamores  filed  up  the  bank  to  the  great  tent  where  the  governor  and 
attendants  had  assembled  to  receive  them.  They  "  made  their  rever- 
ence to  the  governor,  who  was  pleased  to  give  them  his  hand."  John 
Gyles  and  Samuel  Jordan  were  sv/orn  as  interpreters;  the  governor 
addressed  the  interpreters  and  they  repeated  his  remarks  in  the 
Indian  tongue  to  the  sachems.  In  his  opening  speech  the  governor 
said  that  he  was  glad  to  find  so  many  of  them  in  health;  since  the 
good  treaty  of  Portsmouth  King  George  had  happily  ascended  the 
throne  and  by  his  gracious  command  they  were  favored  with  the 
present  interview;  France  was  at  peace  with  him  and  desired  his 
friendship;  the  Indians  were  his  subjects  like  the  English,  and  they 
must  not  hearken  to  any  contrary  insinuation;  they  would  always  find 
themselves  safest  under  the  government  of  Great  Britain;  he  would 
gladly  have  them  of  the  same  religion  as  King  George  and  the  Eng- 
lish, and  therefore  would  immediately  give  them  a  Protestant  mission- 
ary and  in  a  little  while  a  schoolmaster  to  teach  their  children;  he 
naively  remarked  that  the  English  settlements  lately  made  in  the 
eastern  parts  had  been  promoted  partly  for  the  benefit  of  the  Indians, 
and  that  he  had  given  strict  orders  to  the  English  to  be  very  just  and 
kind  to  them;  if  any  wrong  was  done  them  it  should  be  reported  to 
his  officers,  and  he  would  see  that  it  was  redressed;  he  wished  them 
to  look  upon  the  English  government  in  New  England  as  their  great 
and  safe  shelter;  he  took  in  his  hands  two  copies  of  the  holy  Bible, 
one  printed  in  English  and  the  other  in  the  Apostle  Eliot's  transla- 
tion, and  gave  them  to  the  chiefs  for  use  by  their  new  minister,  ]SIr. 
Baxter,  whenever  they  desired  to  be  taught. 

Wiwurna  was  the  Indian  spokesman;  he  arose  from  his  seat  and 
responded  to  the  courtly  governor  in  uncultured  but  appropriate 
phrase.  His  people,  he  said,  "  were  glad  of  the  opportunity  to  wait 
upon  the  governor;  they  ratified  all  previous  treaties;  they  hoped  all 
hard  thoughts  would  be  laid  aside  between  the  English  and  them- 
selves, so  that  amity  might  be  hearty;  but  other  governors  had  told 


them  that  thej'  were  under  no  government  but  their  own;  they  would 
be  obedient  to  King  George  if  they  liked  the  terms  made  to  them — 
if  they  were  not  molested  in  their  lands;  if  any  wrong  happened  to 
them  they  would  not  avenge  themselves,  but  apply  to  the  governor 
for  redress;  this  place  [Arrowsic]  was  formerly  settled  and  was  then 
being  settled  by  their  permission,  but  they  desired  there  be  no  more 
settlements  made;  it  was  said  at  Casco  treaty  [1713]  that  no  more  forts 
should  be  made;  they  would  be  pleased  with  King  George  if  there 
was  never  a  fort  in  the  eastern  parts;  they  were  willing  the  English 
should  possess  all  they  have  occupied  except  forts;  they  did  not  wish 
to  change  their  ministers  or  their  religion;  God  had  already  given 
them  teaching;  they  did  not  understand  how  their  lands  had  been 
purchased — what  had  been  alienated  was  by  gift  only." 

The  governor  thereupon  triumphantly  exhibited  the  so-called  deed 
of  sale  of  lands  on  the  Kennebec  and  Androscoggin  rivers,  made  by 
six  sagamores  July  7,  1684,  on  which  the  Pejepscot  Company  based 
their  claim.  The  Indians  could  have  as  easily  understood  the  docu- 
ment if  it  had  been  written  in  Greek;  it  was,  however,  to  their  appre- 
hension possessed  of  a  mysterious  power  which  they  could  not  ques- 
tion: they  knew  not  how  to  meet  such  a  form  of  argument;  they  were 
dazed  and  dumfounded;  the  plot  to  usurp  their  lands  by  the  use  of 
dingy  papers,  and  fence  them  with  forts  was  revealed.  The  angered 
chiefs  sprang  to  their  feet,  and  without  obeisance  sullenly  withdrew 
from  the  audience  tent,  leaving  in  disdain  their  English  flag  and  the 
inexorable  but  discomfited  governor.  In  a  few  hours  they  returned 
from  their  camp  with  a  letter  to  his  ex-    ^^    /9      .^      m  a/7-^^ 

cellency  from  Father  Rale,  that  quoted    S^e^.  ^^i„.^L_    ^^-f 
the  French  king  as  saying  he  had  not 

given  to  the  English  by  the  cession  of  Acadia  any  of  the  Indians'  land, 
and  that  he  was  ready  to  succor  the  Indians  if  their  lands  were  en- 
croached upon.  It  was  now  the  governor's  turn  to  be  angry,  as  he 
saw  that  the  sachems  had  a  friend  who  was  able  to  cope  with  him  in 
Indian  diplomacy;  he  scornfully  threw'  the  letter  aside  and  made 
preparations  to  depart  for  home. 

The  next  morning  he  had  entered  into  his  ship  and  ordered  the 
sails  to  be  loosed,  when  two  Indians  hastily  came  alongside  in  a  canoe 
and  climbed  on  board;  they  apologized  for  the  unpleasant  behavior 
of  the  sachems,  and  begged  that  the  parley  might  be  reopened.  The 
governor  said  he  would  grant  the  request  if  the  sachems  would  aban- 
don "  their  unreasonable  pretensions  to  the  English  lands,  and  com- 
plied with  what  he  had  said,  but  not  otherwise;"  to  this  condition  the 
messengers  agreed,  and  asked  that  the  deserted  flag  be  given  again 
to  decorate  the  Indian  embassy.  At  six  o'clock  in  the  evening  the 
sachems  and   principal   men   once  more  crossed  the  river  from  their 


island  camp  to  Arrowsic  and  sat  down  in  council.  Querebennit  was 
their  speaker  in  place  of  the  too  spirited  Wiwurna,  who  had  been  dis- 
gracefully left  at  camp,  in  courtesy  to  the  English.  The  Indians'  de- 
sire for  peace  was  overmastering;  it  made  them  capable  of  submitting 
to  any  terms  which  the  English  might  dictate;  they  did  not  again 
venture  to  oppose  the  land  scheme  or  the  forts,  but  yielded  in  their 
hopelessness  to  such  an  agreement  as  the  governor  was  pleased  to 
have  prepared,  when  "  they  all  readily  and  without  any  objection 
consented  to  the  whole."  *  Then  all  the  chief  Indians  shook  hands 
with  the  governor,  who  made  them  presents  of  food  and  ammunition; 
and  the  young  men  came  over  from  the  island  and  danced  before  the 
assembly  in  honor  of  the  occasion. 

This  so-called  treaty  of  Arrowsic  exacted  the  acknowledgment  that 
the  English  might  enjoy  both  the  lands  which  they  formerly  pos- 
sessed, "  and  all  others  which  they  had  obtained  a  right  unto  " — leav- 
ing the  English  to  decide  that  they  were  entitled  to  all  territory  that 
was  ever  included  in  pretended  sales  by  debauched  and  tribeless  saga- 
mores. The  Pejepscot  people  went  resolutely  forward  to  develop 
their  property;  timber  cutters,  mill  builders  and  settlers  flocked 
rapidly  to  Georgetown  and  the  Androscoggin:  Robert  Temple  brought 
five  ship-loads  of  people  from  the  north  of  Ireland  to  the  Kennebec; 
settlements  multiplied,  and  each  one  in  fear  of  the  Indians  had  its 
fort  or  place  of  possible  refuge.  In  the  guise  of  a  trading  house  for 
the  accommodation  of  the  Indians,  the  government  built  Fort  Rich- 
mond in  1718-19  (opposite  the  head  of  Swan  island — the  present  town 
of  Perkins);  it  was  really  built  for  the  protection  of  the  Pejepscot 
frontier.  Fort  George  was  built  about  the  same  time  at  Brunswick, 
for  the  same  purpose.  Before  1720  fifteen  public  forts  and  many  more 
private  ones  had  risen  between  Kittery  and  Pemaquid.  The  Indians 
could  see  in  the  enterprise  of  the  white  men  only  trouble  and  distress 
for  themselves;  their  game  was  stampeded,  their  fishing  places 
usurped,  and  their  camping  grounds  plowed  over.  But  the  forts  were 
peculiarly  hateful  to  them;  the  frowning  walls  were  proof  against 
their  tiny  artillery,  and  the  tactics  of  stealth  and  ambuscade  that  ex- 
celled in  forest  warfare,  failed  utterly  before  fortifications.  Every 
new  fort,  therefore,  was  to  them  another  menace  and  exasperation;  it 
meant  additional  conquest  of  their  territory. 

The  treaty  of  Arrowsic  had  not  been  the  cordial  act  of  the  Indians: 
*  This  submission  was  signed  (August  13)  by  the  following  named  Kennebec 
Indians:  Moxus,  Bomaseen,  Captain  Sam,  Nagucawen,  Summehawis,  Wegwaru- 
menet,  Terramuggus,  Nudggumboit,  Abissanehraw,  Umguinnawas,  Awohaway, 
Paquaharet  and  Csesar.  It  was  also  signed  by  Sabatus  and  Sam  Humphries  of 
the  Androscoggins;  Lerebenuit,  Ohanumbames  and  Segunki  of  the  Penobscots; 
and  Adewando  and  Scawesco  of  the  Peqwakets.  Wiwurna's  name  does  not  ap- 
pear.    For  treaty  entire,  see  Article  XII,  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  pp.  361-37.5. 


the  land  company  through  the  governor  had  overawed  the  sachems 
and  extorted  assent  to  conditions  whicli  they  abhorred.  The  unhesi- 
tating appropriation  of  the  disputed  lands,  and  the  blockading  of  the 
rivers  above  them  with  forts,  were  proceedings  which  the  weaker  side 
could  not  endure  with  composttre.  There  soon  began  to  be  signs  of 
irritation.  The  government,  while  claiming  the  Indians  to  be  .sub- 
jects of  the  king  equally  with  the  English,  felt  called  to  favor  and 
protect  only  the  latter;  and  in  1720  it  sent  two  hundred  .soldiers  to 
guard  the  frontier  of  Maine.  In  May,  1721,  as  reparation  for  cattle 
killing  and  other  misdeeds  by  some  vagabond  Indians,  the  Kennebecs 
promised  the  English  two  hundred  beaver  skins,  and  gave  in  hand 
four  comrades  as  hostages;  the  hostages  were  sent  to  Boston  and  kept 
as  prisoners.  It  is  apparent  that  Father  Rale  labored  indefatigably 
to  save  to  his  people  the  lands  which  in  his  view  the  English  had  un- 
justly seized.  One  result  of  his  efforts  was  the  awakening  in  Canada 
of  a  lively  interest  in  his  cause.  In  the  summer  of  1721,  with  a  Cana- 
dian official  named  Crozen  and  Father  de  la  Chasse  of  the  Penobscot 
mission,  he  organized  a  grand  embassy- composed  of  delegations  from 
the  villages  of  St.  Francis,  Becancourt,  Penobscot  and  Norridgewock, 
to  remonstrate  with  the  English,  and  as  Governor  Vaudreuil  of 
Canada  said,  "  dare  let  them  know  that  they  will  have  to  deal  with 
other  tribes  than  the  one  at  Norridgewock  if  they  continue  their  en- 

On  the  first  day  of  August,  the  startled  inhabitants  of  Arrowsic 
and  vicinity  beheld  approaching  with  the  tide  a  fleet  of  ninety  canoes 
filled  with  stalwart  Indians  and  two  or  three  pale  faces;  two  of  the 
latter  wore  the  conspicuous  habit  of  the  Jesuits.  The  French  flag 
was  flying  in  the  foremost  canoe.  The  mysterious  flotilla  landed  on 
Patteshall's  island,  and  soon  sent  a  message  to  the  captain  of  the 
Watts  garri.son,  inviting  him  to  an  interview;  that  officer,  through 
fear,  refused  to  the  river,  whereupon  the  Indians  launched  their 
canoes  and  paddled  to  Arrowsic,  led  by  Fathers  Rale  and  de  la  Chasse 
and  Monsieur  Crozen.  They  respectfully  sought  the  English  repre- 
sentative, who,  with  trepidation,  came  forth  from  the  fort  to  receive 
them.  The  details  of  this  conference  were  not  preserved.  It  was  an 
occasion  of  great  moment,  and  had  been  planned  with  infinite  labor 
as  a  last  appeal  before  a  resort  to  arms,  yet  only  a  passing  record  was 
made  of  it.  The  Indians  presented  in  the  names  of  all  the  tribes  a 
manifesto  addres.sed  to  Governor  Shute,  warning  the  settlers  to  re- 
move in  three  weeks,  else  the  warriors  would  come  and  kill  them, 
burn  their  houses  and  eat  their  cattle,  adding — "  Englishmen  have 
taken  away  the  lands  which  the  great  God  gave  to  our  fathers  and  to 
us."  The  deputation,  having  thus  given  according  to  ancient  Indian 
custom  due  notice  of  war,  retired  peacefully. 


The  writing  to  the  governor,  with  an  account  of  its  delivery  at 
Georgetown,  was  immediately  forwarded  to  Boston,  where  it  excited 
great  alarm.  The  response  was  prompt  and  vigorous.  The  general 
court  on  August  23d  ordered  the  equipment  of  three  hundred  men  to 
prosecute  the  eastern  Indians  for  the  crime  of  rebellion;  it  demanded 
that  they  forthwith  deliver  to  the  English  Father  Rale  and  any  other 
Jesuit  who  might  be  among  them;  if  the  tribes  neglected  to  so  purge 
themselves,  Indians  were  to  be  seized  indiscriminately  and  imprisoned 
at  Boston.  Under  this  order,  Castine,  the  unresisting  chief  of  the 
Penobscots,  was  taken  captive  soon  after  his  visit  to  Arrowsic  with  the 
great  embassy.  It  was  a  time  of  great  public  unrest,  and  many  cruel 
imprudencies  were  committed.  In  November  (1721)  the  general 
court  resolved  upon  the  removal  of  Father  Rale,  who  it  assumed  was 
the  mainspring  of  all  the  portending  trouble.  In  December,  after  the 
streams  had  frozen  over.  Colonel  Westbrook  led  a  battalion  of  230  men 
on  snow-shoes  up  the  Kennebec  to  Nanrantsouak,  with  orders  to  make 
the  priest  a  prisoner.  When  the  party  after  a  laborious  journey  had 
reached  the  village,  the  leader  was  chagrined  to  find  the  missionary's 
dwelling  deserted  and  the  intended  captive  hiding  in  the  mazes  of  the 
forest.  In  his  hasty  flight  Father  Rale  had  left  his  books  and  papers 
and  humble  treasures  unconcealed.  These  were  all  summarily  seized 
and  carried  away  as  booty.  Among  them  was  the  Abenakis  diction- 
ary in  manuscript,  which  had  been  compiled  with  great  care  and  labor 
by  the  industrious  Father  as  an  aid  in  his  pastoral  work;  also  the 
curious  "  strong  box,"  divided  and  subdivided  into  compartments,  in 
which  the  owner  kept  the  sacred  emblems  of  the  church  while  roving 
with  his  people;  a  letter  in  French  from  the  Canadian  governor,  en- 
couraging the  Norridgewocks  in  their  contest  with  "  those  who  would 
drive  them  from  their  native  country,"  was  found,  and  interpreted  as 
rank  treason  in  him  who  received  it. 

This  attempt  to  kidnap  Father  Rale  with  the  accompanying  rob- 
bery, was  felt  by  the  Indians  as  a  blow  on  themselves,  and  a  cause  for 
war.  Up  to  that  hour  they  had  committed  no  like  act  against  the 
English.  The  mischiefs  by  hungry  poachers  had  been  compounded 
with  beaver  skins  and  hostages  still  languishing  in  prison.  The  tribe 
was  now  bitterly  incensed.  The  government  itself,  fearing  that  it 
had  been  hasty,  suddenly  softened,  and  tried  the  policy  of  pacification. 
Luckily  no  blood  had  been  shed  to  make  such  a  plan  seem  hopeless. 
So  a  few  weeks  after  the  rifling  of  Rale's  hut,  the  governor  sent  a 
present  to  Bomaseen  and  a  proposal  to  the  tribe  for  a  conference;  both 
were  rejected  with  derision.  On  the  13lh  of  June  following,  sixty 
warriors  in  twenty  canoes,  descended  to  Merrymeeting  bay,  and  rang- 
ing the  northern  shore  took  captive  nine  English  families;  after 
selecting  five  of  the  principal  men  as  indemnities  for  the  four  Indians 


held  as  hostages  in  Boston,  they  released  the  others  uninjured.  A  few 
days  later,  the  Norridgewock  chief,  Captain  Sam,  with  five  followers, 
boarded  a  fishing  smack  off  Damariscove,  and  in  revenge  for  some 
English  act,  lashed  the  captain  and  crew  to  the  rigging,  and  proceeded 
to  flog  them;  breaking  from  their  bonds,  the  fishermen  turned  furiously 
on  their  tormentors,  killing  two  and  pitching  one  overboard.  We 
hear  no  more  of  Captain  Sam's  exploits,  and  he  was  probably  one  of 
the  slain. 

Fort  St.  George  (Thomaston)  was  the  next  place  of  hostile  demon- 
stration. About  the  first  of  July  Fort  George  (Brunswick)  was  at- 
tacked, and  the  village  that  had  risen  from  the  conflict  of  the  Pejep- 
scot  company,  was  burned  to  ashes.  Thereupon  the  elated  enemy 
went  down  to  Merrymeeting,  to  enjoy  their  plunder  and  celebrate 
their  success  with  demoniacal  orgies.  An  English  captive — Moses 
Eaton  of  Salisbury — appears  to  have  been  on  this  occasion  the 
wretched  victim  of  death  torture.  The  raid  on  Brunswick  aroused 
the  people  on  the  neighboring  Kennebec;  Captain  John  Harmon  and 
thirty-four  other  soldiers  hastily  started  in  boats  from  one  of  the  gar- 
risons to  patrol  the  waters  of  the  Kennebec.  While  scouting  in  the 
night  they  saw  the  gleam  of  a  waning  fire  near  the  shore  of  Merry- 
meeting  bay;  while  landing  in  the  darkness  to  learn  its  origin  they 
discovered  eleven  canoes;  then  they  stumbled  upon  the  recumbent 
bodies  of  about  a  score  of  savages  who,  in  their  exhaustion  from  their 
revelry,  were  dead  in  sleep.  "••■  It  was  easy  to  slay  them  all  in  their 
helplessness,  and  the  deed  was  quickly  done.  Harmon  and  his  men 
carried  away  the  guns  of  fifteen  warriors  as  trophies  of  their  ten  min- 
utes' work.  They  found  the  mutilated  body  of  Moses  Eaton,  and  gave 
it  respectful  burial.  The  operations  of  the  Pejepscot  proprietors  had 
incited  a  similar  land  on  the  ancient  Muscongus  patent, 
eastward,  and  in  1719-20,  a  fort  was  built  by  the  Twenty  Associates 
at  Thomaston  on  the  St.  George  river.  The  Penobscots  looked  upon 
St.  George  fort  with  the  same  feeling  of  indignation  that  the  Kenne- 
becs  did  the  forts  on  their  own  lands.  Two  or  three  days  after  the 
burning  of  Brunswick,  a  party  of  two  hundred  Indians  surrounded 
Fort  St.  George;  they  burned  a  sloop,  killed  one  man  and  took  six 

The  conciliatory  policy— adopted  too  late— could  not  undo  the 
lamentable  effects  of  earlier  intolerance  and  the  attempted  capture  of 
Father  Rale.  After  releasing  the  four  hostages  and  sending  them  to 
their  tribe  as  possible  emissaries  of  peace,  the  truth  began  to  dawn 
upon  the  authorities  that  they  had  indeed,  as  prophesied  by  Vaudreuil 
in  his  letter  to  Rale,  "other  tribes  than  the  Norridgewocks  to  deal 

*  Tradition  says  this  traged)^  was  at  Somerset  point  on  Merrymeeting  bay, 
and  the  late  Mr.  John  McKeen  so  locates.  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  Ill,  pp. 


with."  All  the  tribes  eastward  of  the  Merrimac  had  listened  to  the 
story  of  the  Norridgewocks  and  were  developing  warriors  for  their 
cause.  Many  in  the  St.  Francis  and  Becancourt  villages  were  of  the 
same  blood  and  naturally  looked  upon  the  grievances  of  the  Kenne- 
becs  as  their  own.  There  were  many  reflective  people  who  believed 
that  the  Indians — especially  the  Kennebecs — had  been  maltreated, 
and  that  the  prevailing  troubles  were  only  the  fruitage  of  injustice 
and  broken  promises.  This  sentiment  had  influenced  the  government 
in  its  later  policy,  but  after  the  destruction  of  Pejepscot  (Brunswick) 
and  the  outrages  at  St.  George,  there  seemed  to  be  no  reason  to  hope 
longer  for  reconciliation. 

On  the  26th  of  July,  1722,  Governor  Shute  made  proclamation, 
declaring  the  eastern  Indians  (those  of  Maine,  New  Brunswick  and 
Nova  Scotia),  "  with  their  confederates  to  be  robbers,  traitors  and 
enemies  to  the  King;"  the  legislature  promptly  provided  money  to 
pay  an  army  of  a  thousand  men,  and  elaborated  a  scale  of  bounties 
for  Indian  scalps,  with  a  view  to  equity  whether  torn  off  by  a  duly 
enlisted  and  paid  soldier,  or  by  a  volunteer  civilian.  The  theater  of 
war  extended  from  New  Hampshire  to  Nova  Scotia;  in  distributing 
its  forces  the  government  stationed  25  men  at  Arrowsic,  and  25  at 
Richmond  fort;  400  were  appointed  to  range  by  land  or  water  between 
the  Kennebec  and  Penobscot;  10  were  placed  at  Maquoit,  20  at  North 
Yarmouth,  30  at  Falmouth  (Portland),  and  100  at  York. 

On  the  morning  of  the  10th  of  September,  thirteen  months  after 
the  great  deputation  had  delivered  its  message  at  the  Arrowsic  garri- 
son, a  swarm  of  stranger  Indians,  estimated  to  number  between  four 
and  five  hundred,  poured  from  the  eastward  upon  the  shores  of  George- 
town, in  hostile  array.  Fortunately  the  inhabitants  got  timely  warn- 
ing and  all  safely  reached  the  shelter  of  the  fort;  but  presently  thirty- 
seven  of  their  dwellings  were  in  flames,  and  most  of  their  cattle 
slaughtered  for  food.  The  accounts  say  that  one  Englishman — Samuel 
Brookings — was  killed  in  the  fort  by  a  bullet  shot  by  an  Indian 
marksman  through  a  port-hole.  A  similar  body  of  Indians — and 
probably  the  same  one — had  appeared  before  St.  George  fort  August 
29th,  and  beseiged  it  without  success  for  twelve  days.  In  their  dread 
of  fortifications,  they  did  not  assail  Arrowsic  garrison,  but  after  feast- 
ing sufficiently  on  their  plunder,  suddenly  disappeared  in  the  night; 
some  paddled  up  the  Kennebec;  where,  after  mortally  wounding  Cap- 
tain Stratton  of  the  province  sloop,  they  menaced  Fort  Richmond  as 
they  scowlingly  passed  by  it  on  their  way  to  Norridgewock  and  Canada. 

The  settling  of  the  Pejepscot  lands  was  fatally  checked  by  these 
Indian  forays.  The  Scotch-Irish  immigrants,  brought  by  hundreds  in 
the  ships  of  Robert  Temple,  and  located  on  the  shores  of  Merrymeet- 
ing  bay,  took   flight  to  New  Hampshire  and  Pennsylvania,  and  save 


the  forts  at  Richmond  and  Brunswick,  the  region  was  again  a  soli- 
tude. Father  Rale  was  conceived  by  the  English  to  be  the  powerful 
genius  whose  malign  influence  had  brought  all  the  disaster  and  rum. 
The  government  finally  announced  a  special  reward  of  two  hundred 
pounds  ($1,000)  for  his  body  dead  or  alive.  Permission  had  been  given 
by  the  legislature  for  such  an  expenditure  of  money  two  years  before. 
The  act  was  in  harmony  with  the  stern  policy  shown  in  extravagant 
rewards  for  Indian  scalps.  With  the  allurements  before  them  of 
money  and  glory,  120  men,  led  by  Captain  Harmon,  undertook  the 
enterprise  of  removing  Father  Rale  in  the  winter  of  1723.  The  party 
started  from  Fort  George  (Brunswick)  for  Nanrantsouak,  on  the  6th 
of  February,  equipped  with  arms,  rations  and  snow-shoes — taking  as 
a  measure  of  secrecy  the  unfrequented  route  via  the  Androscoggin 
and  Sandy  rivers.  After  accomplishing  about  half  of  the  journey,  the 
party  was  stopped  by  a  thaw  that  softened  the  snow  and  flushed  the 
rivers,  and  made  further  advance  impos.sible.  The  expedition  was  a 
complete  failure.  The  following  summer  the  authorities  invited  a 
delegation  of  Mohawks  to  Boston,  and  tempted  them  with  bribes  ($500 
a  scalp)  to  fall  upon  the  Indians  of  Maine,  and  hunt  them  down  as  in 
former  times;  but  now  the  Iroquiois  were  at  peace  with  their  old  ene- 
mies and  concluded  as  a  tribe  not  to  take  up  the  white  man's  quarrel, 
but  allowed  their  young  men  to  sell  their  services  if  they  so  wished. 
Only  a  few  entered  into  public  service.  Two  were  assigned  to  Fort 
Richmond,  and  soon  after  arriving  there  were  sent  by  Captain  Heath 
on  a  scout  with  three  soldiers  under  an  ensign  named  Colby.  The 
party  had  gone  less  than  a  league,  when  the  Mohawks  said  they 
smelt  fire,  and  refused  to  expose  themselves  further  unless  reinforced; 
a  messenger  was  hastily  sent  back  to  the  fort,  who  returned  with  thir- 
teen men;  the  whole  party  presently  meeting  thirty  Indians  killed 
two  and  drove  the  others  to  their  canoes  in  so  much  haste  that  they 
left  their  packs;  Colby  was  slain  and  two  of  his  men  wounded.  "•■■  This 
skirmish  must  have  occurred  in  the  vicinity  of  the  place  that  is  now 
South  Gardiner.  The  two  Mohawks  were  by  their  first  experience 
sickened  of  war,  and  returned  ingloriously  to  Boston. 

The  government,  worried  by  the  distresses  of  the  people,  used 
every  expedient  to  annihilate  the  stealthy  and  capricious  enemy.  A 
month's  seige  of  Fort  St.  George  (on  St.  George's  river),  begun  Decem- 
ber 5,  1723,  provoked  the  authorities  to  make  another  attempt  to  take 
Father  Rale.  Accordingly  a  special  party  was  equipped  to  march  to 
Nanrantsouak;  it  was  led  by  Captain  Moulton,  in  mid-winter,  on  snow- 
shoes,  up  the  Kennebec.  On  reaching  the  village  the  soldiers  found 
the  huts  empty  and  the  snow  untracked.  The  missionary,  aware  that 
a  price  had  been  offered  from  the  public  treasury  for  his  head,  had 

*W\\\\ams,o-a's  History  of  Afaine,  Vol.  II,  p.  133. 


gone  with  his  people  for  the  winter  to  a  safer  place.  His  hut  was 
again  ransacked  for  trophies,  which  consisted  of  a  few  books  and 
papers  and  another  letter  from  the  Canadian  governor,  exhorting  him 
"  to  push  on  the  Indians  with  all  zeal  against  the  English."  No  in- 
jury was  done  to  the  chapel  or  dwellings,  in  the  hope  that  the  for- 
bearance might  be  imitated  by  the  owners  when  making  similar  in- 


Indian  Assassinations. — Massacre  on  the  St.  George. — Fourth  Expedition  to 
Nanrantsouak. — Bomaseen  and  Family  surprised. — Daughter  and  Father 
killed. — The  Indian  Village  surprised.— Massacre  of  the  Inhabitants.— Father 
Rale  killed  at  the  Mission-cross. — His  Burial. — Monument  over  his  Grave. — 
Dispersion  of  his  Flock  to  Canada.— Treaty  of  Falmouth.— Father  DeSirenne 
at  Nanrantsouak.— The  French  Monarch's  Gift.— Final  Extinguishment  of 
the  Mission. 

In  the  spring  of  1724  the  Indians  resumed  their  warfare  with 
increased  virulence.  On  the  17th  of  April  they  shot  William  Mitchell 
at  Scarboro',  and  led  his  two  boys  captives  to  Nanrantsouak;  John 
Felt,  William  Wormwell  and  Ebenezer  Lewis  were  killed  while  at 
work  in  a  saw  mill  on  the  Kennebec.  On  the  24th  of  April  Captain 
Josiah  Winslow  and  seventeen  men  fell  into  an  Indian  ambush  on  St. 
George  river,  a  few  miles  below  their  fort,  and  all  except  four  were 
killed.  Captain  Winslow's  death  was  lamented  throughout  New  Eng- 
land. He  was  a  great-grandson  of  Edward  Winslow,  who  came  in 
the  Mayfloivcr,  and  the  great-grandnephew  of  John  Winslow,  whom  the 
patient  reader  of  these  pages  has  seen  as  the  friend  of  Father  Druillettes 
at  the  Cushnoc  trading  house;  his  distinguished  lineage,  character  and 
acquirements  gave  great  prominence  to  the  tragedy  in  which  he 
bravely  perished.  This  massacre  was  the  burning  memory  that 
nerved  the  hearts  and  steeled  the  sensibilities  of  men  for  the  aveng- 
ing blow  that  was  soon  to  follow,  and  which  the  savages  themselves 
could  not  have  given  with  less  mercy. 

Three  expeditions  had  been  sent  forth  expressly  to  capture  or 
slay  Father  Rale.  The  errand  was  still  unperformed;  it  had  always 
been  attempted  in  the  winter,  when  the  snow  might  show  the  tracks 
of  lurking  enemies,  and  the  leafless  forest  could  less  securely  hide  the 
dreaded  ambuscade.  It  was  determined  to  make  a  fourth  attempt  in 
the  summer  time,  and  brave  all  increased  perils.  Thirty  persons  had 
been  killed  or  captured  in  Maine  since  early  spring;  the  exigency  was 
great  and  popular  vengeance  could  be  appeased  only  by  the  blood  of 
Father  Rale.  Ca,ptain  Moulton,  who  had  once  been  to  Nanrantsouak 
and  knew  its  topography,  was  selected   to  go  again;  his  associate  was 


Captain  Harmon,  whom  we  saw  one  night  at  Somerset  point,  and  later 
on  a  futile  march  up  the  Androscoggin;  there  were  two  other  captains 
— Bourne  and  Beane — and  a  total  force  of  208  men.  Two  or  three 
decorated  Mohawks  were  welcomed  by  the  company  with  their  free- 
lances. Appropriately  enough.  Fort  Richmond,  in  whose  erection 
Father  Rale  had  presaged  the  doom  of  his  flock,  was  the  rendezvous 
of  the  companies  on  their  way  to  the  fated  village.  The  troops  em- 
barked at  the  fort  landing  in  seventeen  whaleboats,  on  the  19th  of 
August,  and  pulled  lu.stily  for  Teconnet,  36  miles,  where  they  arrived 
the  next  day;  there  the  boats  were  tethered  and  forty  men  detailed 
to  guard  them  and  the  surplus  stores. 

On  the  21st,  the  main  force  in  light  marching  order,  struck  into 
the  forest  by  the  Indian  trail  for  Nanrantsouak,  twenty  miles  distant. 
Before  night  the  advance  surprised  a  solitary  family  of  three  persons, 
living  in  fancied  security  near  the  site  of  the  present  village  of  South 
Norridgewock.  There  was  a  crash  of  musketry  in  the  thicket  and  an 
Indian  maiden  fell  writhing  in  death  agonies  on  the  reddened  moss. 
The  frantic  mother  fell  an  easy  captive  by  the  side  of  her  dying  child. 
The  father,  lithe  and  fleet-footed,  started  to  carry  warning  to  the  dis- 
tant village;  the  soldiers  pursued  him  desperately,  for  the  success  of 
the  expedition  now  depended  on  his  fall.  He  finally  rushed  into  the 
river  at  a  fording  place  to  cross  to  the  other  side,  a  league  below  Nan- 
rantsouak; he  had  reached  an  island-l^dge  in  the  channel,  when  in 
the  twilight  the  keen-eyed  marksmen  on  the  shore  behind  him  riddled 
his  panting  body  through  and  through  with  bullets.*  So  died  Boma- 
seen,  the  noted  chief,  while  trying  to  escape  to  his  village  with  the 
tidings  that  would  have  saved  it.  By  fate  he  was  a  savage,  unblessed 
with  the  endowments  which  his  Maker  gives  so  freely  to  men  of 
another  race,  but  he  bravely  yielded  his  humble  life  for  his  lowly  sub- 
jects in  their  defense  of  ancestral  soil — a  cause  which  enlightened 
Christendom  always  applauds  among  its  own  people.  The  place  where 
he  was  killed  now  bears  the  name  of  Bomaseen  rips.  The  widowed 
squaw,  terrorized  by  her  captors,  told  them  of  the  condition  of  Nan- 
rantsouak, and  of  a  route  by  which  the  village  could  be  reached  with 
the  utmost  secrecy. 

So  little  was  recorded  that  related  to  the  details  of  this  expedition, 
that  it  is  not  known  to  a  certainty  where  the  soldiers  crossed  the  river, 
or  from   what  direction  they  approached   the  village.     It  is  passing 

*Such  was  the  manner  of  Bomaseen's  death  according  to  local  tradition. 
There  does  not  seem  to  be  any  other  authority  worth  following-.  Penhallow,  in 
his  history  of  the  Indian  wars,  makes  a  geographical  jumble;  he  says  nonsensi- 
cally that  afteV  the  troops  "  landed  at  Ticonic  they  met  with  Bomaseen  at  Bruns- 
wick, whom  they  shot  in  the  river,"  p.  102.  That  author  was  living  at  the  time 
and  could  easily  have  been  more  accurate  in  his  statement  of  fact  in  spite  of  his 
CDnventional  animosity. 


Strange  that  no  personal  diary  or  adequate  narrative  of  a  participant 
was  ever  given  to  the  world.  The  accounts  which  we  have  are  slight 
and  vague  and  even  contradictory  in  some  particulars.  It  is  probable 
the  troops  forded  the  river  in  the  shallow  water  at  the  place  where  the 
chief  was  shot;  then  leaving  the  intervale  and  moving  stealthily  west- 
ward on  the  high  land,  a  mile  or  two  from  the  river,  they  reached  a 
spot  a  little  after  noon  on  the  22d  where  they  could  overlook  the  vil- 
lage of  huts  that  curved  like  a  crescent,  conforming  to  the  bending 
river,  on  the  plain  below.  The  forces  were  then  prepared  for  action. 
Captain  Harmon  led  off  a  company  in  the  direction  of  an  imaginary 
camp,  whose  smoke  it  was  fancied  could  be  seen  rising  in  the  hazy 
distance.  Captain  Moulton  moved  his  force  of  one  hundred  men 
directly  toward  the  village;  when  near  it  he  stationed  two  detach- 
ments in  ambush  and  pushed  forward  another  as  a  storming  party. 
As  the  latter  issued  from  the  thickets  on  the  double-quick  into  the  vil- 
lage clearing,  they  saw  their  first  Indian,  who,  raising  the  death  yell, 
sprang  for  his  weapons. 

The  village,  thus  startled  from  its  sluggish  siesta  of  a  summer 
day,  was  at  once  in  a  state  of  panic;  the  people  rushed  out  of  their 
huts  in  terror  and  dismay;  the  warriors  seized  their  guns  and  fired 
them  wildly.  The  soldiers  advanced  in  determined  ranks,  and  when 
close  upon  the  bark-walled  wigwams  and  distracted  people  poured 
into  them  volley  after  volley  indiscriminately.  The  helpless  survivors 
scattered  for  the  shelter  of  the  woods,  and  in  their  flight  encountered 
the  murderous  ambuscades  that  had  been  placed  to  anticipate  them. 
At  the  first  onset.  Father  Rale,  aroused  by  the  rumult,  ran  forth  from 
his  dwelling  to  the  place  of  the  village  cross,  perhaps  in  the  hope  that 
his  efforts  might  tend  to  allay  the  conflict  or  mitigate  its  cruelties.  A 
few  terror  stricken  followers  had  gathered  about  him,  as  if  to  shield 
and  to  be  miraculously  shielded  by  his  beloved  person,  when  the 
soldiers,  catching  sight  of  his  priestly  dress,  and  recognizing  him  as 
the  person  on  whom  the  hate  of  all  New  England  was  concentrated, 
raised  a  hue  and  cry  for  his  destruction;  and  selecting  his  breast  as  a 
target,  sent  forth  a  shower  of  bullets  that  laid  him  lifeless  by  the  mis- 
sion cross  which  his  own  hands  had  raised.*     Seven  of  his  neophytes 

*  There  is  another  version  of  the  story  of  the  kilHng  of  Father  Rale.  It  is  to 
the  effect  that  a  son-in-law  of  Captain  Harmon,  named  Richard  Jacques,  discov- 
ered the  missionary  firing  from  a  wigwam  on  the  soldiers,  whereupon  he  broke 
down  the  door  and  shot  him  dead.  If  this  be  true  we  must  conclude  that  the 
Father  was  not  very  efficient  with  a  musket,  for  we  are  not  told  that  any  soldier 
was  seriously  disabled;  and  we  must  also  conclude  that  his  mutilated  body  was 
considerately  dragged  out  of  doors  to  save  cremation  when  the  village  was 
burned.  The  truth  of  the  wigwam  story  was  denied  at  the  time.  Charlevoix, 
History  of  New  France,  pp.  130,122;  Williamson's  History  of  Maine,  pp.  129-132; 
Life  of  Sebastian  Rale,  by  Convers  Francis,  D.D.,  pp.  311-322  (in  Sparks'  Ameri- 
can Biography,  Vol.  VII).    As  to  the  scalping  of  the  body,  see  FenAallow's  Indian 


fell  beside  him;  all  the  others  fled  from  the  village  and  the  slaughter- 
tempest  was  over.  Thirty  Indian  men,  women  and  children  lay  dead, 
and  half  as  many  more  were  hobbling  into  the  thickets  with  wounds. 
Not  an  Englishman  had  been  hurt;  one  of  the  Mohawks  was  killed, 
but  it  may  be  an  open  question  whether  his  dusky  hue  did  not  make 
him  the  accidental  victim  of  some  excited  soldier. 

The  purpose  of  the  expedition  had  been  accomplished;  it  only  re- 
mained for  the  victors  to  enjoy  their  triumph  and  prepare  to  return 
home.  Captain  Harmon  and  his  men  returned  before  evening  from 
their  barren  reconnoissance,  and  the  reassembled  companies  passed 
the  night  in  the  village.  The  next  morning,  loading  themselves  with 
all  the  articles  of  worth  (including  Father  Rale's  gray  and  blood- 
stained scalp,  which  had  a  high  commercial  value  in  Boston,  and  the 
scalps  of  the  other  dead),  the  soldiers  started  on  their  return  to  Fort 
Richmond,  leaving  devastated  Nanrantsouak  rising  in  smoke  and 
crackling  flames  behind  them.  They  took  with  them  the  two  Mitchell 
boys,  who  had  been  captured  at  Scarboro',  and  one  other  rescued  pris- 
oner. The  retirement  of  the  soldiers  was  noted  by  the  fugitives  hid- 
ing in  the  surrounding  forest,  who  soon  returned  to  the  ruins  to  look 
for  their  massacred  friends.  We  are  told  by  Charlevoix  that  they  first 
sought  the  body  of  their  missionary,  and  prepared  it  for  sepulture 
-with  pathetic  tears  and  kisses,  and  that  they  buried  it  where  the  church 
altar  had  stood.  The  cassock  which  he  had  worn  was  too  frayed  and 
bedraggled  for  the  soldiers  to  care  for;  they  threw  it  away,  and  it  was 
saved  by  the  Indians  and  carried  to  Quebec  as  a  precious  relic.  The 
chapel  bell  was  taken  from  the  ashes  by  an  Indian  boy  and  hid;  he 
never  would  reveal  the  place  of  its  concealment,  saying,  "  May  be 
Indian  want  it  some  time;"  and  the  secret  died  with  him.  Many  years 
after  it  was  accidentally  discovered  by  a  woodman  in  the  hollow  of  an 
ancient  pine  tree.* 

The  grave  of  Father  Rale  was  never  forgotten — but  was  always 

IVars,  p.  103;  see  £ariy  Settlements  at  Sagadahoc,  by  John  McKeen,  in  Me.  Hist. 
Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  318;  Abbot's  History  of  Maine,  pp.  313-316;  Drake's  Book 
of  the  Indians,  book  III,  p.  119;  History  of  Norridgewock,  by  William  Allen.  Rev. 
Jonathan  G«-eenleaf,  a  Congregational  minister  of  Wells,  writing  in  1821  (nearly 
a  century  after  the  death  of  Father  Rale)  says  of  him:  "  The  fact  of  his  having 
devoted  his  superior  talents  to  the  instruction  of  the  rude  children  of  the  wilder- 
ness; consenting  to  spend  his  days  in  the  depths  of  the  forest,  in  unrepining  con- 
formity to  savage  customs,  and  modes  of  life;  enduring  such  privations,  hard- 
ships, and  fatigues  as  he  did  by  night  and  day  in  the  discharge  of  his  mission, 
proves  him  to  have  been  a  very  superior  man,  and  well  entitled  to  the  admira- 
tion of  sM."— Ecclesiastical  Sketches,  Maine,  1821,  pp.  23;i-4. 

*  This  bell,  together  with  the  "strong  box"  taken  by  Westbrook  in  1721, 
and  a  crucifix  found  in  the  soil  within  a  few  years  by  a  lad,  and  preserved  by 
the  Hon.  A.  R.  Bixby  of  Skowhegan,  are  now  in  the  rooms  of  the  Maine  Histori- 
cal Society,  Portland. 


kept  green — so  long  as  any  of  the  tribe  haunted  the  river.  It  was 
first  marked  by  a  wooden  cross — perhaps  by  the  one  made  by  Father 
Rale  himself.  When  Arnold's  army  followed  in  1775  the  old  Indian 
route  to  Quebec,  his  soldiers  saw  "  a  priest's  grave  "  among  the  vestiges 
of  the  Indian  village  of  Nanrantsouak.*  In  18B3,  under  the  patronage 
of  Bishop  Fenwick  of  Boston  (an  ex-member  of  the  Society  of  Jesus),  the 
site  of  Father  Rale's  church  was  purchased  of  the  white  man,  and  a 
granite  monument  erected  with  great  ceremony  over  his  grave.  Some 
of  the  descendants  of  Rale's  parishioners  were  present  from  Canada. 
The  shaft  was  raised  just  109  years  after  the  burning  of  the  church. 
Even  that  period  of  time  had  not  been  long  enough  for  all  animosity 
against  the  missionary  to  disappear,  and  the  monument  was  maliciously 
overturned  two  years  later,  and  again  in  1851.  It  was  replaced  each 
time  by  the  good  people  of  the  town  of  Norridgewock,  and  still  stands 
in  its  harmlessness  a  mute  reminder  to  the  passing  generations  of  a 
life  of  sublime  toil,  devotion  and  martyrdom  on  the  banks  of  the 

The  offense  of  Father  Rale  was  his  constancy  to  his  vows  and 
loyalty  to  his  people.  Had  his  efforts  been  less  he  would  not  have 
been  true  to  his  view  of  pastoral  duty.  He  sought  sympathy  and 
help  for  his  flock  where  only  it  could  be  obtained,  not  questioning  in 
his  zeal  the  propriety  of  the  Canadian  government's  hearty  encour- 
agement, for  which  he  was  denounced  as  a  traitor.  After  a  bounty 
had  been  offered  for  his  head  he  was  urged  by  Father  de  la  Chasse  to 
look  after  his  own  safety,  but  he  replied,  "  God  has  committed  this 
flock  to  my  care,  and  I  will  share  its  lot,  only  too  happy  if  I  am  allowed 
to  lay  down  my  life  for  it."  He  believed  the  disputed  lands  had  been 
taken  from  the  Indians  by  deception  and  force  (and  who  does  not  ?) 
and  in  the  visionary  cause  of  his  tribe  to  recover  them  he  serenely  met 

*  Journal  of  Return  J.  Meigs,  Sept.  ii,  1775,  to  Jan.  1,  1776.  Mass.  Hist.  Soc. 
Coll.  (1814),  Vol.  I,  second  series,  p.  331. 

t  This  monument  is  a  gfranite  structure  of  appropriate  simplicity.  The  base 
is  composed  of  irregularly  shaped  ashlar  blocks,  on  which  stands  a  graduated 
quadrilateral  shaft  that  towers  eighteen  feet  from  the  ground,  and  which  is  sur- 
mounted by  an  iron  cross  two  feet  high.  On  the  southern  face  of  the 
blocks  is  the  inscription  in  Latin,  which  may  be  translated  as  follows:  "Rev. 
Sebastian  Rale,  a  native  of  France,  a  missionary  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  at  first 
preaching  for  awhile  to  the  Illinois  and  Hurons,  afterwards  for  thirty-four  years 
to  the  Abenakis,  in  faith  and  charity  a  true  apostle  of  Christ;  undaunted  by  the 
danger  of  arms,  often  testifying  that  he  was  ready  to  die  for  his  people;  at  length 
this  best  of  pastors  fell  amidst  arms  at  the  destruction  of  the  village  of  Nor- 
ridgewock and  the  ruins  of  his  own  church,  on  this  spot,  on  the  twenty-third  day 
of  August,  A.D.  1724."  "  Benedict  Fenwick,  Bishop  of  Boston,  has  erected  this 
monument,  and  dedicated  it  to  him  and  his  deceased  children  in  Christ,  on  the 
23d  of  August,  A.D.  1833,  to  the  greater  glory  of  God." 


his  death.""     There  were  about  two  hundred  persons  affiliated  with  his 
mission  at  the  time  of  its  overthrow;  three-fourths  of  them  moved 
immediately  to  St.  Francis,  into    which  the  Abenaki  mission,   near 
the  mouth  of  the  Chaudiere  had  been  merged  (in  the  year  1700);  the 
rest  clung  to  the  northern  lakes  and  streams,  far  inland.     Though  the 
war  continued  to  rage  for  a  year  longer,  the  Nanrantsoiiaks  took  no 
further  part  in  it,  and  were  not  repre- 
sented at  the  peace  parleys  of  1725-6;  ri__j 
but  in  July,  1727,  forty  Kennebecs  and         ''-^;.\ 
fifteen  Wawenocs,  under  the   sachem            }\ 
Wiwurna,  whom  we  last  saw  in  a  pa-            '  % 
triotic   passion  at  Arrowsic,  met    the 
authorities  at  Falmouth  and  ratified  a        /' 
peace — after  having  pleaded  in  vain  as       , 
of  yore,  for  the  English  to  retire  their 
boundaries  from  Richmond  fort  to  Ar- 
rowsic, and  from   St.  George   fort   to      | 
Pemaquid.    Thus 
closed  the  fourth   .*- ,  *^ 
Indian   war  in    ^  ^^^ 

called  Lovewell's  _                        !•:,;■■        If                    M 

war,  from  a  scalp  7  .„.,"!  \  '^■~— — --"     "^T  fm 

hunter's     exploit  -.'-  -.,.   ^„  «^-                ['  kW 

and  death  at  Lake  ^^'ll^X -^/ .      ,^^-     -  %^r        <^ 

Peqwaket,  INIay  8,  '^^^^^M^;,^  '^  ,^,.^-          ■*                            .. 

1725)-another  "S"'...^     ^"^^f^-.-    .^ 

hemorrhage  from     •'%>  "^^i^       -^         ^      ^      ^ 

the    old     French  ^^  ^        \   '^^^'-      ''    '  , 

conflict,   and  '^^''"  >    ^^^^^^>S^ 

which     was     not  father  rale  monument.  //>^^^>^^^^ 

even  yet  ended.  /^ 

Six  years  after  the  death  of  Father  Rale,  the  mission  cross  was  re- 
erected  over  the  ashes  of  Nanrantsouak,  by  Father  James  de  Sirenne.f 
The  King  of  France  had  taken  notice  of  the  sorrows  of  the  survivors 
of  the  massacre,  and  ordered  Father  de  la  Chasse  to  cover  the  body  of 

*  Father  Rale  was  bom  in  1658,  in  France;  he  came  to  America  in  1689,  ar- 
riving at  Quebec  October  1.3th.  He  studied  the  Indian  languages  at  Sillery,  and 
was  affiliated  for  two  or  three  years  with  the  Abenakis  on  the  Chaudiere.  In 
1693  he  went  to  Illinois,  but  returned  to  Quebec  in  1694  or  '95,  to  be  sent  to  his 
life  work  on  the  Kennebec. 

t  The  Catholic  Church  in   Colonial  Days,  by  John  G.  Shea  (New  York,  1886), 
p.  604.     History  of  the  Cath.  Miss.  Among  the  Ind.  Tribes  of  the  U.  S..  by  John  G. 
Shea.  p.  152. 


Father  Rale,  which  in  Indian  parlance  is  to  condole  with  them  on 
their  loss.  Eight  years  later  (1738)  the  French  monarch  gave  an  out- 
fit of  plate,  vestments  and  furniture  for  the  mission  chapel;  perhaps 
it  was  this  gracious  deed  that  excited  a  general  movement  among 
the  exiled  Kennebecs  to  return  to  their  old  home;  but  the  Canadian 
government,  to  prevent  the  exodus  and  to  have  the  fighting  men  near 
at  hand  in  case  of  need,  had  Father  de  vSirenne  recalled,  and  Nanrant- 
souak  as  a  mission  place  was  forever  abandoned. 

IX.      THE    FIFTH    AND    SIXTH    INDIAN    WARS    IN    MAINE. 

England  and  France  again  at  War. — The  Indians  join  the  French. — The  Kenne- 
bec a  Route  for  War  Parties. — English  Scalp  Hunters  scout  the  Cobbosseecon- 
tee  and  Messalonskee  Lakes. — Treaty  of  Aix  la  Chapelle. — Fatal  Affray  at 
Wiscasset. — War  Party  from  St.  Francis. — Fort  Richmond  and  Georgetown 
attacked. — Advent  of  the  Plymouth  Land  Company. — Protest  of  Ongewas- 
gone. — Forts  Shirley,  Western  and  Halifax. — Bounties  for  St.  Francis  In- 
dians or  their  Scalps. — Last  Skirmish  on  the  Kennebec. — Capture  of  Quebec, 
and  Exting^iishment  of  French  Power  in  America, — Natanis  wounded  under 
Arnold. — Sabatis. — Peerpole  carries  his  Dead  Child  to  Canada  for  Burial. 

The  ambitions  of  European  monarchs  were  to  precipitate  again 
the  horrors  of  war  in  New  England  and  New  France.  So  sensitive 
were  the  rival  colonies  to  the  prevailing  politics  of  their  home  coun- 
tries a  thousand  leagues  distant,  that  a  declaration  of  war  by  France 
against  England  in  1744 — generated  by  a  British-Spanish  war  then 
in  progress — was  presently  felt  in  America,  and  the  next  year  it  de- 
veloped into  what  has  been  called  the  fifth  Indian  war,  so  far  as  it 
related  to  Maine.  The  French  and  English  colonies  vied  sharply  for 
the  support  of  the  Indians.  The  French  were  successful  as  usual. 
It  was  a  wanton  and  fruitless  war,  prompted  by  no  loftier  impulse  on 
either  side  than  gratification  of  national,  religious  or  race  antipathy. 
It  was  made  notable,  however,  by  the  capture,  by  New  England  valor, 
of  the  French  fortress  of  Louisbourg  (June  17,  1745).  The  few  resi- 
dent Kennebec  Indians  were  not  early  to  engage  m  it,  but  their  river 
was  the  thoroughfare  for  brigand  parties  from  Canada,  and  however 
innocent,  they  came  under  the  ban  of  the  government  (August  12, 
1745),  which  offered  prizes  for  their  scalps  ranging  from  one  hundred 
to  four  hundred  pounds  ($500  to  $2,000)  apiece.  By  an  odd  discrim- 
ination the  scalps  of  French  leaders  and  accomplices  were  rated  at 
only  thirty-eight  pounds  ($190)  apiece.  Fort  Richmond  and  Fort 
George  (at  Brunswick)  were  kept  in  order;  a  few  hundred  men  were 
employed  as  scouts  in  Maine.  Parties  roamed  the  forests  for  scalps 
as  huntsmen  do  for  furs;  there  is  record  of  one  such  party  on  the 


On  thfc  7th  of  March,  1747,  some  men  under  Captain  John  Gatchell 
■started  from  the  Brunswick  fort  to  hunt  for  Indians;  they  reached 
Richmond  fort  the  first  day;  the  next  day  they  tramped  northwesterly 
toward  the  lakes  that  feed  the  Cobbosseecontee,  where  they  hoped  to 
surprise  some  camps;  not  finding  any  tracks  at  the  small  ponds  (in 
Litchfield),  they  followed  the  stream  up  to  Great  Cobbosseecontee, 
where  they  were  also  disappointed.  With  great  persistency  they 
plodded  a  dozen  miles  northward  to  the  waters  of  the  Messalonskee; 
this  lake  they  scouted  in  vain.  There  was  not  an  Indian  in  all  the 
region.  The  dispirited  rangers  now  faced  homeward,  and  emerging 
from  the  forest  into  the  light  of  the  river  opening  about  eight  miles 
above  Cushnoc,  they  marched  on  the  ice  in  a  blinding  snow  storm 
down  to  the  rapids  where  Augusta  has  .since  been  built.  There  they 
went  ashore  and  bivouacked  for  the  night  among  the  great  trees;  the 
next  day  (March  17)  they  reached  Richmond  fort,  with  neither  scalps 
nor  other  laurels  to  recompense  them  for  their  toilsome  outing.*  The 
vigor  and  alertness  of  the  government  kept  the  Indians  in  awe,  and 
restricted  their  mischiefs  in  Maine  to  a  few  assassinations  and  cases  of 
kidnapping.  The  treaty  of  Aix  la  Chapelle  was  signed  October  7, 
1748,  by  England  and  France,  which  restored  peace  again  to  their 
American  colonies.  A  year  later  (October  16,  1749),  eight  Kennebec 
Indians  with  a  few  others  went  to  Falmouth  and  renewed  their  hum- 
ble submission  to  the  authorities,  f 

But  so  demoralized  and  fragmentary  had  the  tribes  now  become, 
that  this  treaty  affected  few  Indians  except  those  who  were  parties  to 
it.  Irrespon.sible  tramps  from  St.  Francis  and  Becancourt,  with  old 
scores  to  settle,  continued  to  infest  the  Kennebec.  In  a  quarrel  with 
some  white  men  at  Wiscasset  December  2,  1749,  an  Indian  was 
wickedly  killed;  the  guilty  parties  were  arrested  but  not  otherwise 
punished.  The  victim's  Indian  friends  became  greatly  excited;  thir- 
teen went  to  Boston  to  see  the  governor,  who  gave  them  stately  court- 
esy and  condoning  presents.  The  next  spring  a  party  of  eighty  war- 
riors came  from  St.  Francis  to  settle  the  affair  in  the  Indian  fashion;  they 
asked  the  Penobscots  to  join  them,  and  the  people  of  Maine  began  to 
shudder  in  dread  of  some  act  of  savage  retaliation.  It  finally  came  in 
an  attack  on  Fort  Richmond  (September  11,  1750),  when  the  Indians 
killed  one  man  and  wounded  another  and  led  away  fifteen  inhabitants 
as  captives.  Two  weeks  later  (September  25),  they  appeared  on 
Parker's  island  in  Georgetown;  shunning  the  garrison,  they  attacked 
where  the  danger  was  less.  In  one  case  they  battered  down  with 
their  tomahawks  the  door  of  a  house  which  the  owner— a  Mr.  Rose — 

*  History  of  Brunswick,  pp.  58-00.  t  The  names  of  these  Indians  were — 
Toxus,  Magawombee,  Harry,  Soosephania,  Nooktoonas,  Nesagunibuit,  Peereer, 


had  bolted  against  them;  the  man  at  bay  then  fled  through  a  window 
and  running  to  the  sliore  rushed  into  the  water  to  swim  across  Back 
river  and  Newtown  bay,  half  a  mile,  to  Arrowsic  island.  The  savages 
nimbly  pursued,  and  resorting  to  their  canoe,  paddled  after  him;  when 
they  overtook  their  expected  prize,  he  upset  their  canoe  by  a  dexter- 
ous movement,  spilling  them  into  the  water  and  putting  them  on  the 
.same  footing  with  himself.  Leaving  them  floundering,  Mr.  Rose  re- 
sumed his  swim  and  reached  Arrowsic  fort.*  The  Kennebec  saga- 
mores disavowed  these  and  many  other  revengeful  acts,  that  followed 
as  a  sequence  to  the  unfortunate  Wiscasset  affray. 

Thirty  years  had  passed  since  the  Pejepscot  company  made  the 
land  seizure  that  led  to  the  war  in  which  Father  Rale  was  slain. 
During  that  period  Richmond  fort  had  been  the  outpost  of  the  Eng- 
lish frontier.  The  time  had  now  come  when  the  Plymouth  company, 
tracing  its  title  to  a  patent  given  in  1627  to  the  Plymouth  colony, 
wanted  all  of  the  lands  above  Richmond  fort.  The  tribe  that  had 
protested  a  generation  before,  had  been  crushed  for  its  contumacy; 
its  survivors  had  nearly  all  removed  to  Canada;  the  few  who  still  lin- 
gered by  the  burial-places  of  their  fathers,  had  no  steadfast  and  fear- 
less Rale  to  befriend  them.  So  insignificant  were  they  that  the  Ply- 
mouth company  began  to  lot  their  land  without  any  thought  of  asking 
their  leave.  Its  strong  hands  built  Fort  Shirley  (nearly  opposite  Fort 
Richmond)  in  1751,  but  in  February,  1754,  a  party  of  about  sixty  stal- 
wart Indians  appeared  at  Richmond  fort  with  a  warning  to  the  Eng- 
lish to  depart.  Governor  Shirley  in  behalf  of  the  settlers,  retorted  by 
detailing  six  companies  of  militia  for  the  Kennebec.  In  April  the 
general  court  authorized  him  to  build  a  new  fort  as  far  up  the  river 
as  he  pleased.  In  June  he  made  a  personal  visit  to  the  Kennebec  and 
decided  to  locate  a  fortress  at  Teconnet  for  the  protection  of  the  Ply- 
mouth company's  lands. 

On  the  21st  he  held  a  conference  (at  Falmouth)  with  forty-two 
Kennebec  Indians.  Ongewasgone,  the  sagamore,  pleaded  piteously 
for  his  people,  saying:  "  Here  is  a  river  that  belongs  to  us;  you  have 
lately  built  a  new  fort  [Shirley];  we  now  only  ask  that  you  be  content 
to  go  no  further  up  the  river;  we  live  wholly  by  this  land,  and  live 
poorly;  the  Indians  hunt  on  one  side  of  us  and  the  Canada 
Indians  on  the  other;  so  do  not  turn  us  off  this  land;  we  are  willing 
for  you  to  have  the  lands  from  this  fort  to  the  sea."  f  But  the  poor 
chief  was  protesting  in  vain;  as  in  the  case  of  the  Arrowsic  parley 
thirty-seven  years  before,  the  will  of  the  white  man  prevailed.  The 
Indians  signed  what  was  conventionally  called  a  treaty.  The  bitter- 
ness of  the  cup  was  lessened  by  a  few  presents.   Immediately  the  gov- 

*  Luther  D.  Emerson,  Oakland,  Maine,  t  Journal  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Smith, 
pp.  153,  1.54.     See  Abbot's  History  of  Maine,  p.  352. 


ernment  sent  workmen  to  build  Fort  Halifax  at  Teconnet  (now  Wins- 
low),  and  the  Plymouth  land  proprietors  sent  others  to  build  Fort 
Western  at  Cushnoc.  Five  hundred  soldiers  under  General  John 
Winslow*  attended  as  escort,  and  some  of  them  went  far  beyond  into 
the  wilderness  to  look  for  a  fictitious  fort  which  rumor  said  the  French 
were  establishing  near  the  sources  of  the  Chaudiere.  Fort  Halifax 
was  completed  for  occupancy  in  September,  and  put  in  command  of 
William  Lithgow.  The  Indians  soon  showed  their  opinion  of  it  by 
killing  and  scalping  one  of  the  soldiers,  and  capturing  four  others. 
This  bloody  deed  prompted  the  government  to  send  Captain  Lithgow 
a  reinforcement  of  men  and  cannon,  and  to  offer  a  reward  of  ^110 
($550)  for  every  captive  St.  Francis  Indian,  or  i;'10  ($50)  less  for  his 
scalp.  Fort  Western  was  armed  with  twenty  men  and  four  cannon, 
but  it  was  not  attacked. 

Thus  the  advent  of  the  Plymouth  company  was  met  with  resistance 
and  bloodshed,  as  that  of  the  Pejepscot  company  had  been.  This  was 
the  opening  of  the  sixth  Indian  war  in  Maine,  which  soon  became 
part  of  the  greater  conflict  between  France  and  England  that  ended 
with  the  fall  of  Quebec.  The  Maine  tribes  having  generally  trans- 
planted themselves,  recruited  the  French  ranks  in  Canada;  some  of 
the  warriors  were  on  the  flanks  at  Braddock's  de'feat  (July  9,  1755); 
others  were  in  the  no  less  bloody  actions  at  Crown  Point  and  Fort 
William  Henry,  but  a  few  chose  their  own  war  paths,  and  skulked 
fitfully  on  the  outskirts  of  the  Maine  settlements.  In  the  spring  and 
summer  of  1755,  they  shot  one  Barrett  near  Teconnet,  and  two  others 
near  Fort  Shirley;  a  courier  was  captured  while  going  from  Fort 
Western  to  Fort  Halifax;  John  Tufts  and  Abner  Marston  were  cap- 
tured in  Dresden.  The  government  at  once  increased  the  scalp 
bounty  to  $1,000  and  offered  $1,250  per  captive. 

In  the  summer  of  1756,  while  England  and  France  were  moving 
with  new  intensity  toward  their  final  combat,  the  Indians  continued 
their  miserable  warfare  in  iSIaine.  On  the  Kennebec  two  men  were 
assassinated  at  Teconnet;  Mr.  Preble  and  his  wife  were  killed  at  their 
home  on  the  northern  end  of  Arrowsic  island,  opposite  Bath,  and  their 
three  children  taken.  One  of  the  latter,  an  infant,  was  soon  killed 
because  it  was  an  incumbrance.  A  young  woman  named  Motherwell 
was  captured  the  same  day  at  Harnden's  fort  (in  Woolwich).  In  the 
spring  of  1757,  a  few  soldiers  went  out  from  Fort  Halifax  to  hunt  for 

*  General  Winslow  was  a  brother  of  Captain  Josiah  Winslow  (slain  at  St. 
George  thirty  years  before),  and  the  officer  whom  the  government  detailed  in 
1755  to  enforce  its  order  for  the  expulsion  of  the  Acadians  from  Nova  Scotia,  on 
which  event  Longfellow  founded  his  pathetic  and  beautiful  idyl  Evangeline.  The 
celebrated  Winslow  family,  so  prominent  in  affairs  on  the  Kennebec  after  the 
voyage  of  Edward  in  1635,  has  left  its  name  to  the  town  (incorp.  1771)  of  which 
Fort  Halifax  was  the  nucleus. 


game;  as  five  mysteriously  disappeared  their  comrades  supposed  that 
a  party  of  savages,  discovered  to  be  in  the  neighborhood,  had  taken 
them.-  Captain  Lithgow  hastily  sent  ten  men  in  a  boat  down  the 
river  to  warn  the  settlements.  While  returning  to  Fort  Halifax  (May 
IS),  and  when  about  eight  miles  above  Fort  Western  (in  the  vicinity 
of  Riverside  or  Lovejoy's  ferry),  the  boat  was  fired  at  from  the  shore 
by  seventeen  lurking  Indians.  Two  men  were  wounded.  The  soldiers 
returned  the  volley,  killing  one  of  the  enemy  and  wounding  another; 
they  then  landed  on  the  shore  opposite  the  Indians,  whom  they  saw 
in  the  distance  bear  across  an  open  field  the  body  of  their  fallen  com- 
rade for  burial.""  This  was  the  last  Indian  encounter  on  the  Kenne- 
bec; by  a  strange  coincidence  it  happened  near  the  place  where  Cap- 
tain Gilbert  was  received  by  the  natives  just  one  hundred  and  fifty 
years  before. 

England  and  France  were  now  in  the  midst  of  their  mighty  con- 
test for  supremacy  in  America:  their  respective  colonies  were  the 
battle  ground,  and  the  prizes  at  stake.  For  more  than  a  century — 
beginning  with  the  labors  of  Father  Druillettes  at  Cushnoc  in  1646 — 
the  Kennebec  had  been  an  environ  of  Quebec,  and  a  door  to  Acadia. 
Acadia  itself  with  its  shadowy  boundary  had  made  the  territory  of 
Maine  an  uncertain  borderland.  Five  wars — not  counting  King 
Philip's— had  been  waged  against  Maine  settlements  by  French- 
Canadian  intrigues;  but  the  time  was  near  when  the  terrible  alliance 
that  had  desolated  so  many  New  England  settlements  must  be  dis- 
solved. An  English  heart  was  beating  under  a  soldier's  uniform 
whose  valor  was  to  thrill  all  hearts,  and  determine  the  political  des- 
tiny of  the  western  world.  In  July,  1758,  General  Wolfe  was  before 
Louisbourg,  which  capitulated  on  the  16th;  fourteen  months  later  he 
led  his  little  army  up  the  heights  of  Abraham  to  the  mad  fight  on  the 
plains  above,  where  he  died  victorious  (September  13, 1759),  bequeath- 
ing to  his  countrymen  the  citadel  of  Quebec.  His  blood  washed  New 
France  from  the  map.  The  flag  that  had  been  planted  by  Champlain 
in  1608  (three  years  after  his  visit  to  the  Kennebec)  was  lowered  from 
its  staff,  and  North  America  came  under  the  dominion  of  the  English 
speaking  race.  Acadia  was  no  more;  its  boundary  was  no  longer  of 
any  importance;  Forts  Halifax,  Western  and  Shirley,  on  the  Kenne- 
bec, were  needed  no  more.  In  the  long,  painful,  tragical  contest,  the 
Kennebec  tribe  (as  well  as  others)  had  been  annihilated.  A  few 
families  continued  to  live  in  hermit-like  seclusion  around  the  upper 
waters  of  the  river,  but  the  young  men  learned  the  art  of  war  no  more. 

When  Arnold's  army  was  marching  to  Quebec,  the  pioneer  party 
discovered  at  a  point  on  the  trail  near  the  Dead  river,  a  birch  bark 

*  Letter  of  William  Lithgow  to  Governor  Shirley,  May  33,  1757,  quoted  by 
Joseph  Williamson  in  Me.  Hist.  Soc.  Coll.,  Vol.  IX,  p.  194. 


map  of  the  streams  of  the  region,  which  an  Indian  had  posted  for  the 
benefit  of  his  fellows:  a  score  or  more  of  Indians  were  dwelling  m  the 
vicinity.  The  intrusion  disturbed  them,  and  they  flitted  undiscovered 
within  spying  distance  of  the  troops  for  more  than  a  month.  Finally, 
having  divined  that  the  army  was  the  enemy  of  the  English  at  Que- 
bec, they  disclosed  themselves  as  friends,  and  nineteen  joined  the  ex- 
pedition as  allies.  Among  them  were  the  noted  chiefs — Natanis  and 
Sabatis.  They  took  part  in  the  assault  on  Quebec,  January  1,  1776.* 
Natanis  received  a  musket  ball  through  his  wrist.  This  was  the  first 
time  that  Indians  had  fought  in  the  war  of  the  revolution.  Thus,  to 
the  last  remnant  of  the  Kennebec  tribe  belongs  the  distinction  of  an 
alliance  with  the  continental  army,  and  Natanis  was  the  first  of  his 
race  to  shed  blood  in  the  cause  of  American  independence.  Sabatis 
afterward  lived  for  many  years,  an  errant  but  amiable  life  on  his 
native  river— sensible  and  mild — a  friend  to  the  settlers  as  they  were 
to  him. 

One  of  the  last  well-remembered  Indians  lingered  with  his  family 
around  the  upper  waters  of  the  Sandy  river  for  many  years;  this  was 
Peerpole;  he  had  received  baptism,  and  like  a  good  Catholic  went 
yearly  to  Quebec  with  his  humble  gifts  to  receive  the  blessing  of  the 
church.  He  would  not  bury  the  body  of  his  dead  child  in  the  soil  of 
his  lost  country,  but  carried  it  to  Canada  for  religious  rites  and  deposit 
in  consecrated  ground.  +  About  the  year  1797,  with  his  wife  and  sur- 
viving children  and  precious  burden  tied  on  a  hand-sled,  he  wended 
his  way  for  the  last  time  northward  to  the  adopted  land  of  his  surviv- 
ing kindred.  The  mournful  procession  symbolizes  the  extinction  of 
the  red  men  in  the  valley  of  the  Kennebec. 

*  Aicoi/iif  of  Arnold's  Campaign  against  Quebec,  by  John  Joseph  Henry,  pp. 
74,  7.5.  tThe  late  William  Allen  of  Norridgewock,  in  Me.  Hist.  See.  Coll.,  Vol. 
IV,  p.  .31,  note. 


Bv  Lend.\ll  Titcome,  Esq. 

Indian  Occupancy. — Sales  of  Lands  by  the  Indians. — Claims  of  Spain  and 
Portugal. — Counter-claim  of  France. — The  Virginia  Charter. — The  New- 
England  Charter.— The  Kennebeck  or  Plymouth  Patent. — Trade  with  the 
Indians. — Sale  of  Plymouth  Patent.— Settlement  of  the  Kennebec  Purchase. 
— Province  of  Massachusetts  Bay. — Maine  Separated  from  Massachusetts 
and  Admitted  into  the  Union. 

WHEN  first  foreign  peoples  came  to  the  shores  of  Maine  with 
the  purpose  of  occupying  the  territory,  establishing  homes 
and  creating  an  organized  government,  they  found,  of  course, 
the  country  occupied  by  a  primeval  people  whose  history  was  no  better 
known  to  themselves  than  it  is  to  us  to-day.  It  is  even  probable,  with 
the  concentration  of  legends  of  other  peoples  and  drafts  from  asso- 
ciated histories,  that  the  history  of  the  Indian  nations  could  now  be 
written,  giving  with  greater  certainty  the  story  of  their  ancestry  than 
the  dim  traditions  which  were  to  them  the  only  record  of  their  past. 
The  different  nations  and  clans  occupied  each  a  separate  country,  the 
natural  divisions  on  the  surface  of  the  earth,  in  the  absence  of  a  sur- 
veyor's chain  and  compass,  establishing  the  boundaries  of  the  separate 
tribes  and  nations. 

The  Indian  had  no  conception  of  the  European  idea  of  exclusive 
ownership  of  land.  The  tribes  and  their  sachems  neither  made  nor 
understood  such  claims  of  arbitrary  ownership  of  the  lands  they  occu- 
pied. The  passing  cloud  which  threw  its  shadow  on  his  path,  and  the 
running  water  in  which  he  paddled  his  canoe,  were  as  much  his  prop- 
erty as  the  pathless  land  whereon  his  wigwam  chanced  to  be.  He 
neither  coveted  nor  comprehended  sole  ownership  of  land.  It  was  to 
him  a  mother  whose  streams  and  forests  offered  to  him,  as  to  his 
neighbor,  food  and  shelter.  No  such  thing  as  inheritance  by  children 
from  parents  was  cared  for  or  understood. 

They  held  their  lands,  if  theirs  they  were,  as  life  tenants  in  common; 
and  no  matter  what  were  the  forms  or  words  of  the  deeds  they  signed, 
they  only  signified  to  the  Indian  mind  the  white  man's  privilege  to 
occupy  the  lands  as  they  themselves  had  occupied  them;  hence  the 


trifling  consideration  named  as  price  in  the  so-called  Indian  deeds. 
Monquine,  son  of  Mahotiwormet,  sagamore,  sold  for  two  skins  of  liquor 
and  one  skin  of  bread,  more  than  a  million  acres  of  land  above  Gard- 
iner.  As  late  as  1761  Samuel  Goodwin  was  authorized  to  obtain  a  deed 
from  the  sagamores  of  the  whole  territory  extending  from  the  Wes- 
serunsett  river  to  the  ocean  on  both  sides  of  the  Kennebec  river,  "  pro- 
vided he  could  obtain  it  at  an  expense  of  not  more  than  ;f50."  Hence 
also  the  fact  that  the  Indian  chiefs  sold  the  same  lands  many  times 
over  and  to  different  parties.  In  the  "  Statement  of  Kennebeck  Claims" 
— Pamphlet  Report  of  committee  made  June  15,  1785— after  reciting 
the  history  of  old  Indian  deeds  the  committee  say:  "  From  the  his- 
tory and  mode  of  living  amongst  the  Indians  in  this  country  there 
can  be  no  great  doubt  but  that  they  originally  held  as  tenants  in  com- 
mon in  a  state  of  nature;  and  though  they  have  formed  themselves 
into  tribes  and  clans,  yet  the  members  of  those  tribes  still  retain  a 
common  and  undivided  right  to  the  lands  of  their  respective  tribes." 

The  aboriginal  occupant  of  Kennebec  county  was  the  Indian  tribe 
called  Canibas.  This  was  a  large  and  important  tribe  and  claimed  as 
their  territory  the  land  extending  from  the  sources  of  the  Kennebec 
river  to  Merrymeeting  bay.  It  may  be  noted  as  bearing  on  the  Indian 
ideas  of  ownership  of  land,  that  Assiminasqua,  a  sagamore,  in  1653 
certified  that  the  region  of  Teconnet  (Waterville)  belonged  to  him 
and  the  wife  of  Watchogo;  while  at  near  the  same  time  the  chief  sag- 
amores, Monquine,  Kennebis  and  Abbagadussett,  conveyed  to  the 
English  all  the  lands  on  the  Kennebec  river  extending  from  Swan 
island  to  Wesserunsett  river,  near  Skowhegan,  as  their  property. 

In  the  earlier  years  a  verbal  grant  was  asserted  by  the  English  as 
a  sufficient  "deed."  But  subsequently  concession  was  made  to  the 
formalities,  and  the  conveyances  from  the  Indians  were  made  in  legal 
form  without  much  inquiry  whether  they  were  understood  by  the 
native  grantors  or  not.  Governor  Winslow  asserted  "  that  the  Eng- 
lish did  not  possess  one  foot  of  land  in  the  colony  but  was  fairly  ob- 
tained by  honest  purchase  from  the  Indian  proprietors."  But  Andros, 
in  1686,  boldly  condemned  the  title  so  obtained  from  the  natives  and 
declared  that  "  Indian  deeds  were  no  better  than  the  scratch  of  a 
bear's  paw."  Though  by  a  strict  rule  of  right  the  Indian's  deed  could 
not  be  held  to  convey  an  exclusive  ownership,  it  formed  one  of  the 
strands,  though  a  slender  one,  which  the  first  settlers  gathered  together 
through  which  they  maintained  their  early  dominion  over  no  incon- 
siderable portion  of  the  soil  of  Maine.  The  thrifty  adventurers  from 
beyond  the  sea  who  sought  wealth  within  her  boundaries  professed 
to  largely  base  their  rights  on  the  Indian  deeds  and  a  prior  occupation 
and  possession. 

But  the  Crown  of  England  is  the  source  to  which  trace  all  lines  of 
title  to  lands  within  the  county  of  Kennebec.     It  was  by  royal  license 


that  the  first  English  settlement  was  made  in  Maine.  The  emigrants 
came  as  English  subjects  and  they  brought  with  them  English  laws. 
England  planted  her  colonies  here  as  her  subjects,  on  lands  claimed 
by  her  as  her  territory,  and  she  alone  maintained  her  authority. 

In  1493  Spain  and  Portugal  claimed  the  entire  New  World  which 
Columbus  had  discovered,  by  virtue  of  a  bull  of  Pope  Alexander  VI. 
It  is  said  that  some  seventy  years  later  Spain  took  fortified  possession 
of  Maine  at  Pemaquid,  but  if  so  her  possession  was  abandoned  before 
many  years. 

In  1524,  Francis  I,  king  of  France,  saying  he  should  like  to 
see  the  clause  in  Adam's  will  which  made  the  American  con- 
tinent the  exclusive  possession  of  his  brothers  of  Spain  and  Portu- 
gal, sent  Verrazzano,  a  navigator,  who  explored  the  entire  coast 
and  named  the  whole  country  Nciu  France.  Later  King  Francis,  in 
1534  and  the  following  years,  through  Jacques  Ouartier,  took  actual 
possession  of  Canada,  explored  the  St.  Lawrence  and  "  laid  the  found- 
ation of  French  dominion  on  this  continent." 

In  1495,  Henry  VII,  of  England,  commissioned  the  Venetian,  John 
Cabot,  and  his  sons  to  make  discoveries  in  the  Western  World,  and 
under  this  commission  they  discovered  the  Western  Continent  more 
than  a  year  before  Columbus  saw  it;  and  in  1502  the  same  king  com- 
missioned Hugh  Eliot  and  Thomas  Ashurst,  in  his  name  and  for  his,  to  take  possession  of  the  islands  and  continent  of  America. 

Under  the  claim  made  by  France  the  southern  limit  of  New  France 
was  the  40th  parallel  of  north  latitude.  Below  that  line  was  Florida, 
claimed  by  Spain  as  her  territory.  These  two  powers  claimed  the 
whole  of  North  America  by  right  of  discovery.  But  it  was  a  settled 
rule  of  international  law  that  discovery  of  barbarous  countries  must 
be  followed  by  actual  possession  to  complete  the  title  of  any  Christian 
power.  Neither  Spain  nor  France  willingly  yielded  to  England's 
claim  to  the  new  territory.  But  when  Spain  complained  of  an  alleged 
act  of  trespass  at  Jamestown,  England  replied  that  all  north  of  32° 
belonged  to  the  Crown  of  England  by  right  of  discovery  and  actual 
possession  taken  through  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  and  English  colonies. 
And  when  France  complained  against  England's  assumed  control 
north  of  the  40th  north  parallel,  England  replied  reciting  the  discov- 
eries by  authority  of  the  Crown  made  by  Cabot,  and  the  colonies  estab- 
lished by  her  royal  charter. 

England  repeatedly  asserted  her  claim  to  the  lands  held  by  her 
colonists,  and  overruled  the  claim  to  the  whole  country  made  by 
France,  and  as  a  result  the  map  shows  to-day  not  Neiv  France,  but  Nczv 
England.  By  the  English  law  the  ultimate  right  to  the  soil  remained 
in  the  Crown  and  grants  made  by  the  Crown  were  on  condition  of 
fealty  and  service,  and  on  breach  of  such  condition,  the  lands  reverted 
to  the  Crown.     "  The  newly  discovered  lands  beyond  the  sea  followed 


the  same  rule.  If  they  were  to  become  English  possessions  it  was 
the  right  of  the  Sovereign  to  assign  them  to  his  subjects,  and  the 
validity  of  the  titles  thus  conferred  and  transmitted  has  never  been 
questioned,  but  stands  unimpeached  to  this  day."* 

The  first  transfer  of  title  or  English  sovereignty  was  by  what  is 
known  as  the  Virginia  charter,  which  was  granted  by  James  I,  April 
10,  1606,  to  the  Adventurers  of  London  and  their  associates  known  as 
the  first  colony,  and  to  the  Adventurers  of  Plymouth  and  their  asso- 
ciates known  as  the  second  colony,  and  under  this  charter  a  futile  at- 
tempt was  made  the  following  year  to  plant  a  colony  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Kennebec  river. 

On  November  3,  1620,  King  James  I  granted  what  is  known  as  the 
New  England  charter  to  the  cottncil  of  Plymouth  in  the  county  of 
Devon,  successors  to  the  Plymouth  company  under  the  charter  of 
1606.  This  charter  was  granted  to  forty  lords,  knights  and  merchants 
of  England,  among  whom  were  the  Duke  of  Lenox,  Marquis  of  Buck- 
ingham, Marquis  of  Hamilton,  Earl  of  Arundel,  Earl  of  Warwick,  Sir 
Ferdinando  Gorges,  Francis  Popham  and  Raleigh  Gilbert.  They 
were  incorporated  as  "  The  Council  Established  at  Plymouth  in  the 
County  of  Devon  for  the  planting,  ruling  and  governing  New  Eng- 
land in  America."  This  charter  granted  in  fee  simple  all  the  North 
American  continent  and  islands  between  the  parallels  of  40°  and  48° 
north  latitude,  "  throughout  the  mainland  from  sea  to  sea,"  excepting 
"  all  places  actually  possessed  by  any  other  Christian  prince  or 

Under  the  charter  of  1606  no  permanent  colony  with  an  organized 
government  had  been  planted  in  Maine.  But  its  rivers,  coast  and 
harbors  had  been  explored,  knowledge  of  the  Indians  and  their  habits 
had  been  acquired,  and  trading  posts  and  fishing  stations  had  been 
established.  Gorges  and  his  associates  had  learned  the  value  of  the 
fur  trade  and  fisheries,  and  it  was  to  control  these  that  the  Plymouth 
company  sought  and  obtained  the  great  New  England  charter. 

On  January  13, 1629,  a  grant  was  made  by  the  Plymouth  council  to 
the  Pilgrim  colony,  of  what  has  since  been  known  as  the  Kennebeck  or 
Plymouth  Patent.  There  was  long  dispute  as  to  the  boundaries  of  this 
patent,  but  its  territory  as  ultimately  settled,  extended  from  the  north 
line  of  Woolwich  below  Swan  island  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  and 
from  the  north  line  of  Topsham  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  to  a  line 
a  league  above  the  mouth  of  the  Wesserunsett  river  and  fifteen  miles 
wide  on  either  side  of  the  Kennebec.  This  patent  covered  about 
1,500,000  acres.  With  the  patent  were  transferred  rights  of  exclusive 
trade,  an  open  passage  at  all  times  from  the  patent  to  the  sea,  author- 
ity to  make  all  necessary  rules  and  regulations  for  their  protection 
and  government. 

*H.  W.  Richardson,  Introduction,  York  Deeds. 


A  trading  post  was  established  at  Cushnoc,  and  some  writers  say, 
at  Richmond's  landing  and  at  Popham's  fort  also.  For  several  years 
the  trade  with  the  Indians  was  found  to  be  profitable,  but  it  gradually 
declined  till  in  1652  the  trade  at  Kennebec  was  leased  at  the  small 
price  of  fifty  pounds  a  year,  and  in  1655  the  lease  was  renewed  for 
seven  years  at  thirty-five  pounds  a  year — "  to  be  paid  in  money,  moose 
or  beaver."  This  rental  was  reduced  after  three  years  to  ten  pounds 
and  the  next  year  the  trade  was  abandoned. 

Discouraged  by  meager  returns  the  holders  of  the  Kennebeck  or 
Plymouth  patent  sought  a  purchaser  for  their  patent  and  on  October 
27,  1661.  it  was  sold  *  for  four  hundred  pounds  to  Antipas  Boyes,  Ed- 
ward Tyng,  Thomas  Brattle  and  John  Winslow.  This  transfer,  of 
course,  carried  with  it  whatever  apparent  shadow  of  title  there  was  in 
the  Indian  deeds,  which  from  the  year  1648,  when  the  whole  Kenne- 
bec valley  was  purchased  by  William  Bradford  from  a  chief,  had  been 
collected  from  different  sagamores  covering  the  same  territory. 

From  1661  till  1749  the  title  to  the  lands  on  the  Kennebec  lay  dor- 
mant and  no  special  effort  was  made  to  establish  settlements  on  the 
land.  This  was  at  least  partially  due  to  the  French  and  Indian  border 
wars,  which  for  a  series  of  years  diverted  attention  from  the  arts  of 
peace.  But  in  1749,  eighty-eight  years  after  the  transfer  of  the  patent, 
though  the  four  original  purchasers  were  dead,  the  proprietors  had 
greatly  increased  in  numbers  and  were  widely  scattered,  and  knew 
very  little  of  the  extent  or  value  of  their  lands.  On  August  17,  1749, 
a  number  of  the  proprietors  joined  in  a  petition  to  call  a  meeting  of 
the  proprietors  of  the  Plymouth  company's  lands  to  devise  means  of 
settling  or  dividing  the  same  "  as  the  major  part  of  the  proprietors 
shall  or  may  agree."  A  meeting  was  called  for  September  21, 1849,  at 
Boston,  and  a  number  of  subsequent  meetings  were  held  until  in  June, 
1753,  the  owners  of  shares  in  the  patent  were  incorporated  under  the 
name  of"  The  Proprietors  of  the  Kennebec  Purchase  from  the  late 
Colony  of  New  Plymouth;"  though  they  were  generally  known  as  the 
Kennebec  company  or  the  Plymouth  company. 

The  new  proprietors  in  1761  employed  Nathan  Winslow  f  to  make 
a  survey  and  lay  out  into  lots  the  Kennebec  valley  on  either  side  of 
the  river,  from  Chelsea  to  Vassalboro  inclusive,  and  offered  to  each 
settler,  upon  certain  conditions,  two  lots  aggregating  250  acres.  The 
conditions  imposed  by  the  proprietors  looked  to  the  permanent  settle- 
ment of  the  towns  and  the  establishment  of  churches;  for  the  grantee 

*  The  deed  was  executed  October  15,  1665,  and  recorded  in  the  York  County 
Registry  in  1719.— [Ed. 

t  Winslow's  map  of  this  survey  shows  on  either  side  of  the  river,  three  ranges 
of  lots,  each  one  mile  deep  with  eight-rod  ways  between  the  ranges.  The  origi- 
nal map  is  in  possession  of  Governor  Joseph  H.  Williams,  of  Augusta,  and  a  copy 
is  on  file  in  the  Kennebec  County  Registry. — [Ed. 


was  required  to  build  a  house  of  certain  size — generally  20  by  20  feet 
— and  reduce  to  cultivation  five  acres  of  the  land  in  his  possession  within 
three  years;  also  to  occupy  it  himself  or  by  his  heirs  or  assigns  seven 
years  besides  the  three.  Each  grantee  was  also  bound  to  labor  two 
davs  yearly  for  ten  years  on  the  highways  and  two  days  every  year 
on  the  minister's  lot  or  upon  the  house  of  worship. 

By  reason  of  these  inducements  and  the  advantages  which  were 
held  out  to  settlers  the  valley  was  gradually  covered  with  colonists. 
In  1762  the  lots  were  rapidly  taken,  especially  around  Fort  Western  at 
Cushnoc,  and  by  1766  nearly  all  the  lots  were  granted. 

Settlements  and  grants  in  other  sections  of  the  patent  continued 
as  the  country's  resources  attracted  settlers  until  nearly  all  the  Ken- 
nebec lands  had  been  reduced  to  individual  ownership,  when  it  was 
decided  by  the  owners  to  close  out  their  scattered  possessions.  Ac- 
cordingly the  heirs  and  successors  of  the  original  purchasers  met  in 
Boston  in  January,  1816,  and  sold  at  auction  all  their  remaining  rights. 
Thomas  L.  Winthrop  was  the  purchaser  and  became  the  owner  of  the 
unsold  rangeways,  gores  and  islands  throughout  the  Kennebec  pur- 
chase. His  title  deeds  appear  of  record  in  Somerset  County  Registry, 
Vol.  Ill,  p.  164,  and  in  Kennebec  County  Registry,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  64. 

It  is  interesting  to  trace  the  intricate  historical  chain  of  title  which 
began  in  1620  and  has  extended  unbroken  to  this  generationin,  to  the 
hands  of  those  who  to-day  hold  the  parent  title  from  which  countless 
branches  have  been  derived.  Judge  James  Bridge  and  Hon.  Reuel 
Williams,  both  of  Augusta,  purchased  each,  one-fourth  interest  from 
Thomas  L.  Winthrop,  who  subsequently  sold  his  remaining  half  to 
Hon.  Joseph  H.  Williams.  At  the  death  of  Judge  Bridge  in  1834,  his 
interest  passed  to  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Daniel  Williams,  and  at  the  death 
of  Reuel  Williams  in  1862,  his  fourth  interest  descended  to  his  heirs. 
It  would  not  seem  necessary  in  a  chapter  of  this  character  to  recite 
the  historical  facts  of  the  charter  of  the  province  of  Maine,  granted 
by  Charles  I,  April  3,  1639,  to  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges,  nor  the  charter 
granted  by  Charles  II  to  the  Duke  of  York  in  1664,  which  was  re- 
newed ten  years  later.  But  perhaps  reference  should  be  made  to  the 
charter  granted  by  William  and  Mary,  by  which  the  name  of  the 
province  of  Massachusetts  Bay  was  given  to  the  consolidated  colonies 
of  Massachusetts  Bay  and  New  Plymouth,  the  province  of  Maine  and 
the  territory  of  Nova  Scotia.  It  was  this  province  of  Massachusetts 
Bay  which  sent  its  delegates  to  continental  congress,  which  adopted 
the  declaration  of  independence  July  4,  1776,  which  of  course  termi- 
nated the  political  sovereignty  and  authority  of  England  in  the  United 
States.  The  separation  of  Maine  from  her  parent  Massachusetts  was 
effected  through  the  consent  of  the  Massachusetts  general  court  by 
act  of  June  19,  1819.  and  the  act  of  congress  admitting  Maine  into  the 
Union  passed  May  3,  1820. 



The  County  Erected. — County  Buildings. — State  House. — State  and  National 
Officers. — State  Senators. — State  Representatives. — Sheriffs. — Registers. — 
Treasurers. — Hospital  for  Insane. — Educational  Institutions. — State  Library. 
— Arsenal. — Soldiers'  Home. 

THE  territory  now  included  in  Kennebec  county  comprises  nearly 
all  of  the  original  Kennebeck  patent,  and  like  it  preserves  in  a 
name  an  allusion  to  the  Kennebec  Indians,  who  first  inhabited 
the  valley.  It  was  within  the  widely  extended  boundaries  of  the  old 
county  of  York,  which  Massachusetts  erected  in  1658,  and  became  a 
part  of  Lincoln  county  in  1760.  This  territory  which,  until  the  close 
of  the  revolutionary  war,  remained  largely  undeveloped,  began  then 
to  furnish  evidences  of  the  remarkable  resources  which  have  since 
placed  it  among  the  leading  counties  of  New  England.  In  1787,  Lin- 
coln county,  whose  shire-town  was  at  Dresden,  established  at  Augusta 
some  public  buildings  and  made  it  a  co-ordinate  shire-town. 

The  demands  of  a  rapidly  increasing  population  soon  led  to  a  di- 
vision of  the  great  county  of  Lincoln,  and  on  the  20th  of  February, 
1799,  Kennebec  county  was  incorporated  as  the  sixth  county  in  the 
district  of  Maine.  It  then,  embracing  nearly  six  times  its  present 
area,  included  the  whole  of  Somerset  county,  which  was  taken  from 
it  in  1809;  four  of  the  towns  on  the  east  were  made  a  part  of  Waldo 
county  in  1827;  five  were  included  in  Franklin  county  in  1838,  and 
four  were  set  off  to  Androscoggin  county  in  1854;  so  that  the  Kenne- 
bec county  of  to-day,  to  whose  local  history  we  turn  our  present  atten- 
tion, consists  of  twenty-five  towns,  four  cities  and  a  plantation. 

For  three  years  following  the  establishment  of  Augusta  as  a  co- 
ordinate shire-town,  the  sessions  were  held  at  Fort  Western.  The  first 
court  house  was  built  by  subscription.  It  was  erected  on  Market 
Square,  opposite  the  site  of  the  old  Journal  office.  The  frame  was 
raised  September  21,  1790,  but  as  sufficient  funds  for  its  completion 
could  not  be  secured,  the  sub.scribers  decided  to  partition  off  only  one 
room.  In  this  room  the  January  term  of  court  convened,  and  notwith- 
standing the  absence  of  laths  and  plastering,  it  was  reported  that  they 
were  considerably  well  accommodated.  Augusta,  which  had  not  been 
separated  from  its  parent  town,   Hallowell,  took  from  this  date  the 



appellation  Hallowell  Court  House,  by  which  the  locality  was  known 
for  many  years  after  its  incorporation  under  the  name  it  now  bears. 

In  June,  1 801,  the  county  commenced  the  erection,  on  the  site  of  the 
present  jail,  of  a  second  court  house,  which  was  completed  and  occu- 
pied by  a  court  March  16,  1802.  It  was  a  commodious  structure,  and 
was  occupied  as  a  court  house  thirty  years.  The  third  court  house 
was  commenced  in  the  spring-  of  1829,  upon  its  present  site,  which 
had  been  purchased  of  Nathaniel  Hamlen.  Robert  C.  Vose  was  the 
contractor.  The  building  was  occupied  first  by  the  supreme  court  in 
June,  1830,  at  which  time  Judge  Mellen,  who  presided,  called  the 

building  a  very  supe- 
iioi  one.  This  build- 
ing was  enlarged  in 
1851  The  illustration 
shows  it  as  again  en- 
laiged  m  1891. 

The   first   jail  was 


erected  in  1793,  on  the  comei 
of  State  and  Winthrop  stieets, 
opposite  the  present  court  house. 
Its  walls  were  constructed  of 
hewn  timber  and  were  not 
remarkably  secure.  Through 
these  walls,  which  were  two 
stories  high,  small  openings 
were  cut  to  admit  light  and  air 
to  the  cells.  Just  at  sundown 
on  the  16th  day  of  March,  1808, 
a  fire  was  discovered  in  the  upper  story.  It  spread  rapidly  over 
the  dry  timbers  and  soon  the  entire  structure  and  the  adjoining 
keeper's  were  utterly  destroyed.  The  jailor,  Pitt  Dilling- 
ham, was  prepared  for  such  a  catastrophe,  and  under  a  strong  guard, 
escorted  the  prisoners  to  the  house  of  Lot  Hamlin,  where  they 
were  again  secured  without  the  loss  of  a  man.  General  John  Chan- 
dler, who  was  then  high  sheriff,  immediately  erected  a  temporary 
place  of  confinement  near  the  east  end  of  the  court  house.  Proceed- 
ings were  immediately  instituted  for  the  erection  of  a  stone  building 
on  the  old  lot,  and  so  expeditiously  was  the  work  carried  forward  that 


in  the  following  December  it  was  approved  and  accepted,  although 
not  then  completed,  and  the  sheriff  was  instructed  to  use  it  as  a  jail  on 
account  of  its  greater  security.  The  brick  building  which  was  subse- 
quently erected  as  a  keeper's  house  is  still  standing.  In  April  an  ad- 
ditional tax  was  laid  upon  the  county  for  its  completion.  It  was  much 
in  advance  of  the  pri.son  accommodations  of  that  day  and  was  consid- 
ered a  very  expensive  and  secure  structure.  It  was  two  stories  high, 
the  walls  being  constructed  of  large  blocks  of  rough  hammered  stone 
fastened  together  with  iron  dowels.  On  May  21,  1857,  it  was  voted 
"  to  proceed  at  once  in  the  preliminary  measures  necessary  to  the 
erection  "  of  a  building  better  fitted  for  the  keeping  of  prisoners,  the 
old  jail  built  in  1808  being  wholly  unfit  for  the  purpose.  The  build- 
ing was  finished  in  January,  1859,  and  opened  for  public  inspection  on 
February  1st. 

State  Capitol. — In  1821  a  committee  composed  of  members  from 
both  branches  of   the   legislature,  which  was  then  convened  at  the 
Portland  court  house,  appointed  to  select  a 
^^,^^        place  for  the  next  session  of  that  body,  re- 
commended  Hallowell  as  the  most  central 
point  of  popula- 
tion and  repre- 
sentation.     Al- 
^'  d^^^P*^^^^^  i.^^S''*        though  assured 

that  suitable  ac- 
for  the  several 
state  depart- 
ments would  be 
expense  to  the 
a  resolve  favoring  the  removal 
to  that  point  failed  to  pass  either  house.  After  an  acrimonious  de- 
bate, which  was  renewed  at  each  session  for  several  years,  between 
Portland's  politicians  and  the  best  economists  of  the  state,  Weston's 
hill,  at  Augusta,  was,  by  the  advice  of  a  committee  of  three,  of  which 
John  Chandler,  of  Monmouth,  was  a  member,  selected  for  the  .site  of 
the  new  capitol.  The  lot  was  conveyed  to  the  state  June  6,  1827;  in 
the  autumn  of  this  year  shade  trees  were  set  about  the  grounds  and 
the  work  of  laying  the  foundation  begun;  on  the  Fourth  of  July,  1829, 
the  corner-stone  was  laid  with  imposing  ceremonies  conducted  by  the 
Masonic  fraternity,  in  the  presence  of  the  president,  vice-president 
and  chief  ju.stice  of  the  United  States. 

The  building,  which  was  designed  by  Charles  Bulfinch,  the  archi- 
tect of  the  national  capitol,  was  erected  at  an  expense  of  $138,991.34, 



of  which  Sll,4GG.7o  was  furnished  by  the  city  of  Aug'usta.  As  ac- 
cepted, in  1S32,  the  capitol  consisted  of  a  central  building  eighty-four 
feet  in  length  by  fifty-six  in  width,  faced  with  a  high  arcade  resting 
on  massive  Doric  columns.  Flanking  this  are  two  wings,  each  thirty- 
three  feet  long,  making  an  aggregate  length  of  150  feet.  The  total 
height,  including  the  cupola,  is  114  feet.  In  1832,  and  again  in  1860, 
the  interior  was  slightly  remodeled  to  accommodate  the  increasing 
demands  of  some  of  the  departments.  An  addition  has  recently  been 
made  to  the  main  building,  which  increases  the  floor  space  by  about 
one-third.  This  annex  contains,  in  addition  to  apartments  for  the 
better  accommodation  of  officials,  the  spacious  and  well  arranged  room 
in  which  are  the  valuable  collections  of  books  and  pamphlets  which 
compose  the  State  Library. 

State  and  National  Officers.— Since  the  formation  of  the  state 
the  county  has  furnished  nine  governors:  Jona  G.  Hunton  of  Read- 
field,  in  1830;  Dr.  John  Hubbard  of  Hallowell,  in  IS.oO;  Anson  P.  Mor- 
rill, Readfield,  1855;  Joseph  H.  Williams,  Augusta,  1857;  Lot  M.  Mor- 
rill, Augusta,  1858;  vSamuel  Cony,  Augusta,  1864;  Selden  Connor, 
Augusta,  1876;  Joseph  R.  Bodwell,  Hallowell.  1887;  and  Edwin  C. 
Burleigh  of  Augusta,  now  completing  his  second  term. 

The  present  governor  is  Hon.  Edwin  C.  Burleigh,  of  Augusta,  now 
completing  the  last  year  of  his  second  term.  He  is  a  native  of  Aroos- 
took county,  Me.,  but  his  ancestor  eight  generations  back  (in  1648) 
was  Giles  Burleigh,  of  Ipswich,  Mass.,  where  the  first  two  or  three 
generations  of  the  family  in  America  resided.  James'  and  Josiah^ 
were  natives  of  Ma.ssachusetts,  but  Thomas'  was  born  in  Sandwich, 
N.  H.,  where  the  family  name  is  still  preserved  in  the  name  of  "  Bur- 
leigh Hill."  There  Benjamin.'  a  farmer  and  merchant,  lived  and  died, 
and  there  his  son,  Moses,  was  born  in  1781. 

This  Moses  Burleigh,  the  governor's  grandfather,  came  to  Maine 
before  1812  and  resided  until  1830  in  Palermo,  where  he  filled  various 
civil  offices  and  as  a  militia  officer  in  1812-16  gained  by  promotion  to 
lieutenant  colonel,  the  title  by  which  he  was  generally  known.  He 
was  elected  to  the  Massachusetts  legislature;  was  delegate  in  1816  to 
the  convention  framing  a  constitution  for  the  proposed  state  of  Maine, 
and  in  1830  he  removed  with  his  family  to  Linneus,  Aroostook  county, 
where  he  died  in  1860.  His  eldest  surviving  child,  born  while  they 
resided  in  Palermo,  is  Hon.  Parker  P.  Burleigh,  the  governor's  father. 
Like  six  generations  of  his  New  England  progenitors  he  follows 
the  peaceful  and  honorable  calling  of  the  farmer,  and  in  the  new 
garden  county  of  Maine  has  found  agriculture  both  pleasant  and 
profitable.  He  has  always  been  a  leading  citizen  of  Linneus,  has 
served  repeatedly  in  each  branch  of  the  legislature,  and  was  for  a 
long  time  state  land  agent.     He  was  educated  as  a  surveyor,  and,  as 


chairman  in  1869  of  the  Maine  commission  on  the  settlement  of  the 
public  land,  contributed  largely  to  the  rapid  development  of  Aroos- 
took county. 

Such,  briefly,  are  the  antecedents  of  Maine's  present  executive.  He 
was  born  at  the  family  farm  house,  November  27,  1843,  and  after  the 
common  schools  of  Linneus  had  laid  the  foundation,  he  received  an 
academical  education  in  the  academy  at  Houlton.  While  yet  a  boy  he 
found  employment  in  teaching  school  and  in  surveying  land.  In  this 
latter  occupation  he  gained  a  knowledge  of  the  nature  and  value  of 
the  public  lands  of  Maine,  such  as  not  many  men  posse.ssed,  and  which 
at  a  later  period  of  his  life  recommended  him  to  the  governor  of 
Maine  as  a  proper  person  to  fill  the  responsible  position  of  state  land 

He  enlisted  during  the  civil  war  but,  not  being  in  sound  health 
at  that  time,  was  rejected  by  the  examining  surgeon.  For  two  win- 
ters during  the  war  he  was  clerk  in  the  adjutant  general's  office.  He 
was  a  farmer  and  land  surveyor  until  1870,  when  he  entered  the  state 
land  office  as  a  clerk,  and  in  1872  he  moved  to  Bangor.  He  was  state 
land  agent  in  1876,  '77  and  '78,  and  was  assistant  clerk  of  the  house  of 
representatives  for  same  years.  In  1880  he  resigned  his  position  as 
assistant  clerk  to  accept  a  position  in  the  office  of  the  treasurer  of  state. 
He  removed  to  Augusta  with  his  family  during  that  time,  where  he 
has  since  resided.  In  1885  he  was  elected  treasurer  of  the  state  and 
reelected  in  1887.  In  1888  he  was  elected  governor  of  the  state, 
receiving  a  plurality  of  18,048.  In  1890  he  was  reelected  governor, 
receiving  the  increased  plurality  of  18,883. 

Thus  has  Governor  Burleigh  been  recognized  by  the  sovereign 
people  of  his  native  state,  who  have  seen  fit  to  honor  him  with  their 
confidence  and  esteem.  In  no  other  decade  since  the  republic  was 
founded  have  the  private  life  and  domestic  relations  of  public  men 
been  so  keenly  scrutinized  by  their  constituents  as  now;  and  probably 
in  no  section  more  than  in  Puritan  New  England,  and  certainly  in  no 
state  more  than  in  the  Pine  Tree  state  do  clean  hands  and  a  pure  life 
count  for  more  to  one  who  aspires  to  political  preferment. 

In  the  person  of  Governor  Burleigh  we  have,  too,  the  almost  per- 
fect New  England  type.  How  much  of  his  great  popularity  is  due  to 
his  splendid  physique  and  how  much  to  his  genial  and  courteous  bear- 
ing would  puzzle  his  best  friend  to  say.  Born  to  the  inheritance  of 
those  who  toil,  his  sympathies  are  ever  with  the  humble,  and  in  his 
extensive  intercourse  with  his  constituents  his  democratic  ideas  and 
his  kindly  bearing  have  given  him  a  home  in  their  hearts  more 
enviable  than  office — more  honorable  than  place. 

The  U.  S.  Senators  from  Kennebec  county  since  the  state  was  or- 
ganized have  been:  John  Chandler,  of  Monmouth,  1820,  reelected  1823; 
Peleg  Sprague,  Haliowell,    1829;  Reuel   Williams,  Augusta,  1837,  re- 

^^2:w^^^  (^  /::^^^.€^i 


■elected  1839:  Wyman  B.  S.  Moor,  Waterville,  1848;  George  Evans, 
Gardiner,  1841;  James  W.  Bradbury,  Augusta,  1847;  Lot  M.  :SIorrill, 
Augusta,  1861,  and  in  1863,  1869  and  1871;  James  G.  Blaine,  Augusta, 
1876  and  1877. 

The  Representatives  in  Congress  have  been:  Joshua  Cushman, 
Winslow,  in  1823;  Peleg  Sprague,  Hallowell,  1825,  reelected  in  1827; 
■George  Evans,  Gardiner,  1829,  reelected  for  six  .successive  terms;  Gen- 
eral Alfred  Marshall,  China,  1841;  Luther  Severance,  Augusta,  1843, 
reelected  1845;  John  Otis,  Hallowell,  1849;  Samuel  P.  Benson,  Win- 
throp,  1853,  reelected  1855;  Anson  P.  Morrill,  Readfield,  1861;  James 
G.  Blaine,  Augusta,  1863,  reelected  for  the  six  succeeding  terms. 

The  Secretaries  of  the  State  from  the  county  have  been:  Amos 
Nichols,  Augusta,  1822;  Asaph  R.  Nichols,  Augusta,  1835;  Samuel  P^ 
Benson,  Winthrop,  1838;  Asaph  R.  Nichols,  Augusta,  1839;  Philip  C. 
Johnson,  Augusta,  1840;  Samuel  P.  Benson,  Winthrop,  1841;  Philip  C. 
Johnson,  Augusta,  1842;  William  B.  Hartwell,  Augusta,  1845;  John  G. 
Sawyer,  Augusta,  1850;  Alden  Jackson,  Augusta,  1854,  also  in  1857;  S. 
J.  Chadbourne,  Augusta,  1880;  Joseph  O.  Smith,  Augusta,  1881;  Ora- 
mandel  Smith,  Litchfield,  1885. 

The  State  Treasurers  from  the  county  have  been:  Asa  Redington, 
jun.,  Augusta,  1835;  Daniel  Williams,  Augusta,  Com.,  1835;  and  as  treas- 
urer in  1840;  Samuel  Cony,  Augusta,  1850;  J.  A.  Sanborn,  Readfield, 
Com.,  1855;  William  Caldwell,  Augusta,  1869;  and  Charles  A.  White, 
Gardiner,  1879. 

Two  Attorneys  General  of  Maine  have  been  chosen  from  the 
county:  W.  B.  S.  Moor  of  Waterville,  in  1844;  and  Orville  D.  Baker  of 
Augusta,  in  1885. 

Kennebec  has  furnished  three  cabinet  officers:  James  G.  Blaine, 
secretary  of  state  under  Garfield  and  Harrison;  Lot  M.  Morrill,  secre- 
tary of  the  treasury,  and  Henry  Dearborn,  secretary  of  war.  Mell- 
ville  W.  Fuller,  a  native  of  Augusta,  has  been  appointed  associate  jus- 
tice of  the  supreme  court,  and  James  G.  Blaine  was  speaker  of  the 
house  of  representatives  during  the  sessions  of  the  41st,  42d  and  43d 

Under  the  first  apportionment,  Kennebec  county  was  entitled  to 
three  senators  in  the  Maine  legislature.  The  apportionment  of  1871 
reduced  the  number  to  two.  Those  elected  from  what  is  now  Kenne- 
bec county,  with  residence  and  years  of  service  have  been:  Augusta, 
Joshua  Gage,  1820,  '21;  Reuel  Williams,  1826,  '27,  '28;  William  Em- 
mons, 1834,  '35;  Luther  Severance,  1836,  '37:  Richard  H.  Vose,  1840, 
'41;  Joseph  Baker,  1847;  Lot  M.  Morrill,  1856;  Joseph  H.Williams, 
1857;  James  A.  Bicknell,  1860;  John  L.  Stevens,  1868,  '69;  J.  Man- 
chester Haynes,  1878,  '79;  George  E.  Weeks,  1883,  '85;  and  Herbert 
M.  Heath,  in  1887,  '89.  A/biou,  Joel  Wellington,  1824;  Asher  Hinds, 
1830,  '31;  Enoch  Farnbam,  1834,  '35;  Thomas  Burrill,  1856.     Be/grade, 


Jacob  Alain,  1843;  George  E.  Minot,  1870,  71.  Benton,  Crosby  Hinds, 
1865,  '66.  China,  Timothy  F.  Hanscom,  1842;  Alfred  Fletcher,  1858, 
'59;  Ambrcse  H.  Abbott,  1873,  '74.  Fayette-,  Albert  G.  French,  1875, 
'76.  Gardiner,  Joshua  Lord,  1825;  Sanford  Kingsbury,  1829,  '30;  Mer- 
rill Clough,  1842;  Edward  Swan,  1844,  '45;  Isaac  N.  Tucker,  1853,  '54; 
Nathaniel  Graves,  1857;  John  Berry,  jun.,  1858,  '59;  Noah  Woods,  1862, 
'63;  Joshua  Gray,  1870,  '71;  Albert  M.  Spear,  1891.  Hallowell,  Thomas 
Bond,  1822.  '23;  John  T.  P.  Dumont.  1838,  '39,  '48,  '49;  John  Otis,  1842; 
John  Hubbard,  1843;  Joseph  A.  Sanborn,  1864,  '65;  George  W.  Per- 
kins, 1866,  '67.  Litchfield,  John  Neal,  1850,  '51,  '52;  Josiah  True,  1864, 
'65;  John  Woodbury,  1876,  '77.  Momnouth,  John  Chandler,  1820,  '21 
(resigned  to  take  a  seat  in  congress);  Abraham  Morrill,  1822,  '23;  Jo- 
seph Chandler,  1824;  Ebenezer  Freeman,  1850,  '51,  '52;  William  B. 
Snell,  1868,  '69.  Mt.  Vernon,  Elijah  Morse,  1830,  '31:  Calvin  Hopkins, 
1860,  '61;  Moses  S.  Mayhew,  1879.  Pittston,  Eliakira  Scammon,  1832, 
'33.  Readfie-ld,  Jonathan  G.  Hunton,  1832,  "33;  Oliver  Bean,  1848,  '49; 
Henry  P.  Torsey,  1854,  '55;  Emery  O.  Bean,  1856;  George  A.  Russell, 
1887.  Sidney,  Asa  Smiley,  1844,  '45;  Joseph  T.  Woodward,  1867,  '68. 
Vassalboro,  Joseph  Southwick,  1825,  '26,  '27;  Elijah  Robinson,  1836,  '37; 
Oliver  Prescott,  1848,  '49;  Warren  Percival,  1861,  '62;  Thomas  S.  Lang, 
1869,  '70.  Waterville,  Timothy  Boutelle,  1820,  '21,  '32,  '33,  '38,  '39; 
Isaac  Redington,  1846,  '47;  Edwin  Noyes,  1850;  Stephen  Stark,  1853, 
'54;  Josiah  H.  Drummond,  I860;  Dennis  L.  Millikin,  1863,  '64;  Reuben 
Foster,  1871,  '72;  Edmund  F.  Webb,  1874,  '75;  F.  E.  Heath,  1883,  '84; 
William  T.  Haines,  1889,  '91.  Wayiie,  Thomas  B.  Read,  1866,  '67;  Jo- 
seph S.  Berry,  1880,  '81.  West  Waterville,  Greenlief  T.  Stevens,  1877, 
'78.  Winslow,  Joseph  Eaton,  1840,  '41,  '53,  '55;  David  Garland,  1851, 
'52;  Colby  C.  Cornish,  1880,  '81.  Winthrop,  Samuel  P.  Benson,  1836, 
'37;  David  Stanley,  1843;  Ezekiel  Holmes,  1844,  '45;  Charles  A.  Wing, 
1858,  '59;  Peleg  F.  Pike,  1862,  '63;  John  May,  1872,  '73. 

The  names  of  Thomas  W.  Herrick,  1857,  William  Ayer,  1843, 
Daniel  Hutchinson,  1831,  and  Josiah  Chapman.  1829,  appear  as  mem- 
bers of  the  senate  from  Kennebec  county;  but  their  respective  resi- 
dences are  not  shown  by  the  records  in  the  state  archives  from  which 
the  foregoing  was  transcribed. 

Of  the  Presidents  of  the  State  Senate  six  have  been  residents  of 
what  is  now  Kennebec  county:  Richard  H.  Vose,  Augusta,  in  1841; 
Lot  M.  Morrill,  Augu.sta,  1856;  Joseph  H.  Williams,  Augusta,  1857 
Reuben  Foster,  Waterville,  1872;  Edmund  F.  Webb,  Waterville,  1875 
and  J.  Manchester  Haynes  of  Augusta,  1879. 

The  county  as  it  existed  when  Maine  became  a  state  was  allotted 
twenty-one  seats  in  the  state's  house  of  representatives.  Belgrade,  Dear- 
born and  Rome  made  one  district;  Fayette  and  Vienna  were  joined  with 
Chesterville  as  a  district;  Mt.  Vernon  was  classed  with  New  Sharon, 
Winslow  with    Clinton,  Pittston   with    Windsor,    and    Harlem  with 


China.  These  six  districts,  and  each  of  the  other  towns,  elected  one 
representative  each  year,  except  Wayne,  which  elected  for  four  of  the 
ten  years. 

The  apportionment  of  1831  gave  the  county  twenty-four  members 
for  the  next  decade.  Augusta  and  Hallowell  each  elected  two,Winslow, 
Wayne  and  Windsor  were  each  to  elect  for  five  of  the  ten  years,  as 
was  Albion  with  the  unincorporated  territory  north  of  it.  Dearborn 
was  joined  with  Belgrade,  Vienna  and  Rome  with  Chesterville,  and 
Mt.  Vernon  with  Fayette,  making  three  districts  which  elected  each 
one  member.  The  other  towns  had  each  one  representative  each 

The  1841  apportionment  gave  Kennebec  county  twenty-two  repre- 
sentatives. Albion,  Albion  Gore  and  Winslow  were  joined  to  make  one 
di.strict;  also  Clinton  and  Clinton  Gore;  Belgrade,  Dearborn  and  Rome: 
Mt.Vernon  and  Vienna;  Wayne  and  Fayette.  These  five  districts  each 
chose  one  member  every  year;  Windsor  was  represented  six  years  of 
the  ten;  Augusta,  Hallowell  and  Gardiner  each  had  two  representa- 
tives annually  and  the  other  towns  each  one. 

For  the  decade  from  1851  the  county  elected  sixteen  members. 
Vassalboro  with  Rome;  Albion,  Benton,  Clinton  with  the  Gores;  Hal- 
lowell with  Manchester,  and  West  Gardiner  with  Farmingdale  made 
up  four  districts.  Augusta  chose  two  annually,  and  the  others  one, 
except  the  smaller  towns,  which  elected  for  part  of  the  years  accord- 
ing to  their  population. 

The  apportionment  of  1861  gave  Kennebec  thirteen  members.  Six 
districts  were  made:  China,  Albion  and  Clinton  Gore  with  Unity 
Plantation;  Vassalboro  with  Windsor;  Readfield  with  Mt.  Vernon 
and  Vienna;  Pittston  with  West  Gardiner  and  Farmingdale;  Benton, 
Clinton  and  Winslow;  Sidney,  Rome  and  Belgrade.  This  classifica- 
tion was  slightly  modified  in  1871  by  joining  Winthrop  with  Wayne 
and  Fayette;  Hallowell  with  Chelsea,  and  Manchester  to  Litchfield 
and  Monmouth — the  county  still  having  thirteen  representatives. 

The  several  towns  have  been  represented  as  follows:  Albion,  Joel 
Wellington,  1820,  '21,,  '28,  '31,  '33;  Josiah  Crosby,  1823,  '24;  John 
Winslow,  1826,  '27;  Enoch  Farnham,  1833;  James  Stratton,  1835;  Ben- 
jamin Webb,  1837;  Codding  Blake,  1839;  Thomas  Burrill,  1839,  '41; 
Amasa  Taylor,  1841,  '42;  Scotland  Chalmers,  1844;  Simeon  Skillin 
1846;  David  Hanscom,  1848,  '50;  Artemas,  Libby,  1853;  John  T.  Main 
1855;  William  H.  Palmer,  1858;  N.  E.  Murray,  1860;  Otis  M.  Sturte 
vant,  1861;  H.  T.  Baker,  1863;  Robert  Crosby,  1866;  Ezra  Pray,  1868 
'70:  Mark  Rollins,  jun.,  1873;  Elias  C.  Fowler,  1876;  Ora  O.  Crosby 
1878;  George  H.  Wilson,  1880;  George  B.  Pray,  1887-8.  Augusta 
Robert  C.  Vose,  1820,  '21;  Reuel  Williams,  1822,  '23,  '24,  '25,  '29,  '32 
'48;  Robert  Howard,  1826;  John  Davis,  1827;  Henry  W.  Fuller,  1828 
Luther  Severance,  1830,  '40,  '41,  '43,  '47;  Daniel  Williams,  1831;  Elihu 


Robinson,  1832:  William  Emmons,  1833;  George  W.  Morton,  1833,  '34, 
'38,  '39,  '51,  '52,  '53;  Richard  H.  Vose,  1834,  '35,  '38,  '39;  John  Potter, 
1835,  '36;  Loring  Gushing,  1836;  Robert  A.  Con^^  1837,  '42;  Alfred 
Redington,  1837;  Benjamin  .Swan,  1840,  '41;  John  Arnold,  jun.,  1842; 
Richard  F.  Perkins,  1844,  '45;  Gharles  Keen,  1846;  James  W.  North, 
1849,  '53,  '74,  '75;  George  W.  Stanley,  1850;  Lot  M.  Morrill,  1854; 
James  A.  Thompson,  1854;  Edward  Fenno,  1855;  Samuel  Titcomb, 
1855,  '67,  '68,  '72,  '73;  Benjamin  A.  G.  Fuller,  1856;  Daniel  C.  Stan- 
wood,  1856;  William  T.  Johnson,  1857,  '58,  '59,  '71;  James  A.  Bicknell, 
1857,  '58;  James  G.  Blame.  1859.  '60,  '61,  '62;  Josiah  P.  Wyman,  I860, 
'61,  '80,  '81,  '82;  Vassal  D.  Pinkham,  1862;  Joshua  S.  Turner,  1863,  '64; 
Samuel  Cony,  1863:  Joseph  H.  Williams,  1864,  '65,  '66,  '74;  John  L, 
Stevens,  1865,  '66,  '67;  George  E.  Brickett,  1868,  '69;  Alanson  B.  Far- 
well,  1869,  '70;  Joseph  Baker,  1870;  John  W.  Chase,  1871;  J.  Prescott 
Wyman,  1872;  George  E.  Weeks,  1873,  '78,  '79,  '80;  Gardiner  C.  Vose, 
1875;  George  S.  Ballard,  1876,  '77;  J.  Manchester  Haynes,  1876,  '77, 
'83,  '84;  Peleg  O.  Vickery,  1878,  '79;  Anson  P.  Morrill,  1881-2r 
Herbert  M.  Heath,  1883-4,  '85-6;  Ira  H.  Randall,  1885-6,  '87-8r 
Joseph  H.  Manley,  1887-8,  '89-90;  John  F.  Hill,  1889-90,  '91-2; 
Treby  Johnson,  1891-2.  Belgrade.  Samuel  Taylor,  1822;  John  Chan- 
dler, 1824;  John  Pitts,  1825,  '27,  '28,  '32;  John  Rockwood,  1829;  Anson 
P.  Morrill,  1834;  Richard  Mills,  1835;  George  Smith,  1837;  David 
Blake,  1838:  Ephraim  Tibbetts,  jun.,  1839;  Jacob  Main,  1840,  '51,  '52; 
Thomas  Eldred,  1841;  Moses  Page,  1842;  Reuben  H.  Yeaton,  1843; 
Samuel  Frost,  1845;  Joseph  Taylor,  1847,  '53;  Levi  Guptill,  1849;  Ste- 
phen Smith,  1855;  George  Smith,  1857;  Warren  W.  Springer,  1859; 
Thomas  Rollins,  1861;  Thomas  Eldred,  1863;  John  S.  Minot,  1866; 
Albert  Caswell,  1868;  Chaslew  W.  Stewart,  1871;  C.  Marshall  Weston, 
1873;  David  Colder  (unseated),  1876;  Henry  F.  D.  Wyman  (contested), 
1876;  Albert  E.  Faught,  1878;  William  F.  Eldred,  1881-2;  Hermon 
H.  Adams,  1889-90.  Benton,  Orrin  Brown,  1844;  Daniel  H.  Brown, 
1846;  Japheth  Winn,  1848;  Stewart  Hunt,  1854;  Daniel  H.  Brown, 
1856;  Clark  Piper,  1859;  Albert  C.  Hinds,  1864;  Asher  H.  Barton,  1867, 
'70;  Madison  Crowell,  1874;  Simeon  Skillin,  1876;  Asher  H.  Learned, 
1877;  Bryant  Roundy,  1880;  Sprague  Holt,  1885-6;  Frank  W.  Gifford, 
1891-2.  Chelsea,  Franklin  B.  Davis,  1853;  Alonzo  Tenney,  1857; 
Henry  D.  Doe,  1862;  Josiah  F.  Morrill,  1867;  George  Brown,  1867;  N. 
R.  Winslow,  1873;  Benjamin  Tenney,  1876;  William  W.  Hankerson, 
1879;  William  T.  Searles,  1885-6;  Mark  L.  Rollins,  1891-2.  Clinton, 
Herbert  Moors,  1820,  '21,  '23;  William  Eames,  1822;  William  Spear- 
ing, jun.,  1825;  Samuel  Hudson,  1826;  Josiah  Hayden,  1827;  William 
Ames,  1828,  '30;  David  Hunter,  1833;  James  Lamb,  1834,  '35;  Charles 
Brown,  1836;  Shubael  Dixon,  1837;  Matthias  Weeks,  1838,  '39,  '40,  '42; 
James  Hunter,  1841;  Joseph  P.  Brown,  1843;  Richard  Wells,  1845,  '57; 
Francis  Low,  1847;  Samuel  Haines,  1849;  Samuel  Weymouth,  1851, 


'52;  Jonas  Chase,  1853;  Samuel  Haines,  1855;  David  L.  Hunter,  1859; 
William  Lamb,  1861;  Daniel  H.  Brown,  1863;  Charles  Jesett,  1866; 
William  H.  Bigelow,  1869;  John  F.  Lamb,  1871;  John  Totman,  1873; 
William  Lamb  (unseated),  1875;  Alfred  W^eymouth,  1879;  William  G. 
Foster,  1883-4;  Daniel  C^in,  1889-90.  China,  Robert  Fletcher,  1820, 
'21,  '22.  '23,  '24;  Abishai  Benson,  1825,  '26;  Alfred  Marshall,  1827,  '28; 
John  Weeks,  1829,  '30;  Ebenezer  Meigs,  1831,  '48;  Benjamin  Libby, 
jun.,  1832;  Gustavus  A.  Benson,  1833;  Alfred  Marshall,  1834;  Prince 
B.  Moores,  1835;  Nathaniel  .Spratt,  1836;  Freeman  Shaw,  1837;  Tim- 
othy F.  Hanscomb,  1838;  William  Mosher,  1839;  Corydon  Chadwick, 
1840:  Jonathan  Clark,  1841;  Samuel  Hanscomb,  1842;  Charles  F.  Russ, 
1843,  '44;  Reuben  Hamlin,  1845;  Jason  Chadwick,  1846;  James  H. 
Brainard,  1847;  Thomas  B.  Lincoln,  1849;  Samuel  Plummer,  1850; 
John  L.  Gray,  1851,  '52;  Alfred  Marshall,  1853;  Eli  Jones,  1855;  Alfred 
Fletcher,  1857;  Abel  Chadwick,  1859;  Dana  C.  Hanson,  1860;  Josiah 
H.  Greely,  1862;  Ambrose  H.  Abbott,  1864,  '65;  Alfred  H.  Jones, 
1867:  George  F.  Clark,  1871;  Eli  Jepson,  1872;  L.  B.  Tibbetts,  1874; 
John  O.  Page,  1875;  Moses  W.  Newbert,  1877;  Francis  Jones.  1879; 
Charles  F.  Achorn,  1881-2;  Elijah  D.  Jepson,  1883-4;  John  A. 
Woodsum,  1889-90.  Fanningdalc,  Daniel  Lancaster,  1856;  Gideon  C. 
McCausland,  1863;  Andrew  B.  McCausland,  1869;  Reuben  S.  Neal, 
1873;  David  Wing,  1879;  Levi  M.  Lancaster,  1885-6;  Elisha  S. 
Newell,  1891-2.  Fayette,  Samuel  Tuck,  1820,  '21;  Charles  Smith, 
1823;  Merrill  Clough,  1826;  Ezra  Fisk,  1829,  '31;  Joseph  H.  Under- 
wood, 1833,  '35,  '38;  Abijah  Crane,  jun.,  1841;  Isreal  Chase,  1843;  Jona- 
than Tuck,  1846;  Howard  B.  Lovejoy,  1849;  Moses  Hubbard,  1854; 
Asa  Hutchenson,  1860;  Phineas  Libby,  1864;  F.  A.  Chase,  1869;  J.  H. 
Sturtevant,  1873;  Albert  G.  Underwood,  1878;  Charles  Russell,  1887 
-8.  Gardiner,  Joshua  Lord,  1820,  '21,  '24,  '31;  Robert  H.  Gardiner, 
1822;  James  Parker,  1823,  '32;  Daniel  Robinson,  1825;  George  Evans, 
1826,  '27,  '28,  '29;  Peter  Adams,  1830;  Alexander  S.  Chadwick,  1833, 
'84,  '35,  '36;  Parker  Sheldon,  1837,  '38,  '39;  Ebenezer  F.  Deane,  1840, 
'41;  Edwin  Swan,  1842;  Philip  R.  Holmes,  1842;  Philip  C.  Holmes, 
1843;  Mason  Damon,  1844;  Silas  Holman,  1845;  Noah  Woods,  1846, 
'47;  Isaac  N.  Tucker,  1848,  '49;  Charles  Danforth,  1850,  '51,  '52,  '57; 
Robert  Thompson,  1853;  John  Berry,  jun.,  1854,  '55;  Charles  P.  Wal- 
ton, 1856;  John  W.  Hanson,  1858;  John  Webb,  1859,  '60;  William 
Perkins,  1861,  '62;  Lorenzo  Clay,  1863,  '64;  John  S.  Moore,  1865;  Henry 
B.  Hoskins,  1866;  John  Berry,  1867;  G.  S.  Palmer,  1868,  '69;  D.  C. 
Palmer,  1870.  '71;  James  Nash,  1872,  '73;  Nathan  O.  Mitchell,  1874, 
'75;  Arthur  Berry,  1876:  Melvin  C.  Wadsworth,  1877,  78;  William 
F.  Richards,  1879,  '80;  David  Wentworth,  1881-2,  '83-4;  Gustavus 
Moore,  1885-6,  '87-8;  Oliver  B.  Clayson,  1889-90,  '91-2.  Hallo- 
ivell,  Peleg  Sprague,  1820,  '21,  '22;  William  H.  Page,  1823,  '24,  '25, 
'27:  William  Clark,  1826,  '28,  '29,  '30,  '32,  '33;  Charles  Dummer,  1831, 


'32;  John  T.  P.  Dumont,  1833,  '34,  '35;  S.  ^V.  Robinson,  1834,  '35; 
Samuel  Wells,  1836,  '37;  James  Atkins.  1838,  '39;  Henry  W.  Paine, 
1836,  '37,  '38,  '53:  John  Otis,  1839,  '40,  '41,  '46,  '47;  Benjamin  F.  Mel- 
vin,  1840,  '41;  George  W.  Perkins,  jun.,  1842,  '43,  '45,  '65;  Henry  K. 
Baker,  1842,  '44,  '54;  Samuel  K.  Oilman,  1848,  '49,  '50,  '51,  '52;  Rodney 
G.  Lincoln,  1855;  Henry  Reed,  1856;  Eliphalet  Rowell,  1858,  '61,  '80, 
'81-2;  Francis  F.  Day,  1859;  Edward  K.  Butler,  1863;  Charles  Dum- 
mer,  1865;  Ariel  Wall,  1866,  '71;  Isaac  F.  Thompson,  1868,  '70;  Wil- 
liam Wilson,  1872;  John  S.  Snow,  1874,  '75;  Joseph  R.  Bodwell,  1877, 
'78;  Albert  M.  Spear,  1883-4,  '85-6;  Walter  F.  Marston,  1887-8; 
Hiram  L.  Grindle,  1889-90;  George  S.  Fuller,  1891-^2.  Litchfield, 
Asa  Batcheldor,  1836;  Hiram  Shorey,  1837;  John  Neal,  1838,  '39; 
David  W.  Perry,  1840;  Ebenezer  B.  Pike,  1841,  '42:  Rev.  William  O. 
Grant,  1843,  '44,  '46;  Aaron  True,  1847,  '49;  Constant  Quinnan,  1850; 
John  Woodbury,  1854;  Mark  Getchell,  1855;  Benjamin  Smith,  1858; 
True  Woodbury,  1860;  Josiah  True,  1861,  '62;  Nathaniel  Dennis,  1864; 
Charles  Howard  Robinson,  1866;  James  Colby,  1868;  Oramandel  Smith, 
1870;  Isaac  W.  Springer,  1872;  John  Woodbury,  1875;  Samuel  Smith, 
1878;  David  S.  Springer,  1880;  James  E.  Chase,  1883-4;  Enoch  Ad- 
ams, 1887-8.  Manchester,  William  A.  Sampson,  1857;  H.  G.  Cole, 
1860;  Isaac  N.  Wad,sworth,  1864,  '77;  Stephen  D.  Richardson,  1869;  I. 
Warren  Hawkes,  1874;  Willis  H.  Wing,  1889-90.  Monmouth,  Abra- 
ham Morrill,  1820,  '21;  Benjamin  White,  jun.,  1822,  '23,  '24,  '25,  '26, 
'27,  '28,  '29,  '30,  '31,  '32;  John  Chandler,  1832;  Isaac  S.  Small,  1833,  '34; 
Ebenezer  Freeman,  1835,  '36,  '37,  '46;  Otis  Norris,  1838,  '39;  Augus- 
tine Blake,  1840;  Jedediah  B.  Prescott,  1841;  Henry  V.  Cumston,  1842; 
Joseph  Loomis,  1844;  John  A.  Tinkham,  1847;  Royal  Fogg,  1849;  Jona- 
than M.  Heath,  1851,  '52;  William  G.  Brown,  1854;  Charles  S.  Norris, 
1855;  George  H.  Andrews,  1857,  '59;  Abner  C.  Stockin,  1861;  Daniel 
F.  Ayer,  1863;  John  B.  Fogg.  1865;  Ambrose  Beal,  1867;  Mason  J. 
Metcalf,  1869;  James  G.  Blossom,  1871;  Henry  O.  Pierce,  1873;  Joshua 
Cumston,  1876;  Seth  Martin,  1879;  J.  H.  Norris,  1881-2;  Otis  W. 
Andrews,  1885-6;  Josiah  L.  Orcutt,  1891-2.  Mt.  Vernon,  Nathaniel 
Rice,  1820,' '21;  Elijah  Morse,  1822,  '24,  '26,  '28;  David  McGaffey,  1830, 
'39,  '40;  John  Blake,  1832,  '34;  Samuel  Davis,  1836,  '37;  James  Chap- 
man, 1842;  Daniel  H.  Thing,  1844,  '63;  Daniel  Mansion,  1846;  William 
H.  Hartwell,  1848;  Edward  French,  1850;  Stephen  S.  Robinson,  1853; 
Aaron  S.  Lyford,  1856;  Elisha  C.  Carson,  1859;  Washington  Blake, 
1861;  John  Walton,  1866;  Ezra  Kempton,  1869;  Calvin  Hookins,  1871; 
Moses  S.  Mayhew,  1873;  James  A.  Robinson,  1876;  James  C.  Howland, 
1878;  Quintin  L.  Smith,  1881-2;  John  P.  Carson,  1889-90.  Oakland, 
William  Macartney,  1874;  Greenlief  T.  Stevens,  1875;  George  W. 
Goulding,  1879,  '80;  Albion  P.  Benjamin,  1885-6;  William  M.  Ayer, 
1891-2.  Pittston,  Thomas  Coss,  1820,  '21.  '23,  '25;  Eliakim  Scammon, 
1826,  '28,  '30,  '31,  '35,  '36,  '47;  Henry  Dearborn,  1832,  '39;  John  Stev- 


•ens,  1833,  '34;  Hiram  Stevens,  1837,  '38:  John  Blanchard,  1840,  '41; 
Samuel  G.  Bailey.  1842;  George  Williamson,  1843;  William  Troop, 
1844,  '45;  John  Coss,  1848;  Samuel  Clark,  1849;  Benjamin  Flitner, 
1S,'5();  Benjamin  F.  Fuller,  1854;  Heran  T.  Clark.  1855;  John  Blanchsird, 
1856;  Alphonso  H.  Clark.  1858;  William  H.  Mooers,  1859,  '61;  Caleb 
Stevens,  1860;  John  Boynton.  1862;  Gideon  Barker,  1864;  Arnold  Good- 
speed,  1866;  Sumner  R.  Tibbetts,  1868;  Warren  R.  Lewis,  1870; 
Zachariah  Flitner,  1872;  William  Grant,  1874;  Sumner  Smiley,  1876; 
Daniel  H.  Moody,  1878;  G.  A.  Colburn,  1880;  Moses  J.  Donnell,  1883-4; 
Gorham  P.  H.  Jewett,  1887-8.  Randolph,  Henry  P.  Closson,  1889-90. 
Readfield,  Samuel  Currier,  1820,  '21;  John  Smith,  1822;  Edward  Fuller, 
1823;  Solomon  Lombard,  1824,  '25;  Jere.  Page,  1826,  '27;  James  Wil- 
liams, 1828,  '29;  Eliphalet  Hoyt,  1830,  '31;  Oliver  Bean,  1832,  '33;  Jon- 
athan G.  Hunton,  1834;  David  F.  Sampson,  1835,  '36:  William  Vance, 
1837;  John  O.  Craig,  1838;  Elisha  Prescott,  1839;  John  Haynes,  1840; 
Richard  Judkins,  1841:  Peter  F.  Sanborn,  1842;  Dudley  Haines,  1844; 
Timothy  O.  Howe,  1845;  Hiram  S.  Melvin.  1847;  Thomas  Pierce,  1848: 
Eliab  Lyon,  1850;  Joshua  Packard,  1851,  '52;  Emery  O.  Bean,  1852; 
Joseph  A.  Sanborn,  1854;  George  W.  Hunton,  1856;  Elisha  S.  Case, 
1858;  James  R.  Batchelder,  1860;  Peter  F.  Sanborn,  1862;  H.  M.  Eaton, 
1865;  Bradbury  H.  Thomas,  1868;  Gustavus  Clark.  1870;  John  Lam- 
bard,  1872;  Jos'iah  N.  Fogg,  1875;  George  A.  Russell,  1877:  Benjamin 
W.  Harrirnan,  1880;  Francis  A.  Robinson.  1883-4;  Frederick  I. 
Brown,  1891-2.  Rome,  Hosea  Spaulding,  1830;  Job  N.  Tuttle,  1832: 
Samuel  Goodridge,  1836:  Thomas  Whittier,  1839,  '50:  Eben  Tracy, 
1844:  Nathaniel  Staples,  1847:  N.  P.  Martin,  1857;  John  T.  Fifield, 
1864;  Eleazer  Kelley,  1869:  Elbridge  Blaisdell,  1874:  Thomas  S.Golder, 
1879;  John  R.  Pre.scott,  1885-6.  Sidney,  Ambrose  Howard,  1820,  '21; 
Daniel  Tiffany,  1822;  Samuel  Butterfield,  1823,  '24,  '27,  '32,  '33;  Reuel 
Howard,  1825,  '26,  '2S;  Nathaniel  Merrill,  1829,  '30,  "31,  '34;  Daniel 
Tiffany,  jun.,  1835,  '36:  Asa  Smiley.  1837,  '38,  '39,  '42:  John  B.  Clifford, 
1840,  '41;  George  Fields,  1843:  Moses  Frost,  1845;  Moses  Trask,  1846; 
Silas  L.Wait,  1848,  '49;  Lauriston  Guild,  1851,  '52;  Gideon  Wing,  1854; 
Paul  Hammond,  1856;  James  Sherman,  1858;  John  Merrill,  1860;  Jo- 
seph T.  Woodard,  1862:  Martin  V.  B.  Chase,  1865,  '67;  J.  S.  Gushing, 
1870;  Jonas  Butterfield,  1872:  Henry  A.  Baker,  1875;  Nathan  W.  Tay- 
lor. 1877;  Gorham  Hastings,  1880;  Lorin  B.  Ward,  1883-4;  Martin  L. 
Reynolds,  1887-8.  Vassalboro,  Samuel  Redington,  1820,  '21,  '28; 
Philip  Leach,  1822,  '23;  Joseph  R.  Abbott,  1824,  '25,  '26,  '34,  '35;  Elijah 
Robinson,  1827,  '29,  '30,  '31,  '32;  Albert  G.  Brown,  1833;  Moses  Taber, 
1836,  '37,  '38:  Amos  Stickney,  1839,  '40;  Obed  Durrill,  1841,  '42;  Isaac 
Fairfield,  1843,  '46;  John  Moore,  1844,  '45;  Joseph  E.  Wing,  1847,  '48; 
George  Cox,  1849;  John  Homans,  1850,  '51,  '52;  John  G.  Hall,  1853; 
William  Merrill,  1854, '55;  Hiram  Pishon,  1856:  Henry  Weeks,  1858; 
Warren  Percival,  1859;  Timothy  Rowell,  1860;  W.  H.  Gates,  1862;  Jo- 



seph  B.  Low,  1863;  Thomas  S.  Lang,  1865,  '66;  Orrick  Hawes,  1868 
'70,  '79;  Ira  D.  Sturgis,  1869;  James  C.  Pierce,  1873;  George  Gifford 
1873;  Howard  G.  Abbot,  1874;  William  P.  Thompson,  1876;  Isaiah 
Gifford,  1877;  Nathaniel  Butler,  1880;  Edwin  C.  Barrows,  1883-4;  W 
S.  Bradley.  1887-8;  Hall  C.  Burleigh,  1889-90;  Reuel  C.  Burgess, 
1891-2.  Vienna,  Bernard  Kimball.  1822;  James  Chapman,  1825,  '28 
'34;  Benjamin  Porter,  1838;  Nathaniel  Graves,  1841;  Joseph  Edge 
comb,  1846;  Thomas  C.  Norris,  1851,  '52,  '64;  Joshua  Little,  1857 
Obadiah  Whittier,  1867;  Henry  Dowst,  1874;  Saunders  Morrill.  1879 
Albion  G.  Whittier.  1885-6.  Waterville,  Baxter  Crowell,  1820,  '21, 
'22,  '23,  '24,  '32:  Timothy  Boutelle,  1825,  '26,  '29,  '30,  '31;  Sylvanus 
Cobb,  1827,  '28;  Jedediah  Morrill.  1833,  '34;  David  Combs,  1836;  Ne- 
hemiah  Getchell,  1837;  Calvin  Gardner,  1838;  Wyman  B.  S.  Moor 
1839;  Erastus  O.  Wheeler.  1840;  Joseph  Hitching,  1841;  Moses  Hans- 
com,  1842,  '55;  William  Dorr,  1844,  '45;  Frederick  P.  Haviland,  1846 
'76  (unseated);  Stephen  Stark,  1847,  '48;  Thomas  Baker,  1849;  Joseph 
Percival,  1850,  '51,  '52;  Joshua  Nye.'jun.,  1853;  Joel  Harriman,  1854 
Jones  R.  Elden,  1856;  Josiah  H.  Drummond,  1857.  '58;  James  Stack- 
pole,  1859;  B.  C.  Benson,  1860;  Joseph  Percival,  1861;  Dennis  L.  Milli 
ken,  1862:  John  M.  Libby.  1863;  W.  A.  P.  Dillingham,  1864,  '65;  Reu 
ben  Foster,  1866.  '67,  '70;  Edwin  P.  Blaisdell,  1868,  '69;  Solyman  Heath 
1871;  Edmund  F.  Webb,  1872,  '73;  Nathaniel  Meader  (contestant) 
1876,  '77,  '83-4;  Franklin  Smith,  1878;  F.  E.  Heath,  1881-2;  Fred 
erick  C.  Thayer,  1885-6;  Perham  S.  Heald,  1887-8,  '89-90;  Frank 
L.  Thayer,  1891-2.  Wayne,  Moses  Wing.  1825;  Thomas  S.  Bridg 
ham,  1828,  '30;  Moses  Wing,  jun.,  1833;  John  Morrison.  1835;  Francis 
I.  Bowles,  1837;  Uriah  H.  Virgin,  1839;  James  Wing,  1841;  Hamilton 
Jenkins,  1842;  William  Lewis,  1844;  Benjamin  Ridley,  1845;  Caleb 
Fuller,  1848;  Napoleon  B.  Hunton,  1850;  Thomas  Silson,  1853;  Josiah 
Norris,  jun.,  1856;  Arcadius  Pettingill,  1858;  Josiah  Norris,  1860;  James 
H.  Thorne,  1862;  George  W.  Walton,  1867;  Matthias  Smith,  1872;  Jo^ 
seph  S.  Berry,  1877;  Alfred  F.  Johnson,  1883-4;  Benjamin  F.  Maxim, 
1889-90.  West  Gardiner,  Thaddeus  Spear,  1853;  Cyrus  Bran,  1859; 
Asa  F.  Hutchingson.  1865;  George  W.  Blanchard,  1867;  Phineas  S.. 
Hogden.  1871;  William  H.  Merrill,  1875;  William  P.  Haskell,  1877;  E.. 
P.  Seavey,  1881-2.  Windsor,  Joseph  Stewart,  1820,  '21;  William  Hil- 
ton, 1822;  Joseph  Merrill,  1824;  Charles  Currier,  1827,  '29;  Nathan 
Newell,  1832;  Gideon  Barton,  1834,  '36;  John  B.  Swanton.  1838,  '40;. 
Benjamin  W.  Farrar,  1842;  Henry  Perkins,  1843;  Stephen  F.  Pierce, 
1845;  Asa  Heath,  1847;  David  Bryant,  1849;  William  S.  Hatch,  1851, 
'.52;  David  Clary,  1854;  Thomas  Hyson,  1856;  Stephen  Barton.  1858; 
Elias  Perkins,  1861;  Elijah  Moody,  1864;  Levi  Perkins,  1867;  Horace 
Colburn,  1871;  Joel  W.  Taylor,  1875;  Adam  L.  Stimpson,  1878;  James 
E.  Ashford,  1881-2;  Samuel  P.  Barton,  1885-6.  Winslow,  Josiah 
Hayden,  1824;  Joseph  Eaton,  1829,  '31,  '32,  '62;  Joshua  Cushman,  1834; 


David  Garland,  1834,  'SO,  '60;  Sidney  Keith,  1836,  40;  Robert  Ayer, 
1838;  William  Getcliell,  1844,  '48;  Thomas  J.  Hayden,  1846;  Robert  H. 
Drummond,  1854,  '58;  Isaac  W.  Britten,  1856;  Charles  Drummond, 
1865;  Charles  A.  Priest,  1868;  Colby  C.  Cornish,  1872;  James  W.Withee,_ 
1875  (contestant);  Leslie  C.  Cornish,  ]878;  Allen  P.  Varney,  1881-2; 
Charles  E.  Warren,  1887-8.  Winthrop,  Andrew  Wood,  1820,  '21,  '22, 
'23,  "30;  Thomas  Fillebrown,  1824,  '27,  '29,  '31;  Nathan  Howard,  1825, 
'26;  Isaac  Moore,  jun.,  1828;  Samuel  Clark,  1832,  '33;  Samuel  P.  Benson, 
1834,  '35;  Dr.Ezekiel  Holmes,  1836,  '37,  '38, '39, '40,  '51;  Nathan  Foster, 
1841,  '42;  Samuel  Wood,  jun.,  1843;  Francis  Perley,  1845;  Thomas  C. 
Wood,  1847;  Francis  Fuller,  1849;  Ezekiel  Bailey,  1853;  Benjamin  H. 
Cushman,  1855;  William  H.  Parlin,  1857;  John  M.  Benjamin,  1859; 
Francis  E.  Webb,  1861,  '65;  P.  C.  Bradford,  1863;  David  Cargill,  1866; 
John  May,  1868,  '70;  Dr.  Albion  P.  Snow,  1871;  George  A.  Longfellow. 
1874;  Amos  Wheeler,  1875;  Silas  T.  Floyd,  1876;  Elliot  Wood,  1879; 
Abijah  R.  Crane,  1880;  Reuben  T.  Jones,  1881-2;  Rutillas  Alden, 
1887-8;  John  E.  Brainard,  1891-2.  Unity  Plantation,  Francis  B.  Lane, 

The  Speakers  of  the  Maine  House  from  Kennebec  county  have 
been:  George  Evans,  Gardiner,  in  1829;  Benjamin  White,  Monmouth, 
1831;  J.  H.  Drummond,  Waterville,  1858;  William  T.  Johnson,  Au- 
gusta, 1859;  James  G.  Blaine,  Augusta,  1861;  W.  A.  P.  Dillingham, 
Waterville,  1865;  Reuben  Foster.  Waterville,  1870;  Edmund  F.  Webb, 
Waterville,  1873;  George  E.  Weeks,  Augusta,  1880;  J.  Manchester 
Haynes,  Augusta,  1883. 

County  Officers. — The  successive  sheriffs  of  Kennebec  county 
since  the  incorporation  of  Maine,  in  1820,  have  been:  Jesse  Robinson, 
Hallowell.  who  began  serving  in  1820;  Benjamin  White,  Monmouth, 
in  1832;  George  W.  Stanley,  Winthrop,  1834;  Gustavus  A.  Benson,  Win- 
throp, 1838;  Eben  F.  Bacon,  Waterville,  1839;  William  Dorr.  Water- 
ville, 1841;  James  R.  Bachelder,  Readfield,  1842;  Ebenezer  Shaw, 
China,  1850;  Charles  N.  Bodfish,  Gardiner,  1851;  John  A.  Pettingil, 
Augusta,  1854;  Benjamin  H.  Gilbreth,  Readfield,  1855;  John  A.  Pet- 
tingil, Augusta.  1856;  Benjamin  H.  Gilbreth,  Readfield,  1857;  John 
Hatch,  China.  1861;  Charles  Hewins,  Augusta,  1867;  Asher  H.  Barton, 
Benton,  1871;  William  H.  Libby,  Augusta,  1875;  George  R.  Stevens, 
Belgrade,  1881;  Charles  R.  McFadden,  Augusta,  1885;  and  Greenlief 
T.  Stevens,  Augusta,  since  January  1,  1889. 

The  present  sheriff  of  Kennebec  county  is  Major  Greenlief  T. 
Stevens,  of  Augusta,  now  completing  his  fourth  year  of  faithful  and 
efficient  service.  Although  educated  to  a  profession  and  thoroughly 
identified  with  civil  affairs,  he  is  best  known  and  probably  destined 
to  be  longest  remembered  by  his  military  career.  Facts  are  the  only 
fast  colors  in  history.  The  facts  that  hold  a  life  like  his,  fully  repre- 
sent  the   actor,  without  comment  or  commendation.     He  comes  of 


patriotic  stock.  His  grandfather,  William  Stevens,  came  from  Leba- 
non, in  York  county,  and  settled  in  Belgrade  about  the  year  1796,  and 
was  a  soldier  in  the  revolutionary  war.  Daniel  and  Mahala  (Smith) 
Stevens,  daughter  of  Captain  Samuel  Smith  of  Belgrade,  where  he 
was  born  August  20,  1831,  were  his  parents.  A  farm  life,  a  happy 
home  and  a  country  school,  supplemented  by  the  advantages  of  the 
Titcomb  Belgrade  Academy,  and  of  the  Litchfield  Liberal  Institute, 
were  the  good  fortune  of  his  childhood  and  youth.  Then  he  applied 
his  talents  and  acquirements  for  several  years  to  teaching  school,  a 
part  of  the  time  in  the  South. 

By  that  time  the  purpose  of  his  future  was  settled  and  Jie  went  to 
Augusta  and  read  law  with  Hon.  Samuel  Titcomb  till  1860,  when  he 
obtained  admission  to  the  Cumberland  bar.  Wishing  the  best  possi- 
ble equipment,  he  then  took  the  regular  course  at  the  Harvard  Law 
School,  fromi  which  he  graduated  in  August,  1861,  receiving  the  de- 
gree of  LL.B. 

In  the  meantime  the  first  cloudburst  of  the  impending]  rebellion 
had  captured  Fort  Sumter  and  fired  the  patriotism  of  every  truly 
American  heart.  Instantly  the  inherited  hero  blood  of  the  citizen 
dominated  over  the  professional  ambitions  of  the  lawyer,  and  with 
his  own  name  at  the  head  of  the  roll,  he  recruited  at  his  own  expense, 
a  large  number  of  men  for  the  Fifth  Maine  Battery,  and  tendered  his 
services  to  Governor  Washburn.  From  the  Maine  adjutant  general's 
report  it  appears  that  on  December  14,  1861,  he  was  commissioned 
first  lieutenant  in  that  battery,  and  on  January  31, 1862,  was  mu.stered 
into  the  United  States  service  for  three  years.  In  May  he  joined  the 
army  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  and  served  successively  under  McDowell, 
Pope,  McClellan,  Mead,  Grant  and  Sheridan.  At  the  battle  of  Fred- 
ericksburg he  was  temporarilj'  in  command  of  the  Fifth  Battery,  and 
at  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  was  wounded  in  the  left  side  by  a 
fragment  of  a  shell.  He  was  promoted  captain,  June  21st,  and  at  the 
battle  of  Gettysburg,  July  2d,  received  another  wound,  a  ball  passing 
through  both  legs,  below  the  knee.  In  July,  1864,  he  was  detached 
from  the  army  of  the  Potomac  with  the  Sixth  Corps  and  proceeded  to 
Washington  for  its  defense.  Subsequently  joining  the  army  of  the 
Shenandoah  under  Sheridan,  he  was  engaged  in  the  three  great  bat- 
tles which  resulted  in  the  complete  destruction  of  the  rebel  army 
under  Early.  On  February  14,  1865,  he  was  appointed  major  by 
brevet,  to  take  rank  from  October  19, 1864,  for  gallant  and  meritorious 
conduct  at  the  battles  of  Cold  Harbor,  Winchester  and  Cedar  Creek. 
Major  Stevens  was  mustered  out  of  the  United  States  service  with  his 
battery,  at  Augusta,  Me..  July  6,  1865. 

An  extract  from  The  Cannoneer  in  describing  the  battle  of  Cedar 
Creek,  October  19,  1864,  under  Sheridan,  reads: 



"  At  the  time  when  Getty's  division  was  fighting  in  its  second 
position  Stevens,  who  had  apparently  been  retiring  in  the  interval 
between  the  right  of  Getty  and  the  left  of  Wheaton,  formed  his  bat- 
tery on  the  knoll  opposite  the  right  flank  of  Warner's  Brigade  and 
opened  a  tremendous  fire  of  canister  on  that  part  of  the  enemy's  line 
which  was  advancing  to  envelope  Warner.  These  must  have  been 
Kershaw's  troops,  but  there  was  another  Rebel  division  coming  up 
still  beyond  Kershaw  over  the  ground  vacated  by  our  First  Division. 
This,  according  to  Early's  account,  was  Gordon's  division,  and  one 
brigade  of  it  started  to  charge  Stevens'  Battery.  According  to  the 
best  information  immediately  after  the  battle  or  since,  there  was  no 
infantry  of  the  First  Division  within  supporting  distance  of  Stevens 
at  that  moment,  as  that  division  was  then  reforming  at  from  one-third 
to  one-half  a  mile  in  his  rear.  But  he  stood  his  ground  and  repulsed 
the  charge  of  Gordon's  troops,  who  did  not  get  more  than  half  way  up 
the  acclivity  of  the  knoll  he  was  holding,  and  who,  according  to  Gen. 
Early's  account,  '  recoiled  in  considerable  confusion.'  " 

On  a  document  requesting  his  promotion  General  Wright,  com- 
manding the  Sixth  Corps,  endonsed:  "  The  gallant  and  important  ser- 
vices rendered  by  Captain  Stevens  of  which  I  was  personally  cogni- 
zant make  it  my  duty  to  bring  his  merits  before  the  authorities  of  his 
state  and  to  ask  for  him  at  their  hands  such  acknowledgment  in  the 
way  of  promotion  as  it  is  in  their  power  to  bestow."  General  Sheri- 
dan endorsed  the  recommendation  as  "  highly  approved." 

Describing  the  great  crisis  in  the  battle  of  Winchester  the  field 
correspondent  of  the  Nezv  York  IVor/d  saxA:  "  The  moment  was  a  fear- 
ful one;  such  a  sight  rarely  occurs  more  than  once  in  any  battle,  as 
was  presented  on  the  open  space  between  two  pieces  of  woodland  into 
which  the  cheering  enemy  poured.  The  whole  line,  reckless  of  bul- 
lets, even  of  the  shell  of  our  battery,  constantly  advanced.  Captain 
Stevens'  battery,  the  Fifth  Maine,  posted  immediately  in  their  front, 
poured  its  fire  unflinchingly  into  their  columns  to  the  last.  A  staff 
officer  riding  up  warned  it  to  the  rear,  to  save  it  from  capture.  It  did 
not  move — the  men  of  the  battery  loading  and  firing  with  the  regu- 
larity and  precision  of  a  field  day.  The  foe  advanced  to  a  point  wnthin 
two  hundred  yards  of  the  muzzles  of  Captain  Stevens'  guns."  Colonel 
C.  H.  Tompkins,  chief  of  artillery.  Sixth  Corps,  .said:  "  However  try- 
ing the  circumstances  Captain  Stevens  has  always  been  found  equal 
to  the  occasion." 

After  the  war  Major  Stevens  returned  to  his  profession  and  opened 
a  law  office  in  West  Waterville,  now  Oakland,  where  he  bad  a  lucra- 
tive practice,  being  employed  in  nearly  every  case  in  that  vicinity. 
During  the  score  of  years  of  Mr.  Stevens'  professional  life  he  has 
built  up  a  most  enviable  reputation,  not  only  for  knowledge  of  the  law 
but  for  what  is  still  more  important,  complete  devotion  to  his  clients' 
interests.  His  fellow  citizens  expressed  their  respect  and  confidence 
by  placing  him  in  the  legislature  in  1875,  where  he  was  a  most  useful 


member  of  the  judiciar}'  committee.  In  1877  he  was  promoted  to  the 
state  senate,  serving  as  chairman  of  the  committee  on  legal  affairs. 
He  was  also  a  member  of  the  committee  on  railroads  and  military 
affairs.  Reelected  to  the  senate  of  1878,  he  was  chairman  of  the  com- 
mittee on  the  judiciary.  In  1882  he  was  commissioned  colonel  and 
assigned  to  duty  as  chief  of  staff  First  Division  Maine  Militia,  under 
Major  General  Joshua  L.  Chamberlain.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Maine 
Gettysburg  Commission,  and  is  widely  known  in  Grand  Army  circles. 
He  was  first  elected  to  the  office  of  sheriff  in  1888  and  was  reelected 
in  1890.  His  administration  of  the  affairs  of  this  important  office,  and 
his  management  of  the  criminal  department  have  been  characterized 
by  economy,  efficiency  and  good  judgment. 

Major  Stevens'  wife  is  Mary  Ann,  daughter  of  Richard  Yeaton,  2d, 
a  prominent  citizen  of  Belgrade.  They  have  had  four  children:  Jesse; 
Don  Carlos,  a  Unitarian  minister  now  located  in  Fairhaven,  Mass.;  Ala, 
and  Rupert — the  first  and  two  latter  now  deceased. 

The  first  deed  recorded  in  this  county  bears  the  date  1783.  Only 
.a  few  transfers  are  recorded,  however,  while  Augusta  was  a  half  shire- 
•town,  and  until  the  regular  series  of  dates  beginning  with  1799.  Those 
who  have  served  the  county  in  the  capacity  of  registers  of  deeds  are: 
Henry  Sewall,  from  June  12,  1799;  John  Hovey,  April  10,  1816;  J.  R. 
Abbott,  December  29,  1836;  John  Richards,  January  1,  1842;  Alanson 
Starks,  November  1,  1844;  J.  A.  Richards,  January  1,  1858;  Archibald 
■Clark,  January  1,  1868;  William  M.  Stratton,  September  23,  1870;  P. 
M.  Fogler,  November  12,  1870.  The  present  efficient  system  of  the 
-office  was  largely  inaugurated  during  Major  Fogler's  long  term  of 
service,  and  he  compiled  the  elaborate  indexes  now  in  use.  His  suc- 
cessor, George  R.  Smith,  of  Winthrop,  took  the  office  January  1,  1892. 
The  following  have  served  as  treasurers  of  Kennebec  county. 
Accompanying  their  names  are  the  dates  on  which  their  respective 
terms  of  office  began:  Joshua  Gage,  Augusta,  1810;  Daniel  Stone, 
Augusta,  1832;  Daniel  Pike,  Augusta,  1838,  died  in  office,  July  1,  1868; 
John  Wheeler,  of  Farmingdale,  who  was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy, 
-served  until  1869;  Alanson  Starks,  Augusta,  1869;  Mark  Rollins,  Al- 
bion, 1879;  and  James  E.  Blanchard,  Chelsea,  1889.  Mr.  Blanchard  is 
a  .son  of  Edwin  H.  Blanchard,  of  Chelsea,  where  he  was  born  in  18.57. 
He  was  educated  there,  and  in  Hallowell  Classical  School,  and  Dirigo 
Business  College.  He  was  elected  town  clerk  of  Chelsea  in  1879,  and 
after  holding  various  town  offices,  was  elected  county  treasurer  in 

Asylum  for  the  Insane.— Prior  to  1839  Maine  had  no  state  pro- 
vision for  the  care  of  the  insane.  The  several  towns  provided  in 
various  indifferent  ways  for  such  unfortunates  as  were  in  indigent 
-circumstances,  while  dangerous  lunatics  were  simply  restrained  in  the 
common  prisons,  which  were  wholly  without  means  of  care  or  relief. 

',    /-  '  »_  1 



The  cardinal  motive  in  building  a  state  asylum  was  to  provide  better 
■care  for  such.  Now  any  indigent  person  within  the  state  may  be  ad- 
mitted upon  proper  order,  and  the  town  in  which  such  person  has  a 
settlement  is  charged  chiefly  with,  the  expense;  but  a  person  within 
the  state  not  having  a  settlement  may  be  cared  for  wholly  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  state.  The  attention  of  the  legislature  was  first  called 
to  the  subject  in  1830,  by  Governor  Jonathan  G.  Hunton;  but  nothing 
•definite  was  done  until  1834,  when  Governor  Dunlap  urged  that  a  sys- 
tematic and  suitable  provision  be  made  by  the  state  for  the  relief  of 
her  insane.  Petitions  to  that  end  and  in  regard  to  a  location  followed 
from  various  parts  of  the  state,  and  these,  with  that  part  of  the  gov- 
ernor's message  pertaining  to  it,  were  referred  to  a  legislative  com- 
mittee, which  reported  in  favor  of  the  establishment  of  such  an  insti- 

On  the  8th  of  March,  1834,  the  legislature  appropriated  $20,000  for 
the  purpose,  upon  condition  that  a  like  sum  should  be  raised  by  indi- 
vidual donations  within  one  year.  Before  the  time  limit  was  reached 
Reuel  Williams  of  Augusta  and  Benjamin  Brown  of  Vassalboro  each 
agreed  to  contribute  $10,000  for  the  purpose.  Mr.  Brown  in  his  dona- 
tion proposed  to  convey  to  the  state  as  a  site,  two  hundred  acres  of 
land,  lying  on  the  Kennebec  river  in  Vassalboro,  and  would  consent 
to  a  sale  of  the  estate,  if  advisable  to  build  elsewhere.  The  legisla- 
ture accepted  the  land,  which  was  sold  for  $4,000  and  the  present  more 
eligible  site  was  selected  in  Augusta,  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Ken- 
nebec, nearly  opposite  the  state  house,  for  which  $3,000  was-paid. 
Reuel  Williams,  who  was  appointed  a  commissioner  to  erect  the  hos- 
pital, sent  John  B.  Lord,  of  Hallowell,  to  examine  similar  institutions, 
and  the  general  plan  of  the  asylum  at  Worce>^ter,  Mass.,  was  adopted. 
During  1836  contracts  were  made  and  materials  collected,  but  in  March, 
1837,  Mr.  Williams  resigned  the  office  and  John  H.  Hartwell  was  ap- 
pointed, under  whose  supervision  the  work  was  carried  on  one  year. 
In  March,  1838,  a  further  appropriation  of  $29,500  was  made  to  complete 
the  exterior,  and  Charles  Keene  was  appointed  in  place  of  Mr.  Hart- 
well.  In  1840  a  further  appropriation  of  $28,000  was  made  to  com- 
plete the  wings,  and  on  the  14th  of  October  one  of  the  126  rooms  was 
•occupied  by  the  first  patient. 

Dr.  Cyrus  Knapp,  of  Winthrop,  was  appointed  superintendent  and 
physician;  Dr.  Chauncey  Booth,  jun.,  assistant;  Henry  Winslow,  steward, 
•and  Mrs.  Catherine  Win.slow,  matron.  In  1846-7  appropriations  of 
■$29,400  were  made  to  erect  a  new  wing,  which  was  completed  during 
1848  and  provided  for  seventy-five  additional  male  patients. 

Doctor  Knapp  resigned  early  in  1841  and  was  succeeded  in  August 
by  Dr.  Isaac  Ray,  of  Eastport,  whose  first  edition  of  Medical  J  urispru- 
■dence  had  recently  appeared.  During  his  three  years  here  he  re-wrote 
the  work  and  published  the  second  edition,  which  became  authority 


in  Europe  as  well  as  in  America.  He  was  succeeded  March  19,  1845, 
by  Dr.  James  Bates,  the  father  of  Dr.  James  Bates  of  Yarmouth,  and 
formerly  a  member  of  congress  from  Norridgewock.  He  remained 
until  after  the  terrible  fire  of  ISSO.  This  fire,  in  which  twenty-seven 
patients  and  one  attendant  lost  their  lives,  occurred  on  the  early  morn- 
ing of  December  4th.  The  building  was  immediately  repaired  and 
was  occupied  before  the  close  of  1850,  and  Dr.  Henry  M.  Harlow,  who 
came  as  assistant  to  Doctor  Bates  in  June,  1845,  was  made  superintend- 
ent June  17,  1851.  During  that  and  the  following  year  $49,000  was 
appropriated  to  rebuild  and  improve  the  buildings,  which  were  thor- 
oughly and  safely  heated  by  steam.  By  1854  facilities  were  ample  for 
250  patients,  and  the  fact  that  this  capacity  was  often  fully  taxed,  co  i- 
firms  the  judgment  of  its  founders. 

Doctor  Harlow  is  a  native  of  Westminster,  Vt.,  a  graduate  from 
the  Berkshire  Medical  School  of  Pittsfield,  and  before  coming  to 
Augusta  had  been  assistant  physician  in  the  Vermont  Asylum  at  Brat- 
tleboro.  After  thirt3'-two  years  of  faithful  and  appreciated  service 
to  the  state  and  to  mankind,  he  resigned  his  control  of  the  institution 
and  is  passing  his  later  years  in  quiet  life  at  his  home  in  Augusta. 
His  resignation,  tendered  some  time  previous,  was  accepted  on  the  18th 
of  April,  1883,  on  the  appointment  of  his  successor.  Dr.  Bigelow  T. 
Sanborn,  who  had  been  his  assistant  for  more  than  sixteen  years. 

Doctor  Sanborn  was  born  July  11,  1839,  in  Standish,  Me.,  his  an- 
cestors having  been  substantial  residents  of  Cumberland  county  since 
his  grandfather  was  in  the  revolutionary  war.  He  received  his  earlier 
education  in  select  and  town  schools  and  in  Limington  Academy,  and 
subsequently  studied  medicine  in  Portland  Medical  School,  but  took 
his  degree  from  Bowdoin  Medical  School.  When  he  was  first  offered 
a  place  in  the  institution  as  assistant  superintendent  it  was  through 
the  advice  of  the  medical  faculty  of  Bowdoin,  where  he  had  graduated 
June  6,  1866,- only  ten  days  before  entering  here,  upon  his  career  now 
covering  a  quarter  of  a  century.  After  accepting  the  superintendency 
of  the  asylum  in  1883,  Doctor  Sanborn  spent  a  few  months  investigat- 
ing the  workings  of  similar  institutions,  thus  bringing  to  the  manage- 
ment of  this,  the  most  modern  theories  of  the  schools  and  the  medi- 
cal profession,  as  well  as  a  personal  knowledge  of  the  most  approved 
features  in  the  practical  workings  of  the  best  asylums. 

The  accompanying  landscape  illustration  shows  the  asylum  and  its 
beautiful  surroundings  in  1892.  The  view  is  from  the  northwest,  looking 
from  the  river.  The  farm  of  four  hundred  acres  belonging  to  the  state 
reaches  into  the  left  background  of  the  picture,  and  also  includes  some 
broad  fields  sloping  west  to  the  river  bank,  showing  models  of  thrifty 
and  profitable  farming.  The  two  large  hospital  buildings  in  the  center 
background  of  the  view  were  erected  by  Doctor  Sanborn  in  1888  and 
1889;  in  fact  less  than  half  of  the  present  equipment  of  the  institution 

^a^/i^u/-  J.  J)  eM^U^^^^^^^-^^ 


was  in  existence  when  he  came  here  in  1S66,  and  nearly  half  of  the 
buildings  have  been  erected  and  occupied  under  his  supervision.  It  is 
a  great  credit  to  the  commonwealth — the  existence  and  efficiency  of  so 
liberal  a  charity  to  unfortunate  humanity — and  it  is  only  just  to  a 
broad-minded,  capable  public  servant  to  note  here  that  this  noble  in- 
stitution under  the  liberal  provisions  of  the  state  has  reached  its  most 
important  period  thus  far  within  the  decade  marked  by  the  manage- 
ment of  Dr.  Bigelow  T.  Sanborn. 

The  first  directors  -were:  Reuel  Williams  of  Augusta,  Benjamin 
Brown  of  Vassalboro,  and  William  C.  Larrabee.  In  1843  these  direc- 
tors were  superseded  by  four  trustees,  which  number  was  subse- 
quently increased  to  six,  one  of  whom  must  be  a  woman.  Kennebec 
county  has  been  represented  in  the  board  of  tru.stees  by  Dr.  Amos 
Nourse  and  Dr.  John  Hubbard,  Hallowell;  Hon.  J.  H.  Hartwell,  Hon. 
J.  L.  Cutler,  Dr.  William  B.  Lapham,  Hon.  J.  H.  Manley,  George  E. 
Weeks,  J.  W.  Chase  and  Mrs.  C.  A.  Quimby,  Augusta;  Dr.  A.  P.  vSnow, 
Winthrop;  Hon.  Edward  Swan  and  R.  H.  Gardiner,  Gardiner;  John 
Ware,  Waterville;  and  Mrs.  E.J.  Torsey.  The  pay  is  merely  nominal 
and  the  board  has  included  other  philanthropic  gentlemen,  who  have 
given  the  institution  their  attention  in  sympathy  with  the  generous 
purpose  of  its  earlier  friends.  The  trustees  in  1891  were:  Frederick 
Robie,  M.  D.,  William  H.  Hunt,  M.  D.,  George  E.  Weeks,  of  Augusta; 
Mrs.  E.  J.  Torsey,  of  Kents  Hill;  Lyndon  Oak  and  R.  B.  Shepherd. 
The  resident  ofScers  are:  Bigelow  T.  Sanborn,  M.  D.,  superintendent; 
H.  B.  Hill,  AI.  D.,  asst.  sup.;  George  D.  Rowe,  M.  D.,  second  asst.; 
Emmer  Virginia  Baker,  M.  D.,  third  asst.;  P.  H.  S.  Vaughan,  M.  D., 
fourth  asst.;  Manning  vS.  Campbell,  steward  and  treas.;  and  Alice  G. 
Twitchell,  matron. 

Educational  Institutions. — Before  Maine  was  a  state,  Massa- 
chusetts had  made  broad  and  liberal  provisions  for  popular  education, 
and  from,  then  until  now  we  find  in  this  county  well  equipped  schools 
besides  those  supported  by  the  several  cities  and  towns.  The  laws  of 
Massachusetts  provided  for  elementary  English  schools  in  every  town 
containing  sixty  families,  and  a  grammar  school  in  every  town  con- 
taining two  hundred;  when  Maine  became  a  state  she  changed  this, 
requiring  schools  in  every  town,  each  town  to  raise  annually  forty  cents 
per  capita  and  distribute  the  same  to  the  districts  in  proportion  to  the 
pupils  in  them.  In  1825  this  school  fund  averaged  $47.75  for  each  dis- 
trict; but  from  the  first  the  amount  actually  raised  averaged  more  than 
the  law  required. 

In  compliance  with  a  petition  addressed  to  the  general  court,  in 
which  it  was  stated  that  no  public  school  existed  between  Exeter,  N. 
H.,  and  the  eastern  boundary  of  Maine,  a  tract  three  hundred  miles 
broad,  and  embracing  a  population  of    100,000,  an  act  was    passed 


March  o,  1791,  establishing  an  academy  at  Hallowell.  The  following 
June  the  corporation  was  endowed  with  a  township  of  unappropriated 
land;  four  years  later  the  building  was  completed  and  the  school 
opened,  with  Mr.  Woodman  as  principal.  In  its  years  of  prosperity, 
many  who  subsequently  became  eminent  in  professional  vocations 
availed  themselves  of  the  advantages  which  this  school  afforded. 

Next  to  Hallowell  Academy,  the  first  school  in  Maine  which  em- 
braced in  its  curriculum  a  complete  college  preparatory  course,  was 
Monmouth  Academy,  which  was  incorporated  as  a  free  grammar 
school  in  1803,  and  as  an  academy  in  1809.  Among  the  alumni  of  this 
institution,  which  is  treated  more  exhau.stively  in  the  chapter  devoted 
to  the  history  of  Monmouth,  are  found  some  of  the  leading  statesmen 
and  professional  men  in  the  country. 

In  1813  the  Maine  Literary  and  Theological  Institution  was  incor- 
porated, for  the  education  of  young  men  for  the  Baptist  ministry.  In 
June,  1820,  the  powers  of  the  school  were  enlarged,  and  authority 
given  to  confer  the  usual  university  degrees.  In  the  following  Feb- 
ruary its  name  was  changed  to  Waterville  College.  The  state  of  Mas- 
sachusetts granted  the  school  about  38,000  acres  of  land,  and  in  1829 
the  college  had  buildings  valued  at  $14,000,  a  library  of  1,700  volumes 
and  other  permanent  property  aggregating  $29,500.  The  first  build- 
ing erected  was  a  house  for  the  president,  who  instructed  the  students 
in  a  private  house  from  1818,  when  he  accepted  the  position  of  pro- 
fessor in  theology,  until  1821,  when  the  dormitory  now  known  as  South 
College  was  completed.  In  1822  Chaplin  Hall  was  begun,  and  in  1832 
and  1837,  respectively,  two  other  large  buildings  were  added. 

In  1862  Maine  granted  the  institution  two  half  townships  of  land, 
in  addition  to  a  former  endowment  of  an  annuity  of  $1,000  for  seven 
years  succeeding  its  incorporation  as  a  college.  A  manual  labor  depart- 
ment was  established  in  1830,  with  a  view  to  lighten  the  expenses  of 
the  institution,  but  after  a  thorough  trial  the  project  was  abandoned 
and  the  shops  and  tools  sold. 

The  munificent  gift  of  $50,000  from  Gardiner  Colby,  of  Xewton, 
Mass.,  in  1864,  and  $100,000  received  from  other  sources,  placed  the  col- 
lege on  a  secure  basis,  and  led  to  the  title  Colby  University,  which  it  has 
borne  since  January,  1867.  In  1871  women  were  first  admitted  on  equal 
terms  with  young  men.  There  are  three  academical  institutions  in 
Maine  controlled  by  the  trustees  of  Colby  University,  from  which 
pupils  are  admitted  to  the  college  on  presentation  of  a  diploma — Heb- 
ron Academy,  Ricker  Institute  and  Coburn  Classical  Institute.  Jere- 
miah Chaplin,  D.  D.,  was  president  from  1822,  succeeded  by  Rufus 
Babcock,  D.  D.,  in  1833;  Robert  E.  Pattison,  D.  D.,  1836;  E.  Fay,  A.  M., 
1841;  David  N.  Sheldon,  1843;  R.  E.  Pattison  again,  1854;  and  James 
T.  Champlin,  1857  to  1873. 


The  president  of  Colby  University  from  1873  to  1882  was  Rev. 
Henry  E.  Robins,  followed  by  Rev.  G.  D.  B.  Pepper,  D.  D.,  who  served 
until  1889,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Albion  Woodbury  Small,  Ph.  D., 
born  May  11,  1854,  at  Buckfield,  Me.  He  graduated  from  Portland 
High  School  in  1872,  from  Colby  University  in  the  class  of  '76,  and 
three  years  later  from  Newton  Theological  Institute.  He  went  to 
Germany  in  1879,  where  he  spent  one  year  each  at  the  universities  of 
Berlin  and  Leipsic.  In  the  fall  of  1881  he  began  his  work  at  Colby 
in  the  chair  of  history  and  political  economy,  where  his  abilit}^  as  an 
educator  soon  became  apparent,  and  in  1889  he  was  made  president. 
He  is  the  youngest  president,  that  Colby  has  ever  had,  and  the  first 
graduate  of  the  institution  to  hold  that  office.  His  depth  and  origi- 
nality of  thought,  and  his  earnest,  straightforward  and  powerful  dic- 
tion never  fail  to  command  the  attention  of  his  listeners,  whether  in 
sermon  or  lecture.* 

Coburn  Classical  Institute  was  founded  in  1829,  a  s.Waterville  Acad- 
emy. Hon.  Timothy  Boutelle  had  given  a  lot  for  the  purpose,  and  by 
the  earnest  efforts  of  Dr.  Jeremiah  Chaplin  and  others  a  suitable 
building  was  erected.  The  school  went  into  operation  under  the  charge 
of  Henry  W.  Paine,  a  senior  in  Waterville  College,  now  Hon.  Henry 
W.  Paine,  LL.  D.,  of  Boston.  He  was  assisted  by  Josiah  Hodges, 
jun.,  a  fellow  student  in  the  college.  Robert  W.  Wood  had  charge  of 
the  school  a  part  of  the  term.  George  I.  Chase  was  principal  from 
August,  1830,  until  May,  1831.  In  August,  1831,  Henry  Paine,  a  grad- 
uate of  Waterville  College,  took  charge  of  the  school,  and  kept  his 
place  for  five  years.  He  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Freeman  and  he  by 
Moses  Burbank,  who  stayed  but  a  few  months.  His  successor  was 
Lorenzo  B.  Allen.  In  1837  Charles  R.  Train,  afterward  attorney  gen- 
eral of  Massachusetts,  took  his  place.  For  the  next  five  years  the 
•office  was  filled  by  several  different  persons,  among  whom  were 
Charles  H.  Wheeler  and  Nathaniel  B.  Rogers,  a  nephew  of  Hon. 
Timothy  Boutelle. 

In  the  winter  of  1841-2  the  trustees  of  the  college  gave  up  the 
charge  of  the  school  and  it  was  incorporated  and  Rev.  Dr.  Nathaniel 
Butler,  was  put  in  charge.  In  1843  Dr.  James  H.  Hanson  took  charge 
and  in  September  became  principal.  In  184.'5  another  room  was  fitted 
up  and  Miss  Roxana  F.  Han.scom  was  employed  to  teach  a  department 
for  girls.  When  Doctor  Hanson  took  the  school  there  were  but  five 
pupils.  In  1853  the  308  pupils  demanded  another  teacher,  and  George 
B.  Gow  was  employed  as  assistant.  Doctor  Hanson  resigned  in  1854, 
and  Mr.  Gow  was  principal  until  1855,  after  which  James  T.  Bradbury 
was  principal  until  1857,  Isaac  vS.  Hamblen  until  1861.  Ransom  E. 
Norton,  Randall  E.  Jones  and  John  W.  Lamb  were  principals  succes- 
*Doctor  Small  has  accepted  the  head  professorship  of  social  science  in  Chicago 
University.     October,  1892.— [Ed. 



sively  until  186;").  The  trustees  then  made  over  their  trust  to  the 
trustees  of  the  college.  The  name  was  changed  to  Waterville  Classi- 
calTnstitute,  with  a  three  years'  (subsequently  four  years')  collegiate 
course  for  young  ladies,  and  Doctor  Hanson  was  persuaded  to  return 
as  principal,  which  position  he  still  occupies.  In  1883  Governor  Abner 
Coburn  gave  the  school  its  present  elegant  building  in  Waterville, 
and  the  institution  has  since  been  known  as  Coburn  Classical  Institute. 
T  "  Dr.  James  H.  Hanson,  the  present  principal  of  the  institute, 
is  a  native  of  China,  Me.,  having  been  born  there  June  26,  1816.  At 
the  age  of  eighteen  he  left  the  farm  to  attend  China  Academy,  where 


he  was  fitted  for  college,  and  graduated  from  Colby  University  in  the 
class  of  '42.  He  began  teaching  in  1835,  and  taught  each  winter  until 
his  graduation.  Since  that  time  he  has  taught  continuously,  and  in 
this  period  of  fifty  years  he  has  not  been  absent  from  the  school  room 
a  week  altogether  from  any  cause.  He  became  principal  of  Water- 
ville Academy  in  1843,  continuing  until  1854,  when  he  took  charge  of 
the  high  school  of  Eastport,  Me.,  and  three  years  later  he  became 
principal  of  the  Portland  High  School  for  boys,  where  he  remained 
until  1865,  then  returned  to  Waterville,  and  has  since  been  the  untir- 
ing and  energetic  principal. 

civil.   HISTORY   AND   INSTITUTIONS.  101 

In  1835  the  legislature  incorporated  the  Waterville  Liberal  Insti- 
tute, and  December  12, 1836,  the  school  was  opened  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Universalist  society,  with  fifty-four  pupils  under  Nathaniel  M. 
Whitmore  as  principal.  In  1850  a  female  department  was  added  and 
the  school  flourished  until  1855,  when  the  growth  of  Westbrook  Sem- 
inary sufficiently  filled  the  field.  Mr.  Whitmore's  successors  were:  T. 
G.  Kimball,  Rev.  J.  P.  Weston,  P.  L.  Chandler,  J.  H.  Withington,  T. 
W.  Herrick,  Rev.  H.  B.  Maglathlin,  J.  M.  Palmer,  Hon.  H.  M.  Plaisted 
and  J.  W.  Butterfield. 

In  1815  Judge  Cony,  of  Augusta,  erected,  entirely  at  his  own  ex- 
pense, a  building  for  a  female  seminary.  The  structure,  which  stood 
on  the  corner  of  Cony  and  Bangor  streets,  was  completed  in  great 
secrecy,  and  until  the  seats  and  desks  with  which  it  was  furnished 
arrived,  no  one  but  the  judge  knew  the  purpose  for  which  it  was 
intended.  On  Christmas  day,  1815,  he  presented  the  academy  to  a 
board  of  trustees  appointed  by  himself.  In  1818  the  institution  was 
incorporated  as  Cony  Female  Academy,  when  it  was  further  endowed 
by  its  munificent  patron.  The  legislature,  in  1827,  granted  half  a 
township  of  state  land,  and  Benjamin  Bussey,  of  Boston,  donated  a 
tract  of  land  in  Sidney.  On  the  strength  of  these  endowments,  a 
commodious  brick  boarding  house  and  dormitory  was  erected  on  the 
corner  of  Bangor  and  Myrtle  streets. 

In  1825  the  school  had  fifty  girls  in  attendance.  Board  was  quoted 
at  $1.25  per  week  and  tuition  $20  per  annum.  The  donation  of  $3,225 
by  the  founder,  together  with  the  funds  derived  from  the  sale  of  lands 
given  by  the  state,  raised  the  permanent  fund  of  the  school  $9,985. 
At  that  time  the  library,  also  donated,  embraced  1,200  volumes.  The 
school  having  outgrown  its  accommodations,  in  1844,  Bethlehem 
church,  a  structure  erected  by  the  Unitarian  society  in  1827,  was  pur- 
chased and  remodeled  for  its  use,  the  old  building  being  sold  for  a 
private  residence.  With  the  growth  of  Augusta's  splendid  free  school 
system,  the  academy  disappears,  but  the  generous  founder  is  remem- 
bered in  name  of  the  Cony  High  School  of  that  city. 

Through  the  liberality  of  Mr.  Luther  vSampson,  of  Kents  Hill,  the 
Readfield  Religious  and  Charitable  Society  was  incorporated  in  1821. 
One  of  the  multifarious  designs  of  this  organization  was  that  of  estab- 
lishing a  school,  on  land  donated  by  Mr.  Sampson,  for  in.struction  in 
experimental  Christianity,  theology,  literature,  and  a  practical  knowl- 
edge of  agriculture  and  the  mechanic  arts.  By  a  new  charter,  granted 
in  1825,  the  corporation  adopted  the  title  Maine  Wesleyan  Seminary, 
and  was  united  with  a  religious  boarding  school  which  had  been  estab- 
lished by  Elihu  Robinson  at  Augusta.  Mr.  Robinson  removed  to  Kents 
Hill  where,  by  means  of  an  endowment  of  $10,000  by  Mr.  Sampson, 
buildings  for  the  school  were  erected,  and  assumed  the  duties  of  prin- 
cipal.    Thinking  to  further  the  designs  of  the  founders  to  furnish 


the  means  of  acquiring  a  liberal  education  at  small  cost,  a  manual 
labor  department  was  established,  with  the  usual  unhappy  result. 

In  1841  the  institution  had  almost  succumbed  to  adversity.  At 
this  juncture  Dr.  Stephen  Allen  became  principal,  and  under  his  man- 
agement and  the  indefatigable  efforts  of  his  successor,  Dr.  Henry  P. 
Torsey,  who  was  elected  president  in  1844,  the  institution  was  relieved 
of  many  of  its  embarrassments  and  gradually  rose  to  prominence.  It 
is  now  the  largest  and  best  equipped  academical  institution  in  the 
state.  In  addition  to  its  regular  classical  and  scientific  departments, 
it  supports  a  female  college,  founded  about  1830,  a  conservatory  of 
music,  an  art  department  and  a  commercial  college. 

The  Gardiner  Lyceum,  founded  in  1822,  being  an  important  agri- 
cultural school,  is  fully  noticed  in  the  chapter  on  agriculture,  and  an 
account  of  Oak  Grove  Seminary,  at  Vassalboro,  will  be  found  in  the 
chapter  on  the  Society  of  Friends. 

About  1821  an  academy  was  started  in  a  small  building  at  China 
village,  on  the  bank  of  the  lake,  where  the  district  school  house  now 
stands.  John  S.  Abbott,  a  popular  lawyer;  E.  P.  Lovejoy,  a  martyr  in 
the  cause  of  freedom  in  anti-slavery  days;  Rev.  Henry  Paine,  Rev. 
Hadley  Proctor,  and  others  were  among  the  preceptors.  A  new  and 
spacious  brick  academy  was  subsequently  erected  at  China  village,  in 
which  many  young  men  have  been  fitted  for  college.  Hon.  Japheth 
C.  Washburn  procured  the  charter  of  this  academy,  and  with  his  own 
hands  felled  and  prepared  for  hewing  the  first  stick  of  timber  for  the 
building.  The  institution  was  endowed  by  the  state  with  a  grant  of 
state  lands  to  the  value  of  $10,000.  This  school  stood  high  in  public 
estimate  as  an  educational  institution  for  many  years.  The  stock- 
holders held  their  annual  elections  and  meetings  until  1887,  when  the 
property  was  deeded  to  the  school  district  for  educational  purposes. 

Belgrade  Titcomb  Academy,  founded  in  1829,  was  named  in  honor 
of  Samuel  Titcomb,  through  whose  efforts,  together  with  those  of 
John  Pitts,  its  establishment  was  made  possible.  The  academy  build- 
ing was  a  large,  two  story  brick  structure,  and  fromi  its  situation  on 
the  summit  of  Belgrade  hill  commanded  one  of  the  grandest  views 
in  Kennebec  county.  The  institution  was  incorporated,  and  its  man- 
agement was  in  the  hands  of  a  board  of  trustees  elected  annually. 
Here  were  taught  the  higher  branches,  unknown  to  the  common 
schools,  as  well  as  ancient  and  modern  languages,  and  students  of 
both  sexes  came  from  many  of  the  neighboring  towns.  In  its  most 
prosperous  days  over  a  hundred  pupils  were  in  attendance.  A  lyceum, 
connected  with  it  during  its  whole  existence,  formed  no  unimportant 
part  of  its  course.  Among  its  teachers  and  pupils  were  many  who 
have  since  won  high  names  for  themselves.  Regular  terms  of  the 
academy  were  held  each  year  until  about  1865,  when  lack  of  financial 
support  and  the  introduction  of  free  high  schools  in  many  of  the  sur- 


rounding  towns  were  the  chief  reasons  for  closing  its  doors.  In  June, 
1885,  the  edifice  was  burned  under  suspicious  circumstances.  The 
first  principal  of  the  academy  was  William  Farmer,  and  among  others 
who  acted  as  principals  in  subsequent  years  were  Thomas  Hubbard, 
Horace  Austin,  Charles  K.  Hutchins,  D.  F.  Goodrich,  Milford  T.  Mer- 
chant, Mr.  Grant,  Mr.  Matthews  and  Mr.  Adams.  A  few  bricks  in  an 
open  field  now  mark  the  spot  where  once  flourished  this,  the  only  in- 
stitution of  higher  education  ever  in  that  part  of  the  county. 

Litchfield  Academy  was  incorporated  in  1845.  It  was  endowed  by 
the  state  in  1849  with  half  a  township  of  land  in  Aroostook  county, 
and  in  1891  with  an  annuity  of  $500  for  ten  years.  The  building 
which  is  now  occupied  by  the  school  was  erected  in  1852.  [See 

Butler's  Female  Seminary,  a  private  school  for  young  ladies,  located 
at  East  Winthrop,  was,  in  its  day,  one  of  the  most  popular  and  best 
patronized  educational  institutions  in  Maine.  It  was  founded  and 
conducted  by  Rev.  Mr.  Butler. 

The  West  Gardiner  Academy  was  built  and  incorporated  in  1858. 
It  was  also  used  as  a  place  of  worship  by  the  First  Free  Baptist  Soci- 
ety. The  building  has  long  since  ceased  to  be  used  for  educational 

Jenness  Towle  made  provisions  by  will  for  a  Winthrop  Academy, 
stipulating  that  his  gift  should  revert  to  Bangor  Theological  Seminary 
unless  the  town  made  use  of  the  bequest  within  a  limited  time.  In 
1855  the  town  erected  a  building  for  a  town  hall  and  academy,  using 
the  bequest,  and  thus  Towle  Academy  began  a  period  of  usefulness, 
merging  about  1876  in  the  subsequent  period  of  the  present  high 
school  of  the  town.  The  first  principal  was  John  Walker  May,  now 
of  Lewiston. 

St.  Catherine's  Hall  was  established  by  members  of  St.  Mark's 
parish,  Augusta,  aided  by  friends  outside  of  the  diocese,  in  1868.  For 
several  years  prior  a  small  denominational  school  for  girls  had  been 
conducted  in  a  private  house  on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  under  the 
patronage  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  Lambard.  At  an  expense  of 
$18,000  a  large  private  residence  was  purchased  and  remodeled  for 
the  accommodation  of  the  school.  But  such  was  the  growth  of  the 
institution  under  its  able  management  that  it  became  necessary  to 
erect  the  present  beautiful  structure  on  the  east  side  of  the  river. 

Hallowell  Classical  Institute  was  organized  in  1S73,  and  the  new 
buildings  erected  for  its  occupancy  were  dedicated  January  14th  of 
the  following  year.  It  was  designed  for  a  preparatory  school  for 
Bowdoin  College  and  for  a  seminary  for  young  ladies,  and  incidentally 
became  a  local  school  of  higher  grade  than  the  regular  city  schools. 
For  sixteen  years  it  did  good  work  in  its  broad  field  of  usefulness, 
but  want  of  means  proved  too  great  an  obstacle  to  be  overcome  after 



the  summer  term  in  1889.  Its  first  principal  was  Rev.  Vincent  Moses. 
His  successors  were:  Rev.  Almon  W.  Burr,  1876-82;  Lawrence  Rolfe, 
A.B.,  1883-5,  and  Rev.  Edward  Chase,  1886-9. 

The  Maine  Industrial  School  for  Girls  was  organized  at  Hallowell 
in  1872.  The  purpose  of  the  institution  is  to  afford  girls  who  are 
thrown  upon  their  own  resources  at  an  early  age  the  advantages  and 
influences  of  home  training.  The  school  is  convened  in  a  large,  well- 
planned  brick  building  on  the  crown  of  a  high  hill  overlooking  the 
city,  and  is  supported  by  appropriations  from  the  state  and  private 
contributions  and  donations.     Since  the  organization  of  the  institu- 

tion between  three  and  four 
hundred  have  found  in  it  an  asylum,  and 
of  these  a  large  number,  after  a  short  tuition,  have  been  received  into 
good  homes  in  private  families.  The  board  of  managers  and  trus- 
tees, of  which  the  governor,  secretary  of  state  and  superintendent  of 
common  schools  are  members  c.r  officio,  are  appointed  by  the  state. 

The  Erskine  School,  at  China,  was  founded  in  1883,  by  Mrs.  Sul- 
livan Erskine,  who  purchased  at  Chadwick's  Corners  the  church  build- 
ing which,  in  1891,  was  enlarged  and  fitted  for  the  growing  wants  of 
the  school.  Here  under  the  principalship  of  William  J.  Thompson, 
many  j'oung  people  are  receiving  a  serviceable  article  of  real  learning. 
Professor  Thompson  was  born  in  Knox  county  and  was  educated  at 
the  Castine  Normal  School.     He  taught  at  South  Thomaston  and  in 


civil.    HISTORY    AND    INSTITUTIONS.  105 

the  Searsport  High  School  until  1883,  when  he  came  to  China  as  the 
first  principal  of  this  school,  which  has  flourished  under  his  manage- 

The  Dirigo  Business  College  is  located  at  Augusta.  The  modern 
business  training  school  is  the  result  of- a  revolution  in  methods  of 
preparing  for  business  pursuits,  which  once  were  thought  to  involve 
a  liberal  scientific,  if  not  a  classical,  course  in  seminary  or  college.  A 
private  business  school— the  first  in  the  interior  of  Maine — was  opened 
in  Augusta  in  1863,  by  David  M.  Waitt.  He  was  a  good  teacher  and 
the  school  became  popular  and  useful  under  his  management,  and 
subsequently  the  legislature  granted  it  a  charter  as  the  Dirigo  Busi- 
ness College.  In  May,  1880,  Mr.  Waitt  was  succeeded  by  the  present 
principal,  R.  B.  Capen,  who,  with  an  able  corps  of  teachers,  has  en- 
larged the  usefulness  and  increased  the  popularity  of  this  college, 
whose  graduates  include  many  of  the  younger  professional  and  busi- 
ness men  in  this  part  of  the  state.  Mr.  Capen  is  a  native  of  Massa- 
chusetts, where  he  was  master  of  the  Norwood  High  School  and  prin- 
cipal of  the  Dowse  Academy  in  Sherborn. 

The  Maine  State  Library  was  founded  in  1839  and  its  little  collec- 
tion of  3,349  volumes  was  under  the  charge  of  the  secretary  of  state. 
Twenty-two  years  later,  when  the  collection  had  reached  11,000  vol- 
umes, the  office  of  state  librarian  was  created  and  George  G.  Stacy  be- 
came its  first  incumbent.  His  successors  have  been:  Joseph  T.  Wood- 
ward, John  D.  Myrick,  Josiah  S.  Hobbs  and  Leonard  D.  Carver.  In 
1892,  the  collection  having  reached  45,000  volumes,  was  removed  to 
the  new  wing  of  the  capitol  building. 

In  October,  1872,  J.  S.  Hobbs,  then  of  Oxford  county,  was  appointed 
state  librarian,  and  in  the  following  January  removed  to  Augusta, 
where  he  resided  during  the  long  period  of  service  by  which  he  is 
now  best  known  to  the  people  of  Kennebec  county. 

He  was  born  in  Chatham,  N.  H.,  June  27, 1828,  and  with  his  father, 
James  Hobbs,  removed  to  P'ryeburg,  where  he  was  educated,  and  at 
eighteen  years  of  age  began  teaching  for  a  time,  as  his  father  for 
nearly  thirty  years  had  done.  From  the  Fryeburg  schools  he  at- 
tended the  Norway  Liberal  Institute,  when  Hon.  Mark  H.  Donnell 
was  principal,  and  in  1850  took  the  English  prize  for  prose  declama- 
tion. Four  years  later,  after  reading  law  under  D.  R.  Hastings,  he 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Oxford  county  and  began  practice  in 
Waterford  in  1855.  The  son  of  a  whig,  who  was  twice  elected  to  the 
state  .senate,  Mr.  Hobbs  was  active  in  the  organization  of  the  republi- 
can party  in  Oxford  county,  and  in  1857  and  1858  represented  his  dis- 
trict in  the  legislature.  Beginning  in  January,  1861,  he  was  register 
of  probate  of  Oxford  county  for  twelve  years  and  was  two  years  a 
trial  justice  at  the  county  seat. 

The  efficiency  of  his  .service  in  the  State  Library,  as  well  as  his 


general  bearing  in  the  extensive  intercourse  with  the  public,  made 
his  administration  popular  and  must  have  increased  to  the  state  the 
usefulness  of  the  institution.  In  November,  1890,  in  his  sixth  term, 
he  resigned  the  position  and  retired  to  his  country  place  in  a  beauti- 
ful and  picturesque  spot  in  Litchfield,  where  he  is  enjoying  rural 
peace  and  domestic  happiness.  His  wife,  Emelin,  is  a  daughter  of 
Stevens  Smith,  of  Waterford,  Oxford  county.  Me. 

L.  D.  Carver,  the  present  librarian,  was  educated  as  a  lawyer,  but 
in  1870  he  went  West,  where  he  was  principal  of  high  schools.  Re- 
turning to  Waterville  in  1876,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  for  six 
years  was  city  clerk.  He  served  on  the  school  board  and  was  the 
author  of  the  school  provisions  in  the  city  charter.  His  military  ser- 
vice, covering  two  years  and  three  months,^was  with  the  '2d  Maine 
Infantry.  His  wife,  Mary  C.  Low,  was  the  first  lady  graduate  of 
Colby,  class  of  '75. 

LTnited  States  Arsenal.— An  act  passed  the  United  States  sen- 
ate in  1827,  providing  for  the  establishment  of  an  arsenal  at  Augusta 
for  the  safe  storage  of  arms  and  munitions  for  the  protection  of  the 
northern  and  eastern  frontier.  Beginning  with  the  meager  appro- 
priation of  $15,000,  the  government,  as  the  advantages  of  the  location 
for  a  general  storage  depot  became  more  apparent,  made  further  ap- 
propriations aggregating  $90,000. 

On  June  14,  1828,  the  corner-stone  of  the  main  building  was  laid. 
This  building  is  one  hundred  feet  long,  thirty  wide  and  three  stories 
high,  with  a  storage  capacity  of  7,128  muskets.  The  following  year 
two  magazines,  capable  of  holding  914  barrels  of  powder,  store-houses, 
officers'  quarters,  barracks,  stable  and  shops  were  erected.  These 
buildings,  nearly  all  of  which  are  of  rough  granite,  occupy  a  forty 
acre  lot,  all  of  which  is  surrounded  by  a  high  iron  fence.  Fixed  am- 
munition and  war  rockets  were  prepared  here  during  the  civil  war 
and  the  war  with  Mexico.  Among  commanders  of  this  institution 
who  afterward  secured  national  fame,  are  General  O.  O.  Howard,  of 
the  United  States  Army,  and  Lieutenant  Anderson,  the  hero  of  Fort 

National  Soldiers'  Home.— As  early  as  1810  a  mineral  spring 
was  discovered  in  a  meadow  in  the  town  of  Chelsea,  which,  on  account 
of  the  sulphurous  odor  it  emitted,  was  popularly  known  as  the  "Gun- 
powder Spring."  The  water  gained  more  than  a  local  reputation  of 
healing  malignant  humors,  and  was  for  several  years  in  considerable 
demand.  The  spring  and  a  large  tract  of  surrounding  land  were  pur- 
chased in  1858,  by  Mr.  Horace  Beals,  of  Rockland,  who,  the  following 
year  erected,  at  an  expense  of  many  thousands  of  dollars,  a  magnifi- 
cently appointed  hotel,  which  he  opened  in  June,  1859,  as  a  fashiona- 
ble watering  place. 

At  any.  other  period  than  that  of  the  civil  war  such  an   enterprise 


might  have  flourished:  but  under  the  depressing  events  which  fol- 
lowed it  proved  an  utter  failure.  After  two  or  three  years  of  weak 
existence  it  was  closed  to  the  public,  and  in  1866,  after  his  decease,  it 
was  sold  for  $50,000  to  the  United  States  government  for  an  asylum 
for  disabled  veterans.  In  1867  the  building  had  been  remodeled  and 
two  hundred  ex-soldiers  had  availed  themselves  of  the  refuge  thus 
afforded.  As  it  was  evident  that  the  accommodations  would  shortly 
be  insufficient  to  meet  the  constantly  increasing  demand,  proceedings 
were  instituted  for  the  erection  of  new  buildings  capable  of  accom- 
modating five  hundred  men.  A  brick  hospital  was  soon  erected,  and 
plans  for  the  erection  of  a  large  chapel  and  workshop  were  beginning 
to  materialize  when  the  principal  building  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

This  casualty,  which  occurred  late  in  the  evening  of  January  7, 
1868,  turned  the  inmates,  many  of  whom  were  confined  to  their  beds 
with  sickness,  into  the  piercing  frosts  of  a  midwinter's  night.  The 
sick  were  placed  on  the  snow  until  they  could  be  removed  to  private 
houses,  while  those  who  were  able  to  be  carried  so  long  a  distance, 
were  quartered  in  Waverly  Hall,  at  Augusta.  The  hospital,  which  was 
not  seriously  damaged,  was  hastily  prepared  for  barracks,  and  earl}'  in 
the  spring  three  large  brick  buildings  were  commenced,  each  of  which 
was  nearly  one  hundred  feet  in  length.  These  were  placed  contigu- 
ous to  the  hospital,  so  as  to  form  a  hollow  square  surrounding  an  ample 
courtyard.  With  these  were  erected  a  large  amusement  hall,  work- 
shop, barn  and  a  residence  for  the  commanding  officers,  all  of  which 
were  constructed  of  brick  manufactured  on  the  spot.  The  hall  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire  in  the  spring  of  1871,  at  a  loss  of  about  $20,000.  A 
smaller  building  has  been  erected  to  supply  its  loss.  Other  structures 
for  the  accommodation  of  the  surgeon,  bandmaster  and  other  subor- 
dinate officials  have  recently  been  erected. 

The  home  is  open  to  all  survivors  of  the  civil  and  Mexican  wars, 
and  the  war  of  1812,  who  received  an  honorable  discharge  from  the 
service.  Cutler  Post,  No.  48,  a  local  division  of  the  G.  A.  R.,  has  been 
established  by  the  veterans,  and  in  their  cemetery  a  monument  of 
granite  blocks  has  been  erected,  bearing  a  dedicatory  inscription  and 
dates  of  the  three  principal  wars  succeeding  the  revolution. 

The  first  deputy  governor  of  the  home  and  commandant  was  Major 
General  Edward  W.  Hincks,  of  Massachusetts,  who  held  the  position 
until  March  6,  1867,  when,  at  his  request,  he  was  relieved  and  was 
succeeded  by  Colonel  Timothy  Ingraham,  of  Massachusetts,  who  was 
soon  succeeded  by  General  Charles  Everett,  of  Washington,  D.  C,  who 
was  shortly  followed  by  Major  Nathan  Cutler,  of  Augusta,  Me.,  and  he 
by  Colonel  E.  A.  Ludwick,  of  New  York,  who,  after  a  short  term  of  ser- 
vice, was  succeeded,  in  1869,  by  Brigadier  General  William  S.  Tilton, 
of  Boston.  General  Luther  Stephenson,  the  present  governor  of  the 
home,  was  born  at  Hingham,  Mass.,  April  25, 1830.     Entering  the  ser- 


vice  in  April,  1861,  as  lieutenant  in  the  Fourth  Massachusetts,  he  was 
several  times  promoted  for  merit,  and  by  order  of  General  Grant  was 
brevetted  colonel  and  brigadier  general,  March  15,  1865,  for  "  gallant 
and  meritorious  services  in  the  campaign  against  Richmond."  He  was 
appointed  governor  of  the  National  Home  at  Togus  on  the  17th  of 
April,  1883,  and  assumed  the  duties  of  the  position  the  next  day.  The 
home  has  increased  in  numbers  since  that  date  from  1,400  to  2,000. 
The  whole  appearance  of  the  buildings  and  grounds  has  been 
changed  and  beautified  and  twenty  new  structures  have  been  erected. 



Revolutionary  Period. — War  of  1813. — Coast  Defense  of  Maine. — Militia  Com- 
panies called  out. — Officers  and  Men. — Town  Companies. — Treaty  of  Ghent. 

THE  peaceful  interim  of  above  two  decades  which  followed  the 
last  of  the  skirmishes  referred  to  in  Chapter  H,  was  dissipated 
by  the  call  of  the  minute  men  of  Concord  and  Lexington — a 
call  which,  although  sounding  from  beyond  an  almost  unbroken 
wilderness  over  one  hundred  miles  in  extent,  met  a  prompt  response 
on  the  part  of  the  patriots  of  the  Kennebec  valley.  The  smoke  had 
hardly  cleared  from  Lexington  green  before  bands  of  scantily 
equipped  men  and  boys  were  pushing  their  way  through  the  forests, 
eager  to  reach  the  point  of  enlistment.  Many  of  the  settlers  in  the 
interior  of  the  county  had  removed  from  towns  adjacent  to  the  scene 
of  the  conflict,  and  while  the  oppression  to  which  those  who  resided 
nearer  the  metropolitan  districts  were  subjected,  was  not  as  severely 
realized  by  these  men  who  depended  almost  entirely  on  the  products 
of  their  own  farm  and  loom  for  the  luxuries  as  well  as  the  essentials 
of  life,  the  impulse  of  a  brother's  need  moved  them  to  earnest  action. 
Many  farms  were  abandoned  or  left  to  the  care  of  women  and  minors, 
and,  in  many  instances,  the  latter,  catching  the  inspiration  from  the 
fathers,  stealthily  left  their  homes  and  followed  on  the  tracks  of  their 

However  obscure  and  comparatively  unimportant  may  be  the 
part  Kennebec  played  in  the  war  of  the  revolution,  the  influence  of 
that  critical  epoch  on  the  subsequent  history  of  this  section  is  con- 
siderable. Arnold's  ascent  of  the  Kennebec  on  his  expedition  against 
Quebec  changed,  to  quite  an  extent,  the  life  of  the  settlements  along 
its  banks.  This  expedition,  which  was  embarked  at  Newburyport, 
September  17,  1775,  arrived  at  Pittston,  on  the  Kennebec,  the  day  fol- 
lowing. Here  the  eleven  transports  of  which  the  fleet  consisted  were 
exchanged  for  bateaux,  which  had  for.  some  time  been  under  process 
of  construction,  under  the  supervision  of  Major  Colburn.  The  troops, 
consisting  of  eleven  hundred  men,  being  transferred  to  the  bateaux, 
began  the  next  day  their  slow  and  wearisome  advance  toward  the 
Canadian  frontier.   The  officers,  conspicuous  among  whom  were  Bene- 


diet  Arnold,  Christopher  Green,  Daniel  Morgan,  Aaron  Burr  and 
Henry  Dearborn,  men  whose  later  careers  challenged  the  attention  of 
nations,  remained  on  their  sailing  vessel  until  they  reached  Augusta. 
Here  they  joined  the  fleet  on  the  bateaux  and  proceeded  on  that  dis- 
astrous errand,  the  result  of  which  is  familiar  to  the  general  reader. 

The  rare  beauty  of  the  valley  through  which  they  passed,  the 
waving  meadows,  the  heavy  forest  growth,  made  a  lasting  impression 
which  the  hardship,  the  cold  and  the  starvation  of  the  terrible  cam- 
paign which  followed  could  not  efface.  The  proclamation  of  peace 
which  brought  as  a  minor  accompaniment  to  the  joyous  notes  of  lib- 
erty a  siege  of  famine  upon  the  settlers  all  along  the  main  thorough- 
fare of  the  Kennebec,  through  the  depredations  of  famishing  regi- 
ments of  soldiers  bound  for  their  homes  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
state,  brought,  also,  many  of  the  members  of  the  Arnold  expedition 
back  as  permanent  settlers.  Among  others  of  them  whose  names  hold 
a  prominent  place  in  history  was  General  Henry  Dearborn,  who  pur- 
chased extensive  tracts  of  land  west  of  the  river,  and  founded  a  home 
near  the  point  where  he  first  landed  after  entering  the  Kennebec,  to 
which  he  resorted  as  often  as  the  duties  of  the  high  office  he  held 
under  the  national  government  permitted,  until  called  by  President 
Madison  to  assume  the  responsibilities  of  commander-in-chief  of  the 
national  forces  in  the  second  war  with  Great  Britain. 

War  of  1812. — The  opening  of  this  war  found  the  military  condi- 
tions of  Maine  entirely  unlike  those  that  existed  thirty-seven  years 
before,  when  the  first  call  to  arms  resounded  on  her  pine-clad  hills. 
In  compliance  with  a  law  of  the  commonwealth,  every  able-bodied 
man  had,  at  stated  periods,  been  submitted  to  instruction  at  the  hands 
of  a  competent  drill-master;  and  well  equipped  and  disciplined  regi- 
ments took  the  place  of  the  straggling,  unarmed  hordes  of  the  conti- 
nental minute  men.  There  was  not,  however,  that  unanimity  of  sen- 
timent which  characterized  the  patriots  who  brought  the  nation 
through  her  birth  throes.  Although  blood  as  warm  for  their  country's 
weal  as  that  which  flowed  at  Lexington  coursed  through  their  veins, 
there  were  many  who  firmly  believed  that  the  nation's  honor  was  not 
at  stake,  and  that  money,  not  blood,  should  be  the  price  of  England's 
depredations  on  our  commerce.  The  federalists  of  Kennebec  were 
especiall}'  bitter  in  their  denunciations  of  the  policy  of  the  national 
government,  and  when  the  intelligence  reached  Augusta  that  a  formal 
declaration  of  war  had  been  issued,  the  quick  blood  of  the  party  imme- 
diately responded  by  hanging  President  Madison  in  eftigy,  and  placing 
the  Stars  and  Stripes  at  half-mast.  The  national  troops  quartered  in 
the  city  exhibited  due  respect  for  their  chief  executive  by  military 
interference,  and  but  for  the  action  of  the  civil  authorities  the  episode 
must  have  closed  with  bloodshed. 

In  1814  the  British  fleet  hovered  on  the  coast  of  Maine;  Eastport, 


Bangror  and  other  places  were  seized  during  tlie  summer.  The  county 
■of  Kennebec  was  on  the  alert,  and  many  companies  of  men  were  en- 
listed. The  Adams,  a  United  States  vessel  of  war,  was  burned  by  her 
commander  to  prevent  her  falling  into  the  enemy's  hands,  and  her 
crew  retired  through  the  woods  from  the  Penobscot  to  the  Kennebec, 
causing  an  alarm  that  the  enemy  were  approaching. 

On  Saturday,  September  10th,  a  special  town  meeting  was  held  at 
Augusta  to  consider  the  safety  of  the  towns.  A  committee  consisting 
of  George  Crosby,  Joshua  Gage,  John  Davis,  Thomas  Rice,  Pitt  Dill- 
ingham, William  Emmons  and  Joseph  Chandler  was  appointed,  who 
reported  that  the  selectmen  should  be  directed  "  to  procure  200  lbs. 
of  powder  at  once,  and  a  quantity  of  materials  for  tents,  camp  kettles, 
etc."  Sunday,  the  following  day,  while  at  meeting.  General  Sewall  re- 
ceived a  dispatch  from  the  committee  of  safety  at  Wiscasset,  asking 
for  a  thousand  men,  as  the  enemy  threatened  a  landing.  Colonel 
Stone's  and  Colonel  Sweet's  regiments,  with  the  Hallowell  Artillery, 
marched  forthwith  in  companies  for  Wiscasset.  On  the  15th  General 
Sewall  went  to  a.ssume  the  command  of  the  troops;  but  the  alarm 
proved  groundless. 

In  the  Maine  adjutant  general's  office  is  a  record  of  the  officers  and 
men  called  into  the  state  service  in  those  trying  times.  In  1876,  by 
order  of  the  governor  and  his  council,  this  manuscript  record  was 
carefully  compiled  by  Z.  K.  Harmon,  of  Portland.  It  is  a  model  of 
neatness,  the  volume  containing  420  pages.  It  appears  that  the  1st 
Brigade,  8th  Division,  was  under  command  of  Major  General  Henry 
Sewall,  Augusta:  Eben  Dutch  was  major;  William  K.  Page,  of  Au- 
gusta, was  aidde-camp;  and  William  Emmons,  Augusta,  was  judge 
advocate.  The  brigadier  general  was  William  Gould,  Farmington; 
the  brigadier  major  was  Samuel  Howard,  Augusta;  and  the  quarter- 
master was  Robinson,  of  Hallowell. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Stone's  regiment  of  the  8th  Division,  1st  Bri- 
gade, had  the  following  officers:  John  Stone,  Gardiner,  lieutenant 
colonel;  Reuel  Howard,  Augusta,  major;  Henry  W.  Fuller,  Augusta, 
major;  Enoch  Hale,  jun.,  Gardiner,  adjutant;  Gideon  Farrell,  Win- 
throp,  quartermaster;  Rufus  K.  Page,  paymaster;  Eliphalet  Gillett, 
Hallowell,  chaplain;  Ariel  Mann,  Hallowell,  surgeon;  Joel  R.  Ellis, 
Hallowell,  surgeon's  mate;  Benjamin  Davenport,  Winthrop,  sergeant 
major;  James  Tarbox,  quartermaster  sergeant;  Roswell  Whittemore, 
■drum  major;  and  John  Wadsworth,  fife  major. 

yiz<^«/rt.— Captain  Burbank's  company  of  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Stone's  regiment  was  raised  in  Augusta.  The  officers  of  the  company 
were:  Benjamin  Burbank,  captain;  Nathan  Wood,  lieutenant,  and 
David  Church,  ensign.  Ephraim  Dutton,  Benjamin  Ross,  Ebenezer 
B.  Williams  and  Philip  W.  Peck  were  sergeants;  John  Hamlen,  Wil- 
Jiam  B.  Johnson,  Thomas  Elmes  and  Bartlett  Lancaster,  corporals. 


In  this  company  were  thirty-four  privates,  who  served  at  Wiscasset  in 
September,  1814. 

Another  company  raised  in  Augusta  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  vStone's 
regiment  had  for  captain  David  Wall  and  for  ensign  Charles  Sewall. 
The  non-commissioned  officers  were:  Luther  Church,  William  Fel- 
lows, Nathan  Stackpole,  Elias  Stackpole,  sergeants;  Jeremiah  Tolman, 
Jesse  Babcock,  Elisha  Bolton,  corporals.  Thirty-four  privates  went 
out  with  officers. 

Augusta  raised  still  another  company  for  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Stone's  regiment,  of  which  Stephen  Jewett  was  captain,  and  Oliver 
Wyman,  lieutenant;  and  the  non-commissioned  officers  were:  Ben- 
jamin Swan,  William  Stone,  Timothy  Goldthwait,  George  Hamlen, 
sergeants;  William  Pillsbury,  John  Goldthwait,  Del  F.  Ballard, 
Varanos  Pearce,  corporals.  Newel  Stone  was  musician.  The  privates 
of  this  company  numbered  fifty-one. 

Albion. — A  company  was  raised  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  Albert 
Moore's  regiment  at  Albion,  of  which  Joseph  Wellington  was  captain; 
Samuel  Kidder,  lieutenant,  and  Ebenezer  Stratton,  ensign.  The  non- 
commissioned officers  were:  Samuel  Libbey,  James  Chalmer,  James 
Ski! ling,  Charles  Stratton,  sergeants;  Samuel  Tarbel,  John  Jackson, 
John  Kidder,  jun.,  Samuel  Stackpole,  jun.,  corporals.  The  musicians 
were:  Benjamin  Reed,  jun.,  and  Thadeus  Broad.  The  privates  num- 
bered forty-eight  men. 

Captain  Robinson  raised  a  company  in  Albion  for  Lieutenant 
Colonel  Moore's  regiment.  The  commissioned  officers  were:  Benja- 
min Robinson,  captain;  Thomas  Harlow,  lieutenant,  and  Benjamin 
Louis,  ensign.  The  non-commissioned  officers  were:  Warren  Drake, 
Hiram  Brackett,  Stephen  Bragg,  Ebenezer  Shaw,  sergeants;  Washing- 
ton Drake,  Richard  Handy,  Oliver  Baker,  Moses  Dow,  corporals. 
Zebulon  Morse  and  Asa  Burrell  went  out  as  musicians,  and  twenty- 
six  privates  were  enrolled. 

A  company  was  drafted  from  Albion  in  the  autumn  of  1814,  of 
which  Joel  Wellington  was  made  captain;  Washington  Heald,  lieu- 
tenant, and  Israel  Richardson,  ensign.  Robert  Richardson,  Charles 
Stratton,  William  Fames  and  Samuel  Ward  were  sergeants;  Richard 
V.  Haydon,  Nathaniel  Merchant,  Andrew  S.  Perkins  and  Benjamin 
Reed,  jun.,  corporals;  Odiorne  Heald,  John  Kidder,  jun.,  and  Samuel 
Gibson,musicians.   Eighty-seven  privates  were  sent  out  in  this  company. 

y^V/orrt^/r.— Belonging  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Sherwin's  regiment 
was  a  company  of  fifty  privates  raised  at  Belgrade,  with  James  Minot, 
captain;  John  Fage,  lieutenant,  and  Jesse  Fage,  ensign.  The  non- 
commissioned officers  were:  Richard  Mills,  Lewis  Page,  Samuel  Page, 
Lemuel  Lombard,  sergeants;  Charles  Lombard,  Wentworth  Stewart, 
Briant  Fall,  James  Black,  jun.,  corporals.  The  musicians  were  David 
Wyman,  Davison  Hibbard,  David  Moshier  and  Jeremiah  Tilton. 


Belgrade  raised  another  company  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  Sherwin's 
regiment  and  the  commissioned  officers  were;  Joseph  Sylvester,  cap- 
tain; Levi  Bean,  lieutenant;  Isaac  Lord,  ensign.  The  non-commis- 
sioned officers  were:  Daniel  Stevens,  vSamuel  Sinith,  John  Sylvester, 
William  Stevens,  jun.,  sergeants;  Jonathan  H.  Hill,  Ephraim  Tib- 
betts,William  Wells,  Samuel  Tucker,  corporals.  Samuel  Littlefield  and 
Isaac  Farnham  were  enrolled  as  musicians,  with  thirty-six  privates. 

Clinton. — For  Lieutenant  Colonel  Herbert  Moore's  regiment  a  com- 
pany was  raised  in  Clinton,  of  which  Trial  Hall  was  commissioned 
captain;  James  Gray,  lieutenant,  and  Israel  Richardson,  ensign.  The 
non-commissioned  officers  were:  Samuel  Haywood,  Nathaniel  Brown, 
John  Fitzgerald,  William  M.  Carr,  sergeants;  William  Richardson, 
Peter  Robinson,  David  Gray,  George  Flagg,  corporals;  Rufus  Bartlett, 
Samuel  Gibson,  musicians.  Thirty-two  privates  went  out  in  the 

China.— Yov  Lieutenant  Colonel  Moore's  regiment  a  company  was 
raised  in  China,  for  which  the  commissioned  officers  were:  Daniel 
Crowell,  captain;  Nathaniel  Spratt,  lieutenant,  and  Zalmuna  Wash- 
burn, ensign.  Jonathan  Thurber,  Elisha  Clark,  Jabish  Crowell  and 
Thomas  Ward,  jun.,  were  sergeants;  Samuel  Branch,  David  Spratt, 
Samuel  Ward  and  James  Wiggins,  corporals;  Ephraim  Clark  3d  and 
Jonathan  Coe,  musicians.  Twenty-four  privates  were  enrolled  in  the 

Another  larger  company  was  enlisted  in  China,  of  which  Robert 
Fletcher  was  captain;  Nathaniel  Bragg,  lieutenant,  and  Caleb  Palme- 
ter,  ensign.  John  Weeks,  John  Whitley,  William  Bradford  and  Jede- 
diah  Fairfield  were  sergeants;  Nathaniel  Evans,  Daniel  Fowler, 
Daniel  Bragg  and  Ephraim  Weeks,  corporals;  Thomas  Burrell  and 
Timothy  Waterhouse,  musicians;  with  fifty  privates. 

Fayette. — In  Lieutenant  Colonel  Ellis  Sweet's  regiment  was  a  com- 
pany of  men,  enlisted  at  Fayette,  of  which  Henry  Watson  was  cap- 
tain; Alden  Josselyn,  lieutenant,  and  David  Knowles  2d,  ensign. 
Elisha  Marston,  Richard  Hubbard,  Thomas  Fuller,  jun.,  and  Benja- 
min J.  Winchester  were  sergeants;  James  Watson,  Moses  Hubbard, 
David  Knowles,  3d,  and  Moses  Sturdevant,  corporals;  and  William 
Sturdevant  and  John  D.  Josselyn,  musicians;  with  thirty- five  privates. 

Another  company  was  raised  in  Fayette,  of  which  the  commis- 
sioned officers  were:  John  Judkins,  captain;  Thomas  Anderson,  lieu- 
tenant, and  Luther  Bumpus,  ensign.  The  non-commissioned  officers 
were:  James  McGaffey,  'William  Whitten,  Levi  Fletcher  and  John 
Brown,  .sergeants;  and  Joseph  Greely,  Edward  Griffin,  Carson 
and  Bazaled  BuUard,  corporals.  Musicians  were  A.  Whitten,  Squire 
Bishop,  jun.,  and  James  Trask;  and  the  company  mustered  thirty- 
eight  privates. 


Gardiner. — The  field  and  staff  officers  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  John 
Stone's  regiment,  1st  Brigade,  8th  Division,  in  service  at  Wiscasset 
and  vicinity  in  the  autumn  of  1814,  were:  John  Stone,  Gardiner,  lieu- 
tenant colonel;  Reuel  Howard,  Augusta,  major:  Henry  W.  Fuller, 
Augusta,  major;  Enoch  Hale,  jun.,  Gardiner,  adjutant;  Gideon  Far- 
rell,  Winthrop,  quartermaster;  Rufus  K.  Page,  paymaster;  Eliphalet 
Gillett,  Hallowell,  chaplain;  Ariel  Mann,  Hallowell,  surgeon;  Joel  R. 
Ellis,  Hallowell,  surgeon's  mate;  Benjamin  Davenport,  Winthrop, 
sergeant  major;  James  Tarbox,  Winthrop,  quartermaster  sergeant; 
Roswell  Whittemore,  drum  major;  and  John  Wadsworth,  fife  major. 

From  Gardiner  a  company  went  out  in  Stone's  regiment  with  the 
following  commissioned  officers:  Jacob  Davis,  captain;  Ebenezer 
Moore,  lieutenant;  Arthur  Plummer.  ensign,  and  William  Partridge, 
clerk.  The  non-commissioned  officers  were  not  given  in  the  record, 
but  the  company  enrolled  eighty  privates. 

Another  company  was  raised  at  Gardiner  with  Edward  Swan, 
captain;  Daniel  Woodard,  lieutenant,  and  William  Norton,  ensign. 
The  non-commissioned  officers  were:  William  B.  Grant,  Thomas  Gil- 
patrick,  Michael  Woodard,  Arthur  Berry,  sergeants;  Benjamin  C. 
Lawrence,  William  Bradstreet,  Charles  M.  Dustin,  corporals.  The 
musicians  were:  Jonah  Perkins,  John  Palmer,  Edward  Bourman  and 
Andrew  B.  Berry.     This  company  embraced  forty-two  privates. 

Hallowell. — In  Lieutenant  Colonel  Stone's  regiment  was  a  large 
company  from  Hallowell,  of  which  William  C.  Vaughan  was  captain, 
Pettey  Vaughan,  lieutenant,  and  William  Cobb  Wilder,  ensign.  The 
non-commis.sioned  officers  were:  Abisha  Handy,  Nathaniel  Brown,  2d, 
Levi  Thing,  jun.,  George  Carr,  sergeants;  Benjamin  Perry,  Charles 
Kenney,  Joseph  Richards,  corporals;  David  Dyer,  Zebulon  Sawyer, 
Samuel  Howard,  John  Moons,  musicians.  The  privates  numbered 
seventy-three  men. 

Captain  Simeon  Morris'  company  for  Stone's  regiment  was  raised  at 
Hallowell,  for  which  Lsaac  Leonard  was  lieutenant  and  Stephen  Smith 
was  ensign.  James  B.  Starr,  William  B.  Littlefield,  Samuel  Merrill 
and  James  Kean  were  sergeants;  Samuel  Carr,  jun.,  John  Greely, 
George  Waterhouse  and  Joshua  Carr,  corporals;  Robert  Child,  musi- 
cian; and  there  were  fifty  privates. 

Captain  Dearborn's  company  was  also  raised  in  Hallowell  and  was 
attached  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Stone's  regiment,  with  Benjamin 
Dearborn,  captain;  Thomas  B.  Coolidge,  lieutenant,  and  William 
Clark,  ensign.  Isaac  Smith,  Enoch  Marshall,  Ebenezer  White  and 
Sheppard  H.  Norris  were  sergeants;  Ephraim  Mayo,  Thomas  Fille- 
brown,  jun.,  John  Folsom  and  Benjamin  Plummer,  corporals;  Seth 
Sturtevant,  James  Batchelder,  Elias  Webber  and  Bradley  Folsom, 
musicians.     The  company  had  thirty-seven  privates. 

A  company  of  artillery  was  raised  in  Hallowell,  which  was  attached 


to  jSIajor  Joseph  Chandler's  Battalion  of  Artillerj'.  The  officers  of  the 
company  were:  Samuel  G.  Ladd,  captain;  Jedediah  Lakeman,  lieuten- 
ant, and  Joseph  S.  Smith,  ensign.  Non-commissioned:  Abraham 
Thurd,  Samuel  Tinney,  Daniel  Norcross,  David  Stickney,  sergeants; 
Ezekiel  Goodall,  Richard  Dana,  William  Livermore,  jun.,  Cumwell 
Aldrich,  corporals.  Musicians:  John  Woods,  Levi  Johnson,  Aaron 
Bickford,  Harvey  Porter  and  John  Dennett.  The  privates  numbered 

Hallowell  also  raised  a  cavalry  company  for  Major  Peter  Grant's 
Battalion  of  1st  Brigade,  11th  Division.  Of  this  company  Thomas 
Eastman  was  captain;  Francis  Morris,  lieutenant,  and  William  Wins- 
low,  ensign.  Henry  D.  Morrill  and  Ebenezer  Mathews  were  musi- 
cians, and  Parsons  Smith,  clerk.  Benjamin  Paine,  Alvan  Hayward 
and  Jonathan  Mathews  were  sergeants;  Samuel  Blake,  John  Savage, 
Albert  Hayward  and  Richard  Belcher,  corporals.  The  company  em- 
braced thirty-two  privates. 

Litchfield. — Colonel  Abel  Merrill  commanded  a  regiment  at  Bath, 
in  which  was  a  company  from  Litchfield.  The  commissioned  officers 
of  this  company  were:  Hugh  Getchell,  captain;  William  Randall,  lieu- 
tenant, and  Jesse  Richardson,  ensign.  The  noncommissioned  officers 
were:  James  B.  Smith,  Cornelius  Richardson,  Cyrus  Burke,  sergeants; 
Adam  Johnson,  Isaac  Smith,  Thomas  Springer,  William  Towns,  cor- 
porals. John  Hodgman,  Cornelius  Thompson  and  Isaac  ShirtlefE  were 
musicians,  and  the  company  contained  fifty-seven  privates. 

Litchfield  also  raised  a  company  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  Stone's 
regiment.  Of  this  company  David  C.  Burr  was  captain;  Nathaniel 
Marston,  lieutenant,  and  Ebenezer  Colby,  ensign.  Andrew  Goodwin, 
Daniel  Herrick,  Jesse  Tucker  and  James  Parker  were  sergeants;  Wil- 
liam Hutchinson,  John  Sears,  Joshua  Ritchinson  and  Daniel  Cram, 
corporals;  and  Cypron  J.  Edwards,  David  Fuller,  William  Brown  and 
James  Goodwin,  musicians.     The  privates  numbered  fifty-seven. 

Another  company  from  Litchfield  in  Lieutenant  Colonel  John 
Stone's  regiment  had  for  captain,  John  Dennis;  for  lieutenant,  Daniel 
Stevens;  and  for  ensign,  Joseph  Jewell.  Samuel  Hutchinson.  Joseph 
Wharfif,  Israel  Hutchinson  and  William  Robinson  were  sergeants; 
Robert  Crawford,  Ebenezer  Harriman,  Miser  Williams  and  William 
Spear,  corporals;  John  Robbins,  James  Hutchinson  and  Elijah  Palmer, 
musicians;  and  the  company  enrolled  thirty-eight  privates. 

A  company  in  Litchfield  was  drafted  from  the  lOth  Division  and 
mustered  into  the  United  States  service  to  garrison  the  forts  on  the 
coast  of  eastern  Maine.  The  commis-sioned  officers  of  the  company 
were:  David  C.  Burr,  captain;  John  Dennis,  jun.,  lieutenant;  Benjamin 
White,  jun.,  lieutenant;  and  John  A.  Neal,  ensign.  Caleb  Goodwin, 
Joshua  Walker,  Andrew  Goodwin  and  William  Hutchinson  were  ser- 
geants; William  Bailey,  Francis  Douglass,  Hezekiah  Richardson  and 


Moses   Stevens,   corporals;  Joseph    Hutchinson    and    David   F.  Wey- 
mouth, musicians.     Fifty  privates  went  out  in  the  company. 

Monmo7ith. — A  company  of  thirty-nine,  under  Captain  John  A.  Tor- 
sey,  raised  in  Monmouth,  was  attached  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Blais- 
dell's  regiment.  Pascal  P.  Blake  was  lieutenant  and  Frederic  W. 
Dearborn,  ensign.  The  non-commissioned  officers  were:  Martin 
Gushing,  Jacob  Smith,  Robert  Oilman,  Thomas  Witherell,  sergeants; 
John  Plummer,  Samuel  Titus,  Josiah  Towle,  James  Merrill,  corporals. 
Henry  Day  and  John  Merrill  were  musicians. 

Another  company  of  fifty-six  privates  was  raised  in  Monmouth  for 
the  same  regiment,  with  Moses  Boynton  for  captain;  Royal  Fogg, 
lieutenant,  and  Benjamin  Sinclair,  ensign.  Joseph  Prescott,  Joseph 
B.  Allen,  Jedediah  B.  Prescott  and  John  S.  Blake  were  sergeants; 
Newell  Fogg,  Hugh  M.  Boynton,  Ira  Towle  and  George  W.  Fogg, 
corporals;  Levi  Tozier  and  John  Richardson,  musicians. 

Joseph  Chandler  was  major  of  a  battalion  of  artillery  attached  to 
the  1st  Brigade,  Sth  Division.  His  adjutant  was  Jonathan  G.  Hun- 
toon,  of  Readfield,  and  his  quartermaster  was  John  S.  Kimball,  of  Au- 
gusta. Monmouth  raised  a  company  for  this  battalion,  with  the  fol- 
lowing officers:  Samuel  Ranlett,  captain;  Dudly  Moody,  lieutenant; 
Eleazur  Smith,  lieutenant;  Ebenezer  Freeman,  Jacob  Mills,  jun., 
Joseph  Kelley,  James  Fairbanks,  sergeants;  Asa  Robbins,  jun.,  Jason 
Prescott,  Phinehas  Kelly,  Marcus  Gilbert,  corporals;  Levi  Gilbert, 
Benjamin  Berry,  musicians.  The  company  embraced  only  twenty- 
seven  privates.  This  company  was  subsequently  attached  to  Sher- 
win's  regiment  of  militia,  with  William  Talcott  and  Benjamin  Butler 
added  as  sergeants;  Peleg  B.  Fogg,  Jesse  Fairbanks  and  John  Mar- 
shall added  as  musicians;  and  twenty  privates  were  added.  The  com- 
pany were  at  Wiscasset  from  vSeptember  24  to  November  8,  1814. 

Mt.  Vernon. — In  Lieutenant  Colonel  Ellis  Sweet's  regiment  was  a 
company  raised  at  Mt.  Vernon,  and  its  captain  was  Timothy  Stevens; 
lieutenant,  George  McGaffey;  ensign,  Ariel  Kimball.  James  Mc- 
Gaffey,  William  Whitten,  Levi  Fletcher  and  John  Brown  were  ser- 
geants; Joseph  Greely,  Edward  Griffin,  Moses  Carson,  Bazaled  Bul- 
lock, corporals;  Aled  Whitten,  Squire  Bishop,  jun.,  and  James  Trask, 
musicians.     Thirty-eight  privates  belonged  to  the  company. 

In  the  same  regiment  was  another  company  from  Mt.  Vernon,  of 
which  Thomas  Nickerson  was  captain;  John  Stevens,  lieutenant,  and 
John  Blake,  ensign.  The  non-commissioned  officers  were:  Joseph 
Gilman,  Daniel  Gordon,  Nathan  S.  Philbrook,  Ephraim  Nickerson, 
sergeants;  Walter  W.  Philbrook,  Nathan  Smith,  Levi  French,  jun., 
and  Bela  Gilman,  corporals.  The  musicians  were  John  Stone  and  Ladd,  and  the  privates  numbered  thirty-four  men. 

Pittstoii. — Two  companies  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  Stone's  regiment 
were  raised  in  Pittston.     The  captain  of  the  first  was  David  P.  Bailey; 


lieutenant,  John  Blanchard;  ensign,  Jacob  Bailey.  Joseph  Follansbee, 
Elihu  Lord,  Joseph  Kidder  and  George  Williamson  were  sergeants; 
William  Troop,  Nathaniel  Brown,  George  Jewett  and  Tristram  Fol- 
som,  corporals;  James  Bailey  and  Alexander  Blanchard,  musicians. 
The  company  embraced  forty  privates.  Of  the  second  company, 
Jonathan  Young  was  captain;  Eli  Young,  lieutenant,  and  Dudley 
Young,  ensign.  Jonathan  Clark,  Leonard  Coopey  and  James  Gray, 
jun.,  were  sergeants;  Henry  Banner,  Nathaniel  Benner,  Reuben 
Lewis  and  Frederic  Lewis,  corporals.  The  privates  numbered 

Readfield. — A  company-  of  militia  was  drafted  from  Readfield  and 
attached  to  Lieutenant  Colonel  Ellis  Sweet's  regiment.  The  commis- 
sioned officers  of  the  company  were:  John  Smith,  captain;  Samuel 
Benjamin,  lieutenant,  and  Eli  Adams,  ensign.  Joseph  Gilman,  Na- 
than S.  Philbrick,  Joseph  Heselton  and  James  McGaffey  were  ser- 
geants; Walter  N.  Philbrick,  Benjamin  King,  David  Huntoon  and 
Warren  Crocker,  corporals;  Joshua  Bartlett,  Josiah  Bacon,  Stephen 
Abbott  and  John  M.  Shaw,  musicians.  The  privates  of  the  company 
numbered  fifty-nine. 

Another  company  drafted  from  Readfield  was  attached  to  Lieuten- 
ant Colonel  Sweet's  regiment.  Of  this  company  George  Waugh  was 
captain:  Alden  Josselyn,  lieutenant,  and  Herman  Harris,  ensign. 
Three  of  the  sergeants  were  Elisha  Marston,  William  Whittier  and 
Richard  Hubbard.  The  corporals  given  in  the  record  were  Gilman 
Bacheler  and  Samuel  Tuck.  In  this  company  were  thirty-eight  pri- 
vates. It  would  seem  that  the  latter  company  was  increased  and 
partly  re-officered,  for  we  find  in  Sweet's  regiment  a  company  of 
which  George  Waugh  was  captain;  Samuel  Page,  lieutenant;  Reuben 
Smith,  ensign;  John  Page,  William  Taylor,  Christopher  Adle  and 
Joseph  Hutchinson,  sergeants;  Moses  Simmons,  Seward  Page,  Elijah 
Clough  and  Nathan  Coy,  corporals;  Henry  Carlton,  William  Tucker 
and  Levi  Morrill,  musicians.  In  this  company  were  forty-four 

The  same  regiment  received  from  Readfield  still  another  company, 
of  which  John  Smith  was  the  captain;  Daniel  Carlptell,  lieutenant, 
and  Eli  Adams,  ensign.  James  Fillebrown,  Lory  Bacon,  Jethro  Hil- 
man  and  James  Smith  were  sergeants;  Jacob  Turner,  David  Huntoon, 
Jacob  Cochran  and  William  Stimpson,  corporals;  Thomas  Pierce, 
Charles  Pierce  and  John  Turner,  musicians.  The  company  also  had 
forty-five  privates. 

ie(?wf.— Lieutenant  Colonel  McGaffey's  regiment  of  militia  was  at- 
tached to  the  8th  Division  and  was  the  oth  Regiment.  The  field  and 
staff  officers  from  Kennebec  county  were:  David  McGaffey,  Rome, 
lieutenant  colonel;  Moses  Sanborn,  Vienna,  major;  Francis  Mayhew, 
major;  Jonathan  Gilbreth,  Rome,  adjutant. 


A  company  was  raised  in  Rome  for  Colonel  McGaffey's  regiment 
and  the  commissioned  officers  of  the  company  were:  William  Hussey, 
captain;  Robert  Hussey,  lieutenant,  and  Ezekiel  Page,  ensign.  The 
non-commissioned  officers  were:  Enoch  Knight,  Samuel  Mitchell, 
Elijah  K.  Hussey  and  Richard  Furbush,  2d,  .sergeants;  Benjamin 
White,  Rufus  Clements,  Jonathan  Butterfield  and  Moses  Choate,  cor- 
porals; Elisha  Mosher  and  Samuel  Grant,  musicians.  Twenty-five 
privates  were  enrolled. 

Rome  raised  another  company  which  was  in  the  same  regiment, 
and  in  service  at  Hallowell  awaiting  orders,  in  September,  1814.  Mat- 
thias Lane  was  captain;  Palatiah  Leighton,  ensign;  Peter  Beede, 
James  Colbath,  jun.,  William  Blye  and  Benjamin  Folsom,  sergeants; 
James  Wells,  Joseph  Gordon,  John  Allen,  jun.,  and  Peter  Folsom, 
corporals;  John  Jewett  and  Joseph  Jewett,  musicians.  This  company 
enrolled  eighteen  men. 

Sidney. — Sidney  raised  men  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  Sherwin's  regi- 
ment. One  company  had  Richard  Smith  as  captain,  Benjamin  Saw- 
telle  as  lieutenant,  John  Robinson,  ensign.  vSamuel  Jones,  Paul  Ham- 
mond, jun.,  George  Woodcock  and  Edmund  Longly,  sergeants;  Eben- 
ezer  Irish,  jun.,  Ichabod  Pitts,  jun.,  Samuel  Smith,  jun.,  and  David 
Weeks,  corporals;  Asa  Sawtelle  and  Abial  Abbott,  musicians.  Thirty- 
two  privates  were  enrolled. 

Another  company  for  Sherwin's  regiment  had  for  captain  Stephen 
Lovejoy;  for  ensign,  Joshua  Ellis.  The  sergeants  were:  John  Tink- 
ham,  jun.,  John  Sawtelle,  jun.,  Joseph  Hastings  and  Thomas  Johnson. 
Abial  Dinsmore  and  Jacob  Lovejoy  were  musicians.  Thirty-nine  pri- 
vates enlisted  in  the  company  from  Sidney. 

The  third  enlisted  company  from  Sidney  had  for  its  captain,, 
Amasa  Lesley;  lieutenant,  Bethuel  Perry;  ensign,  David  Daniels.  The 
non-commissioned  officers  were:  Ebenezer  Perry,  John  Bragg,  jun., 
John  Davis,  Rufus  Emerson,  sergeants;  Zenos  Perry,  Robert  Packard, 
Abel  Sawtelle,  Woodhouse  Boyd,  corporals;  Francis  Smiley,  Seth 
Perry,  musicians.     The  privates  numbered  thirty-two. 

Men  were  drafted  from  Sidney  and  a  company  attached  to  Colonel 
Sherwin's  regiment,  of  which  company  Stephen  Lovejoy  was  captain; 
Joseph  Warren,  lieutenant;  Ebenezer  Lawrence,  ensign;  Palmer 
Branch,  John  Bates,  Jabez  Harlow  and  Joshua  Grant,  sergeants;  Levi 
Meade  and  Ebenezer  Morse,  corporals;  Winthrope  Robinson,  musi- 
cian.    This  company  embraced  eighty  men  as  privates. 

Captain  Lesley's  company,  before  mentioned,  was  enlisted;  but  he 
went  to  Wiscasset  late  in  the  autumn  of  1814,  with  a  company  of 
drafted  men  from  Sidney.  The  commissioned  officers  were:  Captain, 
Amasa  Lesley;  lieutenant,  Benjamin  Sawtelle;  ensign,  William  Bod- 
fish.  Elias  Doughty,  Samuel  Page,  David  GuUifer  and  John  Bragg, 
jun.,   were   sergeants;     Wentworth   Steward,   Samuel   Jones,    Robert 


Packard  and  Ebenezer  Trask,  corporals;  Nathaniel  Dunn  and  Richard 
Jones,  musicians.     This  company  had  fifty-two  privates. 

]"assalboro. — This  town  raised  companies  by  enlistment.  One  was 
raised  for  Lieutenant  Colonel  Moore's  regiment,  and  the  commissioned 
officers  were:  Daniel  Wyman,  captain;  Alexander  Jackson,  lieutenant; 
William  Tarbell,  ensign.  Thomas  Hawes,  Daniel  Whitehouse,  Zenas 
Percival  and  Roland  Frye  were  sergeants;  John  Clay,  Gersham  Clark, 
Thomas  Whitehouse  and  Jonathan  Smart,  corporals;  George  Webber, 
musician.     There  were  twenty-nine  privates. 

Wing's  company,  enlisted  in  Vassalboro,  was  attached  to  the  same 
regiment.  The  commissioned  officers  of  the  company  were:  Joseph 
Wing,  captain;  Levi  Maynard,  lieutenant,  and  Nehemiah  Gould,  en- 
sign. The  non-commissioned  officers  were:  Elijah  Robinson,  Moses 
Rollins,  vStephen  Low,  Josiah  Priest,  .sergeants;  Levi  Chadbourne, 
Amasa  Starkey,  John  Frye,  Reuben  Priest,  corporals.  The  musicians 
were  Enoch  Marshall  and  Stephen  Townsend.  The  privates  num- 
bered fifty-three  men. 

Still  another  small  company  was  enlisted  for  Moore's  regiment, 
and  the  captain  was  Jeremiah  Farwell;  lieutenant,  Aaron  Gaslin. 
Charles  Webber,  Eli  French,  John  G.  Hall  and  Elijah  Morse  were 
sergeants;  Benjamin  Bassett,  Nathaniel  Merchant  and  Heman  Stur- 
ges,  corporals;  John  Lovejoy,  musician;  and  the  file  of  privates  num- 
bered thirty  men. 

A  company  was  drafted  from  Vassalboro,  of  which  Jeremiah  Far- 
well  was  commissioned  captain;  Nathaniel  Spratt,  lieutenant,  and 
Nehemiah  Gould,  ensign.  Charles  Webber,  Amariah  Hardin,  jun., 
Jabez  Crowell  and  Elijah  Morse  were  sergeants;  Rowland  Frye, 
Samuel  Brand.  Benjamin  Melvin  and  Thomas  Whitehouse,  corporals; 
Washington  Drake  and  Timothy  Waterhouse,  musicians.  The  com- 
pany embraced  sixty-seven  men  as  privates. 

Wayne. — This  town  enlisted  men  for  a  company  in  Sweet's  regi- 
ment. Of  this  company  Jacob  Haskell  was  captain;  William  Burgess, 
lieutenant,  and  Levi  Roberts,  ensign.  The  other  officers  were:  Wil- 
liam Knight,  Jesse  Bishop,  Eliakim  Top,  Gustavus  Top,  sergeants; 
Warren  Crocker,  James  Wing,  Asa  Tapley,  James  Burgess,  corporals. 
Joshua  Norris  was  fifer  and  Asa  Top  drummer.  Twenty-eight  men 
were  enrolled  as  privates. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Ellis  Sweet's  regiment— the  4th  in  1st  Brigade, 
8th  Division — was  officered  in  part  from  Wayne.  Colonel  Sweet  was 
a  Wayne  officer  and  also  Moses  Wing,  jun.,  the  major  of  the  regiment. 

Another  small  company  from  Wayne  was  commanded  by  Ebenezer 
Norris,  lieutenant.  Amasa  Dexter,  Seth  Billington  and  Benjamin 
Norris  were  sergeants;  Samuel  Besse,  Allen  House,  Samuel  Wing 
and  Elisha  Besse,  corporals;  Nathan  Sturdevant  and  Seth  Hammond, 
musicians.     The  privates  numbered  only  twenty-seven  men. 


Watcrvillc. — This  town  and  Vassalboro  raised  a  company  that  was 
assigned  to  Major  Joseph  Chandler's  Battalion  of  Artillery.  Of  this 
company  Dean  Bangs  was  captain;  Lemuel  Pullen,  lieutenant;  Abra- 
ham vSmith,  ensign;  Jabez  Dow,  Artemus  Smith,  Levi  Moore,  jun., 
William  McFarland,  sergeants;  William  Marston,  Alexander  McKech- 
nie,  Abiel  Moore,  James  Bragg,  corporals;  Henry  Richardson,  Reward 
Sturdevant,  musicians.     Twenty  privates  enlisted  in  this  company. 

Lieutenant  Colonel  Elnathan  Sherwin's  regiment  was  in  the  8th 
Division,  2d  Brigade,  his  being  the  1st  Regiment.  From  this  regiment 
a  draft  was  made,  May  24,  1814,  to  fill  up  the  regiment  of  Colonel 
Ellis  Sweet.  The  officers  of  the  first-named  regiment  were:  Elnathan 
Sherwin,  Waterville,  lieutenant  colonel;  John  Cleveland,  Fairfield, 
major;  Joseph  H.  Hallett,  Waterville,  quartermaster;  Moses  Appleton, 
Winslow,  surgeon;  David  Wheeler,  Waterville,  paymaster;  and  Jede- 
kiah  Belknap,  Waterville,  chaplain. 

One  of  the  companies  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  vSherwin's  regiment 
was  raised  at  Waterville,  of  which  Joseph  Hitchings  was  captain; 
Samuel  Webb,  lieutenant;  Thomas  McFarland,  ensign;  Josiah 
Jacob,  jun.,  Abraham  Morrill,  Solomon  Berry,  Calvin  L.  Gatchell,  ser- 
geants; Abraham  Butts,  Pelatiah  Soule,  Simeon  Tozier,  2d,  William 
Watson,  corporals;  David  Low,  Lewis  Tozier,  musicians.  The  com- 
pany had  twenty-nine  enlisted  privates. 

Another  company  from  Waterville  contained  forty  privates  for 
Sherwin's  regiment.  The  commissioned  officers  of  this  company 
were:  William  Pullen,  captain;  Joseph  Warren,  lieutenant,  and  Leon- 
ard Comfourth,  ensign.  Leonard  Smith,  Reuben  Ricker,  Isaiah  Hal- 
lett and  John  Hallett  were  sergeants;  Samuel  Merry,  James  Gilbert, 
Wyman  Shorey,  and  Thomas  Stevens,  corporals;  Dexter  Pullen,  Isaac 
Gage  and  Asa  Bates,  musicians. 

Winthrop. — This  town  raised  two  companies  for  state  defense.  The 
one  attached  to  Stone's  regiment  had  for  captain  Asa  Fairbanks;  lieu- 
tenant, Solomon  Easty;  ensign,  Jonathan  Whiting.  Benjamin  Rich- 
ard, Wadsworth  Foster,  John  Richards  and  Oliver  Foster  were  ser- 
geants; Eliphalet  Stevens,  Thomas  Stevens,  Samuel  Chandler  and 
Columbus  Fairbanks,  corporals;  Beser  Snelland  Nathan  Bishop,  musi- 
cians.    The  privates  numbered  thirty-four  men. 

The  other  company  was  attached  to  Sweet's  regiment.  The  cap- 
tain was  Elijah  Davenport;  lieutenant,  Samuel  Benjamin;  ensign, 
Herman  Harris.  Jabez  Bacon,  Levi  Fairbanks,  Joseph  Heselton  and 
Francis  Perley  were  the  sergeants;  Stephen  Sewall,  Benjamin  King, 
Daniel  C.  Heselton  and  Caleb  Harris,  corporals;  Waterman  Stanley, 
Josiah  Bacon,  jun.,  Stephen  Abbot,  Thomas  Fuller  and  Simon  Clough, 
musicians;  and  the  company  contained  forty-nine  privates. 

Windsor.— "Dix-a  town  raised  a  company  of  thirty-three  privates  for 
Colonel  Cummings'  regiment.      The  commissioned  officers   for  this 


company  were:  Gideon  Barton,  captain;  George  Marson,  lieutenant; 
John  Page,  ensign.  William  Bowler,  Jacob  Jewett,  Clement  Moody 
and  Micliael  Lane  were  sergeants;  Robert  Hutchinson,  Luther  Pierce, 
Walter  DockendorfE  and  Thomas  Harriman,  corporals;  Lot  Chadwick 
and  Joseph  Wright,  musicians. 

IVins/ow. — Lieutenant  Colonel  Herbert  Moore  commanded  the  3d 
Regiment,  2d  Brigade,  8th  Division  of  Maine  militia  in  service  in  1814,at 
Wiscassett.  The  officers  from  Kennebec  county  were;  Herbert  Moore, 
Winslow,  lieutenant  colonel;  Nathan  Stanley  and  Daniel  Stevens, 
China,  majors;  Whiting  Robinson,  Clinton,  surgeon's  mate;  Charles 
McFaddin,  Vassalboro,  paymaster;  and  Joseph  Clark,  Clinton,  ad- 

Winslow  had  a  company  in  Moore's  regiment,  and  its  commissioned 
officers  were:  James  L.  Child,  captain;  Washington  Heald,  lieutenant; 
William  Getchell,  ensign.  The  other  officers  were:  William  Harvey, 
James  Heald,  Joel  Crosby,  Abraham  Bean,  sergeants;  Alvin  Blackwell, 
Richard  V.  Hayden,  Simeon  Heald,  Elisha  Ellis,  corporals.  The 
privates  numbered  thirty-eight  men. 

The  adjutant  general's  office  at  Augusta  also  contains  a  manuscript 
record  of  enlistments  in  the  regular  army  for  1812-14,  carefully  ar- 
ranged by  companies  and  regiments;  but  the  residences  of  the  officers 
and  men  are  not  indicated. 

By  the  treaty  of  Ghent,  December  24,  1814,  the  war  ended,  and  the 
news  was  received  in  this  country  February  11,  1815,  with  great 
demonstrations  of  joy. 


MILITARY  HISTORY  (Concluded.) 

The  Civil  War. — First  Call  for  Troops. — Response  by  Kennebec  County. — Early 
Enlistments. — Call  of  July  3,  1862. — Bounties. — Enlistments. — Equalization 
Bonds. — Peace.— General  Seth  Williams. — G.  A.  R.  Posts. — Monuments. 

WHEN  the  angry  mutterings  of  the  storm  that  for  years  had 
been  gathering  over  the  institutions  which  held  in  check  the 
aggressions  of  a  despotic  feudalism  culminated,  on  that 
memorable  12th  of  April,  in  the  crash  which  dismantled  the  walls  of 
Fort  Sumter  and  jarred  the  foundations  of  the  nation,  no  section  of 
the  federal  territory  was  more  prompt  and  energetic  in  rallying  to  the 
protection  of  the  loyal  colors  than  Maine.  In  twenty-four  hours  from 
the  time  the  despatches  from  Washington  were  bulletined,  whole  com- 
panies had  reported  to  their  officers,  regiments  were  in  readiness  for 
the  roll-call,  and  impatiently  awaited  orders  to  enter  the  service. 

Although  00,000  men  were  enrolled  in  the  state  militia,  only  1,200 
were,  in  the  language  of  the  adjutant  general,  "in  a  condition  to  re- 
spond to  calls  for  ordinary  duty  within  the  state,"  while  their  uniforms, 
equipments  and  camp  equipage  were  of  a  character  totally  unfitted  for 
service  in  the  field. 

Seven  days  from  the  issuing  of  the  call  from  Washington  for  75,000 
men,  the  legislature,  at  a  special  session  convoked  by  Governor  Wash- 
burn, passed  an  act  authorizing  the  organization  of  ten  regiments  of 
infantry,  and  the  bonding  of  a  loan  of  one  million  dollars  for  their 
equipment.  Under  this  act  six  regiments  were  mustered  into  the  ser- 
vice; and  such  was  the  celerity  with  which  they  were  equipped  and 
forwarded  that  we  find  it  recorded  that  of  all  the  loyal  troops  who 
were  actually  engaged  in  the  first  battle  of  Bull  Run,  one  fourth,  at 
least,  were  sons  of  the  Pine  Tree  state,  and  of  these  as  large  a  ratio 
were  citizens  of  Kennebec  county.  The  disastrous  result  of  this  en- 
gagement led  to  an  immediate  call  for  more  troops,  accompanying 
which  aitthority  was  granted  by  the  war  department  to  organize,  in 
the  maximum,  eight  new  regiments  of  light  infantry.  At  the  close 
of  the  year  1861  Maine  had  enlisted  fifteen  regiments  of  infantry,  one 
regiment  of  cavalry,  six  batteries  of  light  artillery,  one  company  of 
sharpshooters  and  four  companies  of  coast  guards.     For  these  various 


companies,  Kennebec  county  furnished  1,535  enlisted  men-,  credited 
to  the  towns  as  follows: 

Albion. — James  Austin,  Albert  Bessee,  Atwood  Crosby  p  at  Rich- 
mond July  21  61,  Augustine  Crosby  p  at  Richmond  July  21  61,  Rodney 
Crosby,  Albert  D.  Foss  p  at  Richmond,  Martin  Foss  p  at  New  Orleans 
July  21  61,  Lieut.  John  vS.  French  1^:  at  Rappahannock  Station  Nov.  7 
63,  William  H.  Gifford,  Henry  S.  F.  Gerald,  Erastus  H.  Hamilton  d  at 
Ship  Island  Mar.  23  62,  Amaziah  F.  T.  Hussey,  Timan  N.  Hamilton, 
James  Jameson,  Marshall  Lawrence,  Rufus  F.  Lancaster,  Morrison 
Leonard  w  at  Baton  Rouge  d  Aug.  62,  William  Mayberry,  Walter  H. 
Morrison,  James  Murdough  d  at  Yorktown  62,  John  Nade,  Gilman  S. 
Ouinn  d  Jan.  12  62,  James  A.  Ridlon,  John  W.  Ridlon,  Rodolphus 
Rider,  Daniel  Rollins,  William  B.  Robinson,  William  A.  Stackpole, 
Warren  B.  Stinson,  Charles  Seekins,  w  July  10  63  and  May  20  64,  Lieut. 
Joseph  H.  Spencer  w  at  Baton  Rouge,  William  H.  Tabor,  C.  B.  Taber, 
Atwell  M.  Wixon  w  at  Chantilly. 

Augusta. — Cyrus  D.  Albee,  Lieut.  James  H.  Albee,  George  Allen  d 
in  63,  James  M.  Allen,  Judson  Ames,  George  W.  Annable,  Lieut.  Hol- 
man  M.  Anderson  p  at  Gum  Springs  June  20  63,  William  R.  Anderson, 
Edward  H.  Austin,  Riley  B.  Avery,  George  F.  Bachelder  w  June  1  64, 
George  E.  Bartlett,  George  M.  Bean,  Josiah  W.  Bangs,  Algernon  S. 
Bangs,  Capt.  Edwin  A.  Bachelder,  C.  M.  Bachelder,  Lieut.  Silas  C. 
Barker,  Musician  Fenelon  G.  Barker,  Charles  Berry,  Chap.  George 
W.  Bartlett,  Josiah  L.  Bennett  w  June  16  64  d  May  10  65,  Samuel  Ben- 
nett, Gardiner  Beal,  C.  F.  Beal  d  Feb.  8  63,  Homer  S.  Bean  d  Nov.  4 
62,  Samuel  Berry,  Charles  S.  Beverley,  Sherebiah  H.  Billington  w  July 
2  64,  Thomas  G.  Billington,  Josiah  B.  Blackman,  Wingate  W.  Brad- 
bury, Sumner  S.  Brick,  William  H.  Brooks,  Jeremiah  Buckley,  George 
H.  Brick,  Eli  A.  Black  d  at  Fernandina  Aug.  14  63,  Isaac  P.  Billington, 
William  Bushea,  John  W.  Boynton,  John  H.  Breen  w  and  p  May  5  64, 
Samuel  F.  Bennett,  George  W.  Bowman  k  May  12  64,  William  Bren- 
nan,  Jacob  Bolton,  Sumner  L.  Brick,  Isaac  C.  Brick,  William  H.  Brick, 
William  H.  Brock  d  April  20  64,  Adjt.  Edwin  Burt,  George  F.  Burgess 
d  at  Fernandina  Sept.  21  62,  B.  C.  Bickford,  W.  A.  Brown,  Calvin  H. 
Burden  p  at  Bull  Run  k  July  2  63,  William  Bolton,  Byron  Branch, 
Nathan  H.  Call  w  July  2  63,  Francis  M.  Caswell,  Horace  Church, 
George  L.  Cromett  w  March  10  64,  Charles  Clark,  John  A.  Clark, 
Augustus  Chadwick,  Edgar  M.  Churchill,  Warren  B.  Chapman  w  and 
p  April  8  64,  Samuel  Cunningham,  John  F.  Chase  w  July  3  63,  Henry 
A.  Cummmgs,  Lemuel  A.  Cummings,  William  Campbell,  Lieut. 
George  Cony,  George  Cowell,  William  Cahoon,  Charles  Cunningham, 
Surg.  Albert  S.Clark,  Capt.  Nathaniel  W.Cole,  John  Code  d  63,  Henry 
*Names  transcribed  by  Captain  Thomas  Clark,  adjutant  general's  office. 
The  following  abbreviations  are  used  in  these  lists;  k  killed,  w  wounded,  d  died, 
p  prisoner. 


Clark  w  July  18  63,  Daniel  H.  Cunningham,  L.  M.Conway,  I.  H.  Cook, 
Charles  Clark,  Chap.  Andrew  J.  Church,  Daniel  Chadwick,  George 
H.  Chadwick.  Nathaniel  G. Church. Leander  M.  Clark,  Amasa  L.Cook, 
William  Clark,  Richard  Cunningham,  Lieut.  Rufus  T.  Crockett,  Lieut. 
Warren  Cox  p  at  Manassas  k  May  3  63,  George  Cunningham,  Capt. 
Robert  F.  Dyer,  David  Day,  Sylvester  Davis,  John  J.  Delmage,  Milton 
Dellings,  Charles  S.  Delano,  Joseph  Devine,  Henry  Day,  Caleb  Den- 
nison,  Thomas  Dougherty,  Sewell  Dickinson,  Adj.  Charles  C.  Drew  p 
at  Bull  Run,  William  H.  Dunn,  Alden  S.  Dudley,  Reuel  W.  Dutton, 
Charles  F.  Emerson,  Elisha  S.  Fargo  w  at  x\ntietam,  Edmond  Fay, 
Charles  A.  Farnham  w  Aug.  9  64,  Samuel  S.  Farnham,  George  L.  Fel- 
lows p  at  Bull  Run  k  at  Gettysburg  July  2  63,  George  H.  Fisher,  Ro- 
land R.  Fletcher,  Elias  W.  Folsom,  John  Fox,  Andrew  J.  Getchell, 
Edwin  A.  Getchell, William  T.  Getchell,  H.  A.  Griffith,  G.  H.  Gordon  d 
from  wounds,  Samuel  Gowell,  Edward  Gilley,  Serg.  Frederick  Gannett 
w  July  2  63,  Leonard  J.  Grant,  Daniel  W.  Gage,  Samuel  H.  Gage,  Com. 
Serg.  Lorenzo  D.  Grafton,  William  Gordon,  Solomon  Gordon,  Dennis 
Getchell,  Alonzo  H.  Getchell,  Henry  W.  Getchell,  George  W.  Gould  d 
at  Carrollton  La.  Sept.  4  62,  Daniel  Gordon,  Robert  Gilley,  Marcellus 
Gale,  Hartwell  Hatch  w,  Elijah  S.  Horn  k  Dec.  13  63,  Reuel  Haskell, 
Samuel  Hall,  Andrew  Herrin  p  at  Gettysburg,  Richard  B.  Hussey, 
Henry  Hutcherson,  John  Hayes,  Otis  Haskell,  Lieut.  Lucius  M.  S. 
Haynes,  Albert  B.  Hall,  Hadley  O.  Hawesw,  George  Hawes,  Elijah  K. 
Hill,  William  H.  Hersum,  Isaac  C.  Hovey,  Henry  Hodsdon,  George 
Ingraham,  Horace  Ingraham,  Thomas  F.  Ingraham,  Henry  W.  Jones, 
John  W.  Jones  p  at  Bull  Run  June  1  62  k  July  2  63,  Thomas  C.  Jones, 
William  H.  Jones,  John  A.  Keating,  Edwin  A.  Keay,  George  A.  Kim- 
ball, Levi  W.  Keen,  Miles  H.  Keene,  Orrin  Keene  w  May  16  64,  George 
H.  Kimball,  Capt.  William  H.  Kimball,  John  H.  Larrabee,  Aaron 
Leighton,  L.  H.  Livermore,  William  Leighton,  Lyman  E.  Leach, 
Edwin  Ladd,  Col.  M.  B.  Lakeman,  John  Leighton  w  at  Cold  Harbor 
June  3  64,  Ira  B.  Lyon,  Harvey  N.  Leighton  w  at  Fair  Oaks, William  F. 
Locke  k  at  Chancellorsville  May  3  63,  Martin  Lord,  Abijah  S.  Lord, 
Ira  Lovejoy,  Otis  Ludwick,  John  McMaster,  John  McMaster  jun.  w 
July  8  63,  Alexander  McDavitt,  Reuel  Merrill,  William  McDavitt  jun., 
William  McDonald  p  at  Bull  Run,  Hos.  St.  Joseph  D.  Moore, 
Ambrose  Marriner,  Lieut.  Jo.seph  H.  Metcalf,  J.  A.  Mann,  Edward 
Murphy,  Joseph  W.  Merchant,  Horace  A.  Manley,  Bradford  Mc- 
Farland,  John  Mahoney,  Jeremiah  Murphy,  John  M.Mosher  d  Oct.  19 
63,  William  C.  Moore,  Lieut.  Fred  A.  Morton,  Daniel  B.  Morey,  Peter 
B.  Merry,  William  E.  Mariner  d  at  Yorktown  May  13  62,  Henry  C. 
Marston,  Henry  McMaster,  John  Morphy,  Thomas  Murphy  d  Dec.  13 
62,  John  W.  Murphy,  James  W.  McGregor  d  in  service,  Charles  P. 
Morton,  William  N.  Murray,  John  B.  Murray,  R.  S.  McCurdy,  F.  S. 
Morton,  Edward   E.  Myrick,  William  H.  Nason  w  May  4  63,  William 


Nason  d  in  Maine,  Capt.  Joseph  Noble,  Frank  Nutting,  Amos  B. 
Nichols,  Andrew  Nicholas.  Augustus  Nichols,  Lyman  C.  Neal  \v  July 
2  6B,  James  Orick,  James  M.  Porter,  John  Parker  w  July  30  64,  Henry 
Parker,  John  H.  Packard,  John  O.  Perry,  Frank  Perry,  Eben 
Packard  d  Mar.  17  63,  Allen  Partridge,  Thomas  O.  Pease,  Henry  E. 
Patterson  d  at  Carrollton  La.  Aug.  17  62,  Augustus  Plummer,  Lieut. 
Frank  C.  Peirce,  George  E.  Pond,  Horace  P.  Pike,  Mansfield  H. 
Pettingill,  Capt.  Edward  C.  Pierce,  Daniel  Pease  jun.,  William  Place, 
Stephen  H.  Prescott,  Asa  Piper,  N.  Byron  Phillips,  John  W.  Phinney, 
Asbury  Pottle,  Lieut.  A.  R.  Quinby,  Silas  Reed,  Peter  Russell, 
John  P.  Ryan,  William  Ryan,  Charles  L.  Ray,  James  Rideout, 
Serg.  Asa  C.  Rowe  k  July  2  63,  Emerson  Remick  d  at  Yorktown 
May  4  62,  Capt.  Thomas  L.  Reed,  Benjamin  A.  Ray,  Lieut.  H.  M. 
Rines,  George  N.  Rice,  Luther  A.  Robbins,  Q.  M.  Ivory  J  Robinson, 
G.  L.  Rus.sell,  Alfred  Savage  p  July  8  63  and  July  18  64,  Charles 
Stilkey,  W.  M.  Sabin,  William  Stover,  Charles  O.  Stone,  William  H. 
Spofford,  George  W.  Stone,  Edward  A.  Smart,  George  E.  Stickney, 
Stephen  M.  Scales,  Lewis  Selbing  w  and  p  at  Manassas,  J.  H.  Spauld- 
ing,  E.  A.  Stewart,  Thomas  Sawtelle,  James  Sullivan,  Thomas  Stevens, 
Nathan  W.  Savage,  James  F.  Snow,  William  A.  Swan,  William  H. 
Stacey,  Col.  Henry  G.  Staples,  Lieut.  William  T.  Smith,  Cyrus  A. 
Sturdy,  Major  Greenlief  T.  Stevens  w  May  3  and  July  2  63,  Lieut. 
Henry  Sewall,  Jason  Spear,  John  N.  Scott  d  Nov.  25  63  in  New  Or- 
leans, Capt.  Samuel  G.  Sewall,  Enoch  Sampson  d  in  rebel  prison  Aug. 
12  64,  James  Scott,  Greenleaf  Smart,  Harrison  R.  Stone,  Charles  E. 
Smith,  Charles  A.  Thoms,  George  H.  Thompson  p  at  Manassas  w  Aug. 
81  62,  Actor  P.  Thompson,  W.  S.  Thoms,  Caleb  Trask,  Alfred  Trask, 
John  A.  Trufant  w  at  Slaughter  Mountain,  Arnold  P.  Thompson,  Lieut. 
James  L.  Thompson,  Alan.son  G.  Taylor  d  at  Carrollton  La.  Oct.  30  62, 
George  Taylor,  William  H.  Taylor,  Aaron  C.  Varney  w  Aug.  2  and  d 
Aug.  22  63,  Peleg  O.  Vickery,  Thomas  H.  Welch  p  at  Bull  Run  d  Dec. 
23  62  from  wounds  received  at  Fair  Oaks,  Nathaniel  Wentworth, 
Frank  White,  Edwin  S.  Witherell,  Frank  Whitney,  Lewis  Widge, 
Elbridge  Warren,  Randall  S.  Webb,  G.  P.  Wentworth,  C.  H.  Wagg, 
Charles  Whittemore,  Daniel  Williams,  Asa  Wing,  Charles  H.  White, 
Serg.  Charles  B.  Whittemore,  John  O.  Webster,  Thaddeus  S.  Wmg, 
George  Woods,  Orison  Wood  k  at  Manassas  Aug.  30  62,  True  Whit- 
tier,  Capt.  Edward  P.  Wyman,  George  M.  Wyman,  Charles  O.  Wyman, 
William  A.  Young. 

Belgrade. — James  M.  Rockwood,  Charles  M.  Stevens,  Albert  Aus- 
tin, Samuel  E.  Frost  w  at  Gettysburg  July  2  63,  Lieut.  George  S. 
Blake  p  June  20  63,  Henry  C.  Kennison,  Roscoe  S.  Farnham  d  at  Hil- 
ton Head  June  18  62,  John  M.  Rockwood,  Lorenzo  H.  Wallace,  Wil- 
liam H.  Lord,  Charles  L.  Damrem,  Sanford  Bartlett  k  in  R.R.  collision 
June  1  62,  Henry  Frost,  Henry  Richard.son  p  at  Cedar  Mountain. 


Benton. — Reuel  W.  Brown,  Rufus  F.  Brown,  W.  Scott  Brown  d  Mar. 
1  64,  Sumner  Emery,  William  H.  Goodale,  Lieut.  Nathaniel  Hanscom 
d  at  Fair  Oaks  June  16  62,  Asher  C.  Hinds,  Nathaniel  P.  Hudson, 
Charles  H.  Pratt,  Charles  H.  Preston  p  at  Bull  Run  July  21  61,  Chand- 
ler Reynolds,  George  H.  Robinson,  Joel  C.  Smiley,  John  McClusky, 
Erastus  McKenney,  John  A.  McKinney,  Alonzo  Wyman,  Lorenzo 
Wyman,  Bowman  Wood,  Luke  B.  Williams. 

China. — John  H.  Babcock,  Asst.  Surg.  George  E.  Brickett,  William 
V.  Cook,  Jacob  Emery,  John  Farris,  Augustus  P.  Jackson,  Charles  H. 
Johnson,  Ira  S.  Jones,  Capt.  James  P.  Jones,  Daniel  B.  Hanson  w  May 
6  64,  Edward  P.  Hanscom  p,  Sylvester  L.  Hatch,  Roscoe  G.  Hamlin, 
Western  Hallowell,  William  Holmes  d  at  Columbian  Hospital  Dec.  29 

61,  Samuel  W.  Howes  p  Mar.  2  d  in  prison  6.5,  John  M.  Hussey,  Al- 
vanah  Libby,  Augustus  Libbey,  Samuel  R.  McCurdy,  Isaac  Morrill  w 
Aug.  30  62,  Charles  H.  Plummer,  George  W.  Rogers,  Charles  L.  Rob- 
tins  d  at  New  Orleans  May  26  62,  G.  L.  Robinson,  George  Stewart, 
George  L.  Spaulding  p,  Charles  G.  Thwing,  Edmund  Thombs,  Chap. 
James  A.  Varney,  Francis  P.  Ward,  Daniel  Ward,  Joseph  F.  Winslow 
p  at  Bull  Run,  George  N.  Wiggin  p  at  Winchester,  Capt.  Everett  M. 
Whitehouse,  Capt.  Eli  H.  Webber,  George  Weymouth,  Ora  C. 

Chelsea. — Andrew  J.  Bailey  w  July  2  63,  James  W.  Bailey,  Robert 
Brawn,  William  H.  Booker,  Rinaldo  Brown,  John  H.  Cappers,  Henry 
•Cappers  w  Oct.  19  64,  Charles  H.  Caniston,  Charles  J.  Dalton  p,  John 
F.  Davis  d  at  Baltimore  May  26  62,  Nathan  Durgin,  James  S.  Emerson, 
Joseph  Irwin,  G.  H.  Kimball,  C.  M.  Kimball  w,  George  W.  Kenniston 
w  at  Fair  Oaks,  Benjamin  F.  Merrill,  Daniel  Moulton,  John  McPike, 
Franklin  B.  Neal,  James  Robbins,  Henry  Stevens,  Harrison  B.  San- 
born, Joseph  H.  Stone  d  of  wounds  received  May  12,  Laratius  Stevens 
d  at  Newport  News  Apr.  62,  Austin  Yelden. 

Clinton. — Franklin  Bagley,  Jonathan  Bagley,  Oliver  Bagley,  Wil- 
liam Bagley,  Justin  E.  Brown,  William  Chandler,  David  Cole,  Asbury 
Cole,  Horace  Cole,  Patrick  Connor,  Gardiner  L.  Eastman,  Alpheus  R. 
Eastman,  Sumner  Flood,  Almason  Fly,  Adam  C.  Goodwin  w  June  27 

62,  James  Gerald,  Increase  F.  Goodwin,  John  C.  Flail,  Harrison  D. 
Hobbs  d  from  wounds  July  1  62,  Lieut.  Alvin  S.  Hall  d  of  wounds  re- 
ceived May  6,  Philander  Hunter  p  May  2  63,  Albert  M.  Harriman, 
Cyrus  Hunter,  Horace  Hunter  w  and  p  at  Richmond  July  21  61  d  in 
prison  from  wounds,  William  Hunter,  Melvin  Hunter,  John  Kelley, 
Orren  Kendall,  Augustus  Knox,  Jesse  Kimball  w  at  Drury's  Bluff  May 
16  64,  John  F.  Lamb,  Henry  W.  Livingston,  George  A.  Lewis,  Arthur 
F.  Malcom,  Ora  M.  Nason  p  at  Gettysburg,  Horatio  N.  Reed,  Charles 
M.  Reed,  George  Ricker,  A.  Riley  Spaulding,  James  P.  .Spaulding, 
George  Sargent,  David  Spearin,  Dustan  Smith,  Charles  S.  Thompson, 


James  Thurston,  John  Winn,  Warren  Weymouth,  Alonzo  Weymouth, 
John  Weymouth. 

Faruiiiigdalc. — Alvin  Brann,  Eugene  D.  Burns,  Charles  E.  Carter, 
Eugene  B.  Carter,  Joseph  L.  Colcord,  Joseph  B.  Cannon,  Albert  J. 
Colcord,  Edwin  A.  Colcord  k  Aug.  30  62,  Henry  C.  Carter  w  at  Manas- 
.sas,  Benjamin  F.  Grover  k  at  Chancellorsville  May  3  63,  Charles  J. 
Higgins  wat  Middleburgh  Ya.  June  19  61,  Alvin  M.  Johnson  w  at  Mid- 
dleburgh  Va.  June  19  61,  Franklin  Lowell,  Henry  M.  Neal,  Reuben  S. 
Neal  p,  George  W.  Rice,  William  J.  Seavey  d  at  Washington,  Seth 
Sweetland  p  at  Annapolis  w  at  Chantilly,  Frank  Sweetland,  Alonzo 
Sweetland,  Frank  W.  Whitney,  William  A.  Winter. 

Fayettc.~Q.2c^\.  John  E.  Bryant,  Charles  E.  Clough  d  July  14,  62, 
Edwin  R.  Crane  d  at  Baton  Rouge  July  25  62,  Otis  Conant,  Charles  L. 
Crane  w  at  Chancellorsville  May  3  63,  Capt.  Lewis  Chase,  Arthur  D. 
Chase,  Stephen  Fellov.'s,  Stephen  H.  French,  Allen  Fisk,  Charles  H. 
K.  French,  Henry  H.  Folsom,  Lewis  C.  Gordon,  De  Forrest  M.  Gille, 
Calvin  S.  Gordon,  William  H.  Irish,  Sylvester  Jones,  Daniel  H.  Mor- 
rill, Charles  F.  Palmer  p  at  Winchester,  James  G.  Palmer,  George  H. 

Palmer,  Thaxter  B.  Safford,  G.  B.  Sanborn, Sturdevant,  Freeman 

C.  Thurston  d  June  2  62,  Calvin  C.  Woodworth. 

Gardiner.— ^\\\\2xa.  A.  Abbott,  Peter  Adlay,  Lieut.  George  E.  At- 
wood  w,  Lieut.  George  S.  Andrews,  Eben  Andrews,  Francis  Anne, 
Ellis  W.  Ayer,  Thomas  O.  Brian,  Lieut.  Thomas  A.  Brann,  Daniel  H. 
Backus,  William  C.  A.  Brown,  Michael  Burns,  Roscoe  G.  Buck,  Joshua 
H.  Crane,  John  F.  Crawford,  Capt.  James  M.  Colson,  Lieut.  Parlin 
Crawford  w  July  2  63,  George  B.  Douglass,  Roswell  Dunton,  Capt. 
Augustus  P.  Davis,  Frederick  W.  Dahlman,  We.stbrook  Deane,  Horace 
W  Dale  k  July  2  63,  John  C.  Dalton  p  at  Fair  Oaks  w  May  3  63,  John 
S.  Dennis  w  July  2  63,  Alexander  Fuller,  Joseph  M.  Fuller,  Sewell  F. 
Frost  p.  Hamden  A.  Fall,  Sylvester  S.  Fall  w  Aug.  30  62,  Charles  H. 
Foy  w  July  2  63.  Lincoln  Grover,  William  Garland,  J.  B.  Grover,  Lin- 
coln Grover,  John  H.  Howe,  Horace  W.  Hildreth,  Charles  A.  Hildreth, 
Charles  Hodges  p,  Osgood  Hildreth  d  at  Gaines  Hill,  Phineas  B. 
Hammond,  Lieut.  Melvin  S.  Hutchinson,  Leander  C.  Hinckley  d  at 
Alexandria  Apr.  12  61,  William  Horn,  George  M.  Houghton  w,  Albion 
T.  Hutchinson,  George  H.  Hutchinson,  Horatio  N.  Jarvis  k  in  action 
Aug.  30  62.  Capt.  William  E.  Jarvis,  Orison  D.  Jaquith,  Charles  H. 
Jaquith,  Augustus  Jack,  William  Jordan,  John  S.  Kelley,  Capt.  George  S. 
Kimball  k  June  19  63,  James  W.  Kimball,  Samuel  W.  Kimball,  Meltiah 
W.  Lawrence,  James  M.  Larrabee,  William  Libby,  Lieut.  Horatio  S. 
Libby,  Hiram  L.  Lawrence,  Charles  F.  McLond,  Joseph  Lunt  p  June  9 
63,  Parker  G.  Lunt,  Thomas  Lunt,  James  W.  McDonald,  John  C.  Meader, 
Charles  H.  Merrill,  William  Maher,  Capt.  John  S.  Moore,  Lieut.  Gus- 
tavus  Moore,  Joseph  C.  Morrison  p  May  2  63,  Michael  Murray,  Bargill 
S.  Newell,  Ingraham  Nickerson,  Lieut.  Thomas  L  Noyes,  Thaddeus 


Page,  Surg.  Gideon  S.  Palmer,  Sidney  Patten,  James  H.  Pope,  Benja- 
min F.  Pincin,  Almon  J.  Packard,  Nathan  E.  Quint,  Peter  Reaves  p 
May  3  63,  John  Redman,  Luther  Ridley,  Edwin  M.  Reed  d  of  wounds 
received  at  Manassas,  Hiram  H.  Ricker,  Mellen  Ring,  Ira  Rollins, 
Thomas  J.  Robinson,  William  H.  Robinson,  Osgood  M.  Sampson, 
William  C.  Stewart,  David  Stevens,  David  M.  Stevens,  George  H. 
Smith  d  Feb.  13  63,  John  Sawyer,  George  F.  Spear  k  July  2  63,  Charles 
H.  Spear,  Hiram  B.  Stevens,  George  W.  Stevens,  William  H.  Sturte- 
vant,  Eugene  A.  Smith,  Robert  A.  Stinchfield  p  at  Fair  Oaks,  Robert 
Strickland,  William  M.  Stone,  David  Strong,  Dexter  Taylor,  William 
F.  Taylor,  Abijah  W.  Tripp,  H.  D.  Tarbox,  Emerson  Turner  jun.,  Col. 
Isaac  N.  Tucker,  A.  B.  Wakefield,  George  Ware,  Hiram  Wakefield  d 
Jan.  11  62,  William  H.  Wakefield,  James  Witham,  John  Webber, 
Frank  Williams,  Moses  S.  Wadsworth,  Fife  Maj.  Moses  M.  Wads- 
worth,  Lieut.  Denola  Witham  k  May  3  63,  G.  C.  Wentworth,  James  F. 
Williams,  Nathan  Willard,  Charles  B.  Winslow,  Capt.  Henry  P.  Wor- 
cester, Stephen  D.  W^akefield,  Nathan  N.  Walker  k  May  23  64,  George 
M.  Washburn,  Orrin  H.  Weeks,  Charles  H.  Welch,  William  Weight. 

//rr/Zimr//.— Horatio  N.  Atherton,  Henry  A.  Albee,  Henry  A.  Ar- 
thur, Jesse  Austin,  Elijah  Bartes,  Plummer  Butler,  Charles  H.  Bubier, 
Charles  M.  Bursley  p  at  Manassas  May  10  64,  Ammi  A.  Burgess,  Martin 
V.  B.  Benman,  Sumner  H.  Bryant  d  Jan.  8  63,  Charles  Bancroft  w  July 
2  63  k  July  2  63,  Albert  S.  Buswell,  William  F.  Bragg,  Hugh  Burns, 
Erastus  B.  Burgess,  John   W.  Bryant,  Lorenzo  Chamberlain,  Horace 

E.  Choate  w  Aug.  16  64,  Daniel  Calaghan,  James  S.  Choate,  George 

F.  Chamberlain  d  Aug  21  63,  Joseph  D.  Carr  d  at  Harrison  Landing 
July  4  62,  Henry  S.  Currier,  Joshua  Cunningham,  Sewell  S.  Douglass, 
Augustus  L.  Dunn,  John  Dunn,  George  F.  Douglass,  George  H.  Dear- 
born. Charles  M.  Dodge,  Hazen  H.  Emerson  p  May  5  64,  William  J. 
Emerson,  Nathaniel  Ellery,  David  H.  Ellery,  Albert  Fly,  David 
Flavin,  James  Frank,  George  A.  Francis,  Lieut.  George  S.  Fuller,  John 
P.  Greeley,  Lieut.  Franklin  Glazier,  Capt.  George  O.  Getchell  d  May 
30  64,  William  B.  Oilman,  Capt.  C.  W.  Gardner,  Harry  W.  Gardner, 
Edwin  S.  Goodwin  p  May  3  63  d  at  Annapolis  64,  Charles  C.  Oilman  k 
May  1  64,  Orlando  Gould,  George  W.  Oilman,  Sherburne  E.  George, 
Weston  Oilman,  James  H.  Haskell,  Joseph  S.  Haskell,  Frank  B.  Howe, 
William  W.  Heath,  William  H.  Hodges,  Reuel  M.  Heath,  James  T. 
Howard,  George  W.  Hubbard,  Joseph  E.  Howe  jun,,  Frank  B.  Howe, 
John  F.  Hobbs,  Lieut.  John  B.  Hubbard,  Lieut.  Hannibal  A.  Johnson 
p  July  2,  Capt.  Gorham  S.  Johnson,  Thomas  Keenan,  Major  Kelley, 
James  Leighton,  William  E.  Laughton,  John  H.  Lowell,  O.  jSI.  Charles 
H.  Lincoln,  Jackson  M.  Libbey,  Byron  Lowell,  William  E.  Mathews, 
George  O.  Morrill  w  at  Chantilly,  Charles  C.  Morrill,  Capt.  John  M. 
Nash,  George  E.  Nason,  J.  Edwin  Nye,  Capt.  George  A.  Nye,  Alonzo 
D.  Pottle,  John  A.  Paine  w  July  1  63,  George  W.  Piper  w  Oct.  19  64, 


Charles  B.  Rogers  k  July  2  63,  Sanford  E.  Runnells  d  June  16  62, 
George  S.  Ricker,  George  O.  Russell  w  at  Manassas,  Joshua  Robinson, 
Frank  B.  Runnells,  William  F.  Richards,  Ferdinand  S.  Richards  p 
Oct.  62,  Lieut.  John  S.  Snow,  Joseph  W.  Swain,  Frank  E.  Sager,  Ben- 
jamin A.  Smith,  Lieut.  John  W.  Sanborn,  Charles  Smith  p,  Spooner 
Simmons,  Stephen  Simmons,  William  B.  Smith,  Richard  D.  Smith, 
Henry  A.  Swanton,  Stephen  H.  Simmons  p  at  Richmond,  Eben  S. 
Stevens  w  at  Malvern  Hill,  Charles  Tobey,  John  Tommony,  John 
Tomony,  Thomas  E.  Wagoner,  William  White,  Reuben  A.  Went- 
worth,  Francis  H.  Weymouth,  Noah  F.  Weeks,  George  S.  Wood- 
bridge,  William  Wiley.  Albert  T.  Wharton,  Amos  Webber  jnn.  d  at 
Georgetown  Jan.  14  62,  William  '\\'illis,  Horace  F.  Woods,  Charles  H. 
Watson,  George  Webber  w  at  Chancellorsville,  Samuel  Wannofsky 
p  June  30  62,  Edward  Willis. 

Litchfield. — Surg.  Enoch  Adams,  George  Allen,  George  A.  W.  Bliss, 
William  H.  Bosworth,  Lieut.  James  S.  Burke,  George  S.  Buker,  R. 
Franklin  Chase,  Charles  F.  Campbell,  Charles  H.  Chick,  George  H. 
Douglass,  Edward  H.  Dunn  w  at  Gaines  Hill  d  Apr.  16  64,  Watson 
Foster,  Alphonso  C.  Gowell,  Emery  Gilbert,  Frank  Gilbert,  Lewis  E. 
Grant,  Levi  Gordon,  w  at  Manassas,  Page  F.  Grover,  John  C.  Grover  d 
at  New  Orleans  Nov.  12  63,  Charles  M.  Hattin,  John  H.  Hayden, 
George  A.  Howard,  Joseph  E.  Howard,  Bradford  T.  Howard,  William 
K.  Huntington,  G.  H.  Huntington,  Edward  L.  Knowlton  w  at  Chan- 
cellorsville May  3  63,  Lieut.  J.  Edwin  Libby  d  Sept.  16  63,  Lieut. 
Joseph  E.  Latham,  Benjamin  Landers,  Thomas  H.  Lombard  p  July  23 
63,  George  M.  Maxwell  k  at  Fredericksburg  May  4  63,  Darius  Meader, 
George  Meader,  Joseph  Meader,  John  W.  Neal  k  in  action  June  19  63, 
John  Potter  w  May  5  64,  Joseph  E.  Perry,  John  Perry  d  Jan.  15  64, 
Joseph  J.  Perry,  Cyrus  Perry,  Warren  D.  Stuart,  Orrin  A.  True,  H. 
S.  Vining,  Jones  M.  Waire,  Hutchinson  E.  Williams,  Thomas  S. 
Wedge  wood. 

Manchester. — Isaac  L.  Brainard  d  June  29  62  at  New  Orleans,  Her- 
bert T.  N.  Brainard  d  Mar.  22  62  at  Ship  Island,  Xerxes  O.  Campbell, 
James  G.  Cummings,  Augustus  A.  Caswell,  Greenleaf  D.  Greely,  Seth 
D.  Gordon,  John  L.  Hatch,  Joseph  T.  Hewins,  Elias  Howard,  Silas  F. 
Leighton  w  July  2  63,  William  H.  Lyon  w  at  Manassas,  Henry  F. 
Lyon  k  at  Shepherdstown  July  16  62,  L.  W.  Merrill  d  Nov.  6  62,  Wel- 
lington Murray  d  at  Fernandina  Aug.  22  62,  Wellington  Murney, 
Ira  Mason,  George  B.  Safford,  Joseph  H.  Spencer,  Thomas  Sun,  Alton 
M.  Stackpole,  George  E.  Tums,  John  H.  Varney. 

Monmouth. — Nathaniel  Billington  d  at   Point  Lookout  Sept  18  62, 
William  A.  Bowers  d  Dec.  25  62,  Nathaniel  Boynton,  Lieut.  William 
H  Briggs  k  May  30  64,  William  H.  H.  Brown,  John  Chick.  Capt.  Gran- 
ville P.  Cochrane,  Lewis  H.  Cushman,  Asa  W.  Cummings  d  at  Wash- 


ington,  Warren  S.  Folsom  d  62,  Andrew  J.  Fogg  w  May  4  63,  Frank 
M.  Follynsbee,  Horace  C.  Frost,  Adj.  Henry  O.  Fox  w  at  Fair  Oaks, 
Otis  H.  Getchell,  Charle.s  F.  Oilman,  John  O.  A.  Oilson,  Nathaniel  O. 
Gilson,  Joshua  Oray,  Valentine  R.  Orey,  Oeorge  B.  Hall  p  at  Antie- 
tam,  Francis  Hall,  Silas  E:  Hinkley  d  Oct.  30  63,  Charles  H.  Hinkley, 
John  B.  Hodsdon,  George  H.  Hutchins,  John  Ingersoll,  William  H. 
Jones,  Thompson  S.  Keenan,  Charles  K.  Keenan,  Henry  F.  Leach, 
Harlow  Z.  Murch,  W.  Scott  Norcross  w  June  27  62,  Capt.  Greenleaf  K. 
Norris,  John  B.  Parsons,  Shepard  Pease  d  Aug.  6  62,  S.  B.  Plummet, 
Solomon  O.  Prescott,  Josiah  T.  Smith,  George  Small,  Nathaniel  M. 
Smith,  Joseph  S.  Taylor,  Emeelus  S.  Tozier,  Milburn  S.  Tozier,  Frank 
Wardsworth,  Edward  P.  White,  Lieut.  Spencer  F.  Wadsworth,  Lieut. 
John  F.  Witherell,  Elias  H.  Wadsworth. 

Mt.  Vcrno)i. — Ansel  H.  Cram,  Roscoe  G.  Cram,  Capt.  John  P.  Car- 
son, Samuel  Davis,  Benjamin  F.  Griffin,  Calvin  C.  Griffin,  George  W. 
Griffin,  F.  M.  Oilman,  John  H.  Gordon  w  at  Slaughter  Mountain,  De- 
lano Leighton,  Otis  McOaffey  d  at  Frederick.sburg  Nov.  30  62,  George 
McOaffey,  William  B.  Morse,  Daniel  S.  Norris,  George  G.  Potter,  Jo- 
siah F\  Pearl  d  July  6  63,  George  M.  Rollins,  Edwin  L.  Robinson  d  at 
New  Orleans  June  23  62,  Wesley  Storer  d  Jan.  29  62,  C.  E.  Scofield, 
Henry  Sargent,  Leroy  H.  Tuttle,  John  R.  Teague,  Oliver  Trask  d  in 
hospital  May  10  62,  Everard  Thing  p  at  Winchester  w,  O.  J.  Wells, 
Parker  Wyman.  Coolidge  Whitney,  Verona  AVhittier,  T.  J.  Woods  p 
at  Bull  Run,  George  Whittier,  James  M.  Wright,  Charles  B.  Williams, 
George  W.  Woods,  Lorenzo  W^eston,  Cyrus  M.  W^illiams. 

Pittston. — Walter  N.  Boynton,  Daniel  Brookings,  John  G.  Boynton, 
Harrison  H.  Blair  d  Oct.  16  62,  Kendall  Bickford,  Hiram  W.  Colburn, 
W^illiam  Connor,  Levi  Connor,  William  Denene,  Lewis  Gray  d  Feb. 
20  63,  vSeth  Hunt,  Capt.  Eben  D.  Haley  w  Oct.  19  64,  Simeon  F.  Hunt 
■d  June  3  62,  Rodney  C.  Harriman,  Alexander  T.  Katon  d  July  8  62, 
Robert  A.  Morton,  Daniel  M.  Moody  w  July  2  63,  Andrew  Nelson, 
John  L.  Newhall,  George  W.  Nichols,  Alvin  A.  Potter,  David  Potter, 
Daniel  Plummer,  Millen  Potter,  Thomas  A.  Richardson,  Joseph  A. 
Shea,  Joseph  W.  Stewart,  Calvin  R.  Sears,  Joseph  A.  Spea,  George  W. 
Thompson,  Franklin  Trask,  Charles  L.  Ware,  C.  L.  C.  Wease. 

RcadfiAd.—]dWxi  F.  Brown  d  at  Hilton  Head  Dec.  5  61,  Charles  C. 
Brown  w  July  18  63,  Henry  G.  Blake,  Lewis  F.  Brown  d  at  Little 
Washington  Va.  Aug.  4  62,  Lemuel  S.  Brown,  William  P.  Caldwell  k 
July  4  62,  Benjamin  J.  Cram,  James  L.  Craig,  Lieut  Hamlin  F.  Eaton, 
Elias  H.  Gove,  Robert  Gordon,  Lieut.  Dudley  L.  Haines,  John  M. 
Howes,  William  H.  Howard,  Abner  Haskell  d  Jan.  2  63,  Lieut.  Charles 
B.  Haskell  w  at  Fair  Oaks  d  June  12  62,  Herbert  Hunton,  Emory  L. 
Hunton,  Samuel  Hunton,  George  W.  Handy,  George  H.  Holden,  Den- 
nis B.  Jewett,  Lieut.  Noah  Jewett,  Charles  R.  Kitteridge,  Franklin 
M.  La  Croix,  George  Lyons,  Capt.  Melville  C.  Linscott,  William  H. 


Linscott,  Joseph  S.  Merrill,  David  A'.  Merrill,  Elijah  A.  Mace,  Joseph 
S.  Morrill,  Auburn  Merrill,  Charles  S.  Morse.  Jacob  P.  Morrill  w  at 
Fair  Oaks,  Michael  Moran,  Hugh  S.  Newall,  Anson  B.  Perkins,  Chris- 
topher C.  Putnam,  Thomas  H.  B.  Pierce,  Thomas  A.  Packard,  Oscar 
E.  Robbins,  Bradbury  N.  Thomas,  Zadoc  H.  Thomas,  Henry  C.  Thomas, 
Alvaro  S.  Whittier,  Charles  H.  Williams,  Elbridge  G.  Wright,  George 
W.  Wright,  Hebron  M.  Wentworth,  Cyrus  B.  Whittier. 

Rome. — Arthur  Mclntire,  Wheelock  Moshier,  William  H.  Charles, 
Russell  Clement,  Lafayette  Clement,  Abram  S.  Brooks. 

Sidney.— Z\i2iX\Q&  H.  Arnold  p  at  Gettysburg  July  2  63,  Perry 
Arnold.  Calvin  Bacon,  William  E.  Brown  w  at  Gettysburg,  Joseph  A. 
Clark  d  in  prison  June  22  64,  Francis  O.  Dealing,  Allen  H.  Drummond 
w  Dec.  13  63,  William  Ellis,  Charles  T.  Ellis,  George  A.  Ellis  k  at 
Chantilly,  Henry  Field,  Ausburn  Hutchins,  James  H.  Mathews,  - 
George  W.  Nason  p  May  2  63.  Hiram  G.  Robinson,  Greenleaf  W. 
Robinson  p  May  2  63,  Joel  F.  Richardson,  Charles  H.  Robinson,  John 
E.  Shaw  d  at  New  Orleans  Aug.  17  62,  Augustus  M.  Sawtelle,  August- 
ine P.  Smiley  w  at  Bull  Run,  Henry  AV.  Sawtelle,  John  R.  Sawtelle, 
•Charles  W.  Smiley,  Charles  Snell,  Allen  Smith,  James  A.  Thomas, 
■George  F.  Wixen,  William  Henry  Young. 

Unity  Plantation. — George  Davis,  Samuel  A.  Myrick. 

Vassalboro.—Q,\i2iX\&&  F.  Austin,  Albert  C.  Ballard  p  at  Richmond 
July  21  61,  Llewellyn  Ballard  w  and  p  at  Richmond  July  21  61,  Lean- 
der  Bean,  Joab  D.  Bragg,  Lewis  Bragg,  George  E.  Burgess,  Jefferson 
Bragg,  William  H.  Brown  d  Oct.  24  62,  Daniel  W.  Buzzell,  Edmund 
P.  Buck,  Frederick  O.  Chick.  Eugene  AV.  Cross,  Antone  Cady,  Benja- 
min B.  Coombs,  Alonzo  P.  Cortland,  Daniel  Eaton,  Jeremiah  A.  Estes 
k  Aug.  25  64,  James  R.  Eaton,  AVilliam  Elliott,  Lorenzo  Farmington, 
George  R.  Freeman,  George  L.  Freeman  d  at  AVashington  Dec.  19  61, 
James  Farrell,  H.  P.  Fairfield,  Frank  Forbes  p  at  Bull  Run  July  21 
61  k  May  5  64,  John  E.  Fossett  w  at  Chantilly  and  Gettysburg  July  2 
63,  Edwin  P.  Getchell,  Edwin  F.  Getchell,  A^an  T.  Gilbert,  Alonzo 
Hinckley  d  Sept.  20  62,  Thomas  E.  Home  d  Apr.  25  62,  Orrick  H. 
Hopkins,  James  W.  Irving,  AVilliam  H.  Irving,  Asa  AA^.  Jaqueth,  Ben- 
jamin Lamson,  John  W.  Livermore,  William  AA''.  Livermore  w  July  2 
63,  Samuel  Lisherness,  Henry  Lyon  k  in  action,  Timothy  Merrow, 
Horace  S.  Mills  w  in  action,  John  McCommic,  Capt.  Richard  AV.  Mul- 
len w  at  Baton  Rouge,  George  C.  Morrow,  AVilliam  A.  Merrill  d  Feb. 
6  62,  Cyrus  M.  Major  d  Dec.  9  63,  Nathaniel  Meigs  d  Nov.  13  62,  John 
M.  Mower,  Allen  W.  Mills,  John  Morrow,  Alamber  H.  Pray,  Isaac  C. 
Pratt,  Benjamin  Parker,  Nathaniel  P.  Randall,  George  S.  Rollins  d  of 
wounds  received  at  Fredericksburg,  William  A.  Robinson  d  Oct.  8  62, 
W.  J.  Rowe,  AVilliam  B.  Shaw  d  Nov.  1862,  George  W.  Sabins,  Tim- 
othy Small  jun.,  Edwin  Small,  Alonzo  Stillings,  George  A.  vStillings. 
Charles  A.  Smart  w  July  2  63,  Lieut.  Bradford  AA^.  Smart  p  at  Manas- 


sas,  Charles  H.  Stone,  G.  W.  Seward,  Cyrus  Southards,  James  H.  Tay- 
lor, Nathan  P.  Taber  p  at  Bull  Run  July  21  61,  Albert  Varney  k  in 
action,  Orrison  Warren,  Hermon  S.  Webber  w  at  Fair  Oaks  June  4  62 
d  Aug.  10  62,  Elisha  T.  Weymouth,  William  Wentworth,  Daniel 
Weeks,  George  A.  Wills,  James  W.  White,  William  Weiler,  Charles 
H.  Whitehouse,  Eben  W.  Young  p  at  Richmond. 

J"ic;nia.—  H.  G.  Colby,  Charles  D.  Hall,  Daniel  A.  Lord,  Jethro 
Brown,  Marcellus  Wells,  Thomas  Penn  Rice,  Warren  Ladd  d  Dec.  24 
61,  Stephen  P.  Evans,  Francis  W.  Ladd  p  at  Annapolis,  Orren  B. 
Whittier  d  at  New  Orleans  Nov.  20  62,  Henry  W.  King,  George 
Lord,  Emulus  F.  Whittier. 

JVayue. — Stephen  Allen,  William  H.  Bean,  Rufus  N.  Burgess, 
Francis  Burgoine,  James  W.  Boyle,  Franklin  Burrell,  David  Berry, 
Charles  D.  Crosby,  Lieut.  Archibald  Clark  w  May  17  64,  Hermon 
N.  Dexter,  Samuel  T.  Foss  d  at  Ship  Island  62,  Darius  Harriman, 
Lieut.  Nelson  H.  Norris  w.  Greenwood  Norris  d  July  30  62,  William 
H.  Prince  d  at  Baton  Rouge  July  30  62,  William  R.  Raymond  w  July 
2  63,  Ephraim  D.  Raymond  d  in  New  Orleans  62,  George  W.  Ray- 
mond, Lyman  E.  Richardson  w  at  Bull  Run  d  at  Manassas,  Capt.  Win- 
field  Smith,  John  O.  Sullivan,  AVilliam  Stevens. 

Waterville. — George  T.  Benson,  George  W.  Bowman  d  May  13  62, 
James  K.  Bacon,  George  Bacon,  David  Bates  w  p  at  Richmond  July  21 
61  d  of  wounds,  Charles  Bacon  d  Nov.  3  of  wounds  received  Oct.  27 
64,  Henry  W.  Barney,  Levi  Bushier,  Thomas  Butler,  Daniel  Black- 
stone,  Horace  Bow,  John  H.  Bacon  w  July  2  63,  William  K.  Barrett  d 
at  Richmond  62,  William  H.  Bacon,  Charles  I.  Corson,  Andrew  J. 
Cushman,  Robert  Cochran,  Albert  Corson  d  of  wounds  July  2  63, 
James  M.  Curtis,  William  H.  Clapp,  Henry  Crowell,  Baxter  Crowell, 
George  W.  Davis  w  at  Gettysburg,  Henry  Derocher  p  June  24  62, 
Charles  W.  Derocher,  Lieut.  John  R.  Day  p  June  20  63,  James  Dusty, 
Hadley  P.  D3'er,  Luther  N.  Eames,  Shepherd  Eldridge  w  at  Freder- 
icksburg, Charles  A.  Fenno,  Henry  N.  Fairbanks,  Hiram  Fish  d  at 
Culpepper  Oct.  4  63,  Asst.  Surg.  Frank  H.  Getchell,  John  F.  Goodwin, 
George  Geyrough,  Serg.  Maj.  Marshall  P.  Getchell,  Cyrus  C.  Galusha, 
Henry  Goulding  p  May  2  63,  David  B.  Gibbs,  David  B.  Gibbs  jun.  d 
Apr.  1  63,  Lieut.  Samuel  Hamblen,  Col.  William  S.  Heath  k  at  Gaines 
Hill  June  27  62,  Lieut.  Col.  Francis  E.  Heath,  Lieut.  Col.  Frank  S. 
Hesseltine,  Capt.  William  A.  Hatch,  Charles  A.  Henrickson  p  at  Rich- 
mond July  21  61,  Adj.  Frank  W.  Haskell,  Algernon  P.  Herrick  w  at 
Chantilly,  John  S.  Hodgdon,  Albro  Hubbard  p,  Isaiah  H.  James, 
Charles  R.  Kendall,  George  Lashers,  George  Littlefield,  Albert  G. 
Libbey,  Solomon  B.  Lewis,  Edward  C.  Low,  Lieut.  Charles  AV.  Lowe, 
Lieut.  Edwin  C.  Lowe,  Gott  Lubier,  Michael  McFadden,  Capt.  George 
A.  Mclntire,  Watson  Marston,  John  N.  Messer,  George  M.  Maxham, 
Hezekiah  O.  Nickerson,  Sylvanus  Nook,  Paul  Oeward,  Lafayette  Oli- 


ver,  William  Penney,  Capt.  James  H.  Plaisted,  John  H.  Plummer, 
Nathaniel  Parley,  Henry  P.  Perley,  Gott  Pooler,  George  Perry  w  May 
20  64,  William  D.  Peavey,  Joseph  M.  Penney  d  at  Waterville  Nov.  19 
62,  Joseph  Perry  k  Aug.  80  62,  Peltiah  Penney,  Peter  Preo,  Charles 
Perry,  Edw.  S.  Percival,  Frank  D.  Pullen,  James  Perry  w  at  Gettys- 
burg July  2  63,  Abram   Ranco,  Moses  Renco,  Lucius  Rankins,  James 

F.  Ricker,  Elisha  M.  Rowe,  William  Rowe,  David  Seavey,  Charles  R. 
Shorey,  Jacob  Shurburne,  Major  Abner  R.  Small,  Jason  K.  Stevens, 
Frank  O.  Smiley,  Charles  W.  Thing,  Henry  A.  Thing,  John  Tallus, 
Welcome  Thayer,  Lieut.  Henry  E.  Tozier  w  May  20  64,  Albert  Tozier 
d  in  Waterville,  Asa  L.  Thompson  d  Dec.  26  62,  Levi  Vique,  Hos.  St. 
W.  W.  West,  George  L.  Wheeler  k  at  Chantilly,  William  W.  Wyman 
w  at  Bull  Run,  Henry  White  d  at  Fredericksburg  Oct.  20  62,  Alvin  B. 
Woodman,  Eugene  H.  Young. 

IVest  Gardiner. — Joseph  Edwin  Babb,  Jeremiah  C.  Bailey,  Amos  J. 
Bachelder,  George  W.  Bailey  w  July  2  63,  Hiram  Babb,  Lieut.  Alfred 

G.  Brann,  Lieut.  Cyrus  W.  Brann,  James  S.  Burns,  Charles  A.  Cooke, 
William  O.  Davis,  Stephen  S.  Emerson,  Henry  Fairbanks,  George  E. 
Grover,  William  F.  Haines,  Adams  Johnston  p  at  Bull  Riin  July  21  61, 
William  H.  Jewett,  Seward  Merrill.  Charles  J.  McCausland,  L.  D.  Mc- 
Kinney,  Horace  Morrill,  Ferdinand  A.  Nudd,  Dexter  W.  Page,  Wil- 
liam H.  Peacock,  Cyrus  S.  Peacock,  Hubbard  C.  Smith,  Daniel  S. 
Smith,  Ari  Thompson,  Ebenezer  Whitney. 

Windsor. — Samuel  R.  Cottle  d  in  service  64,  James  O.  Carroll  p  at 
Manassas,  E.  B.  F.  Colby,  Albert  A.  Craig,  Francisco  Colburn  .William 
Dockendorff,  Byron  H.  Farrington  d  at  Washington  Aug.  22  62,  Capt. 
John  Goldthwait,  George  Gray,  William  H.  Hewitt,  Daniel  Hallowell, 
S.  C.  Huntley,  Francis  J.  Lacey,  William  Lisherness,  William  B.  Mar- 
•son,  George  L.  Marson,  Melmouth  M.  Marson  d  Jan.  22  64,  Oakman 
W.  Marson,  Daniel  Melvin  d  at  New  Orleans  Sept.  30  62,  George  A. 
Pollard,  Nathan  Peva,  George  H.  Pevea,  Freeman  C.  Pera,  Harrison 
Reed,  Seth  Rhines,  Edward  W.  Sanborn,  Wentworth  L.  Sampson,  Lu- 
cius S.  vStarkey,  David  Stevens,  Reuel  W.  Trask,  Lieut.  Marcellus  Vin- 
ing  w  May  12  64. 

Winsloiv.—].  Holman  Abbott,  George  A.  Baker,  Elisha  S.  Baker, 
Daniel  Burgess,  George  H.  Bassett,  Rial  M.  Bryant  w  at  Fair  Oaks  d 
June  7  62,  George  W.  Boulter,  Charles  H.  Burgess  k  June  20  64,  Fran- 
cis E.  Chadwick,  Simon  McCausland,  George  C.  Drummond,  Daniel 
H.  Elliott,  Serg.  Maj.  Andrew  W.  Fuller,  James  E.  Fox,  Edward  F. 
Garland,  Martin  V.  Guptill,  John  L.  Hale,  Llewellyn  E.  Hodges,  Max- 
cey  Hamlin.  Charles  W.  Jackins,  Assenius  Littlefield,  George  L.  Mor- 
rill, Isaac  Morrill,  George  P.  Morrell,  Addison  Morrill,  Edward  B. 
Merrill,  Frank  E.  Nelson,  Albion  Osborn,  Asa  Pollard  d  at  Yorktown 
June  62,  Homer  Proctor,  Henry  Pollard,  Otis  Pollard  w  July  22  63, 
Charles   Pillsbury,  William  Pollard  d  Dec.  4  62,  Hiram  S.  Pollard, 


Rufus  Preble  k  at  Antietam,  George  A.  Pollard.  George  W.  Pillsbury 
p  at  New  Orleans  July  21  61,  William  T.  Prebble,  Harri.s  C.  Quinby, 
Amasa  Spaulding,  Henry  Spaulding,  Charles  E.  Smiley,  Sharon  C. 
Taylor,  William  H.  Taylor,  Seward  A.  Wood,  Hiram  C.  Webber  d  of 
wounds  Aug.  18  63,  Oliver  W.  Wilson  d  July  27  62. 

Wint/irop. — Andrew  P.  Bachelder  d  at  Andersonville,  Orrin  G.  Babb, 
William  H.  Burgess  k  July  2  63,  John  W.  Bussell,  George  A.  Butler  p 
July  2  63  d  Andersonville,  Andrew  C.  Butler,  William  P.  Bailey, 
Samuel  Ballantine,  Weston  Burgess,  John  Bessee,  Frank  Beal  w  May 
16  64,  Rish worth  A.  Burgess,  Franklin  S.  Briggs,  George  W.  Chandler, 
Franklin  Buyer,  Thomas  M.  Daniels,  Charles  H.  Dearborn  p  Ander- 
sonville, Stephen  H.  Day  mortally  w  Sept.  20  63,  John  Dealy  jun.  k 
June  9  63,  AVilliam  Durham  mortally  w  Sept.  62,  Lieut.  William  Elder,. 
James  M.  Forsaith,  Melville  N.  Freeman,  Thomas  R.  Forsaith,  David 
P.  Freeman  w  at  Fair  Oaks,  Warren  A.  Friend  p  near  Richmond  June 
29  62,  Albert  H.  Frost  k  at  Gettysburg  July  2  63,  Calvin  B.  Green, 
David  Grant  d  at  New  York  June  13  62,  Edwin  Goldthwait,  John  F. 
Ga.slin  w  at  Fair  Oaks,  Christopher  Hammond,  James  M.  Holmes, 
Ivory  C.  Hanson,  Capt.  Thomas  S.  Hutchins,  Elijah  T.  Jacobs,  Henry 
Judkins,  Lieut.  Bimsley  S.  Kelley,  Lieut.  Daniel  Lothrop,  Solomon  A. 
Nelke,  George  Perkins,  Daniel  W.  Philbrook  p  at  Chancellorsville, 
Lieut.  Henry  Penniman  w  July  2  63,  Elias  Pullen,  Orrin  Quint,  Capt. 
William  L.  Richmond,  James  C.  Ricker  p  July  2  63,  Sumner  H.  Stan- 
ley, Charles  H.  Smiley,  Joseph  H.  Sterns,  Charles  J.  Sterns,  Patrick  H. 
Snell,  Charles  D.  Sleeper,  Edward  F.  Towns,  Edward  K.  Thomas  k 
May  6  64,  Stephen  A.  Thurston,  George  W.  Upton  d  at  Yorktown  May 
19  62,  George  W.  Williams,  A.  G.  H.  Wood  w  at  Gettysburg  July  2  63, 
William  G.  Wilson  k  in  action,  Andrew  Woodbury. 

The  president's  call  of  July  2,  1862,  for  300,000  volunteers  chilled 
the  hearts  of  men  like  the  clang  of  a  death-knell.  The  youthful  pas- 
sion for  war  that  gave  the  first  summons  all  the  joyous  peal  of  the 
■wedding  chimes  had  now  subsided.  The  beautiful  vista  of  valient 
achievements  and  brilliant  victories  which  fancy  painted  had  grad- 
ually faded  away,  and,  like  a  dissolving  view  from  the  stereoscope, 
war,  hideous  in  its  vestments  of  blood  and  carnage,  had  taken  its 
place  on  the  screen.  The  days  of  filling  state  quotas  by  the  impulse 
of  chivalry  were  gone.  Some  inducement  must  be  offered  to  exchange 
the  then  highly  remunerative  pursuits  of  civil  life  for  the  dangers  of 
war.  At  the  special  session  of  the  legislature  called  by  Governor 
Washburn,  to  which  the  attention  of  the  reader  has  already  been 
called,  a  bounty  equal  to  two  months'  pay  was  appropriated. 

As  the  novelty  of  war  gradually  wore  off  and  men  became  more 
self-conservative,  many  of  the  towns  offered  an  additional  bounty. 
With  this  last  call  for  volunteers  the  state  promptly  offered  an  increase 
of  fifteen  dollars  for  enlistments  in  new  regiments,  and  twenty  dol- 


lars  to  recruits  for  regiments  already  in  the  field.  But  even  this  and 
the  liberal  government  bounty  failed  to  arouse  enthusiasm  sufficient 
to  insure  the  completion  of  some  of  the  local  quotas.  To  meet  this 
emergency  and  counteract  the  effect  of  the  exorbitant  bounties  offered 
by  some  of  the  wealthy  municipalities  in  other  New  England  states, 
many  of  the  towns  followed  their  example  and  appropriated  sums 
reaching,  in  many  instances,  four  hundred  dollars  per  capita. 

The  reader  can  readily  apprehend  the  effect  of  this  measure  on 
some  localities.  The  quota  being  based  entirely  on  the  population  of 
the  communities,  those  small  towns  which  had  not  the  accompani- 
ment of  wealth  with  a  large  citizenship  were  unequally  burdened.  To 
meet  and  equalize  this  oppression  of  the  less  opulent  localities  the 
legislature  of  1868  passed  an  act  authorizing  that  each  town,  city  and 
plantation  should  receive  as  a  reimbursement  from  the  state  one  hun- 
dred dollars  for  each  man  furnished  for  the  military  service  for  a  term 
of  three  years,  under  the  call  of  July  2,  1862,  and  all  subsequent  calls, 
and  in  the  same  proportion  for  any  man  furnished  for  any  shorter 

A  commission  of  three  persons  was  appointed  by  the  governor  to 
audit  the  claims  of  towns.  By  this  commission  certificates  were  issued 
to  the  towns,  duplicates  of  which  were  deposited  with  the  state  treas- 
urer. On  presentation  of  a  certificate  to  the  latter  functionary  by  the 
treasurers  of  the  municipalities,  bonds  of  the  state  were  issued  to  the 
towns  for  the  amount  of  their  claims  in  even  hundreds  of  dollars  with 
a  currency  payment  of  all  fractional  excesses.  A  loan  of  $2,827,500 
was  procured  on  twenty  year  bonds  of  the  state  bearing  six  per  cent, 
semi-annual  interest.  No  town  which  furnished  its  quota  without 
the  payment  of  at  least  one  hundred  dollars  per  capita  was  entitled  to 
reimbursement  under  this  act,  unless  the  town  appropriated  the 
amount  thus  received  to  the  benefit  of  the  soldiers  who  enlisted,  or 
were  drafted,  or,  if  deceased,  to  their  legal  heirs.  Thus  it  became  the 
duty  of  the  selectmen  of  the  respective  towns  to  file  lists  of  their 
citizens'  military  service  under  enlistments  after  July  2,  1862.  These 
original  rolls,  by  towns,  authenticated  by  the  selectmen's  signatures, 
are  among  the  most  reliable  documents  in  the  adjutant  general's  office. 
The  3,813  names  of  enlisted  men  in  the  succeeding  list  aire  from  those 
documents,  transcribed  for  these  pages,  by  Captain  Thomas  Clark,  of 
the  adjutant  general's  office. 

A/h'ofi.— Moses  Atkinson,  Lieut.  Amos  J.  Billings  d  July  28  63, 
Howard  S.  Bessey,  Selden  E.  Brann,  David  Brown,  Albert  B.  Brown, 
Emery  Bruce,  George  Bolton,  Charles  A.  Coleman,  James  A.  Craig, 
Luther  W.  Crosby,  Lewis  H.  Cofran,  Seth  R.  Clark,  Persia  B.  Clifford, 
John  F.  Clifford.  Samuel  Charlton,  James  H.  Coombs,  Isaac  N. 
Coombs,  John  E.  Copeland,  William  T.  Cressey,  Luther  Davis,  Charles 
A.  Douglass,  William  D.  Doe,  Robert  Dingley,  John  Donnough,  Had 


ley  P.  Doe,  Martin  V.  Eldridge,  Caleb  F.  E^tes,  Josiah  Edwards, 
George  W.  Flood,  Charles  L,  Feldtman,  Albert  P.  Farnham,  Charles 
G.  Fowler,  Edward  Fox,  John  M.  Gaslin,  Henry  S.  F.  Gerald,  Joseph  C. 
Gilman,  George  W.  Gilman,  Henry  A.  Griffith,  Charles  P.  Gove,  George 
W.  Griffith,  Adj.  Sanford  Hanscom,  James  Hodgkins, Cyrus  S.  Hamilton 
d,  Eben  Hanely,  George  F.  Hopkins  w  May  6  64,  Lewis  E.  Hopkins, 
Lewis  E.  Hovey,  John  M.  Hussey,  vStafford  B.  Jones,  Charles  Keene,Wil- 
liam  G.  Kidder,  Joshua  Knights,  William  Leonard  w  May  6  64,  Charles 
H.  Libby,  Rufus  F.  Lancaster,  George  W.  Longfellow,  Albert  P.  Leavitt, 
Isaac  H.  Libby  d  June  28  63,  Herbert  E.  Lewis,  Samuel  Longley, 
Davis  McDonald,  Andrew  G.  Mudgett,  George  F.  Martin,  George 
Meader,  John  Mains,  Jeptha  C.  Murch,  Joseph  L.  Nado,  Albert  Nor- 
ton, Isaac  Y.  Pierce,  George  F.  Pease,  Ezra  A.  Pray,  Allen  Parmeter, 
Alphonso  C.  Pray,  Lieut.  Osborn  J.  Pierce,  George  Rutledge,  Calvin 
Rollins,  Benjamin  F.  Runnels,  Daniel  Rollins,  Simon  Spaulding, 
Lieut.  Joseph  H.  Spencer,  Andrew  H.  Smiley  d  in  Albion  Aug.  19  63, 
Erastus  M.  vShaw,  Edwin  Staples,  Warren  B.  vStinson,  Orrin  F.  Stinson 
d  Dec.  15  64,  John  F.  Stackpole,  William  G.  Stratton,  Charles  Seekins, 
Josephus  Simpson,  Gardiner  P.  Smiley  d  Mar.  28  63,  E.  N.  D.  Small, 
James  M.  Tyler  k  near  Petersburg  Oct.  24  64,  Lieut.  William  H.  Tabor, 
Charles  B.  Tabor,  A.  S.  Weed,  Algernon  Weymouth,  Isaac  W.  Whit- 
taker,  George  M.  Wiggin,  Eugene  Worthens,  Orrin  T.  White,  Nathan 
S.  Winslow  d  in  rebel  prison  Aug.  13  64,  Samuel  Wilder,  Charles  T. 
Whitten,  Olney  Worthens. 

Augusta. — Peter  Adley,  Louis  Alexander,  Leverett  A.  Albee, George 
Allen  w,  Judson  Ames,  Charles  Annable  w  May  12  64,  Edward  Ander- 
son, George  W.  Andrews,  Lieut.  William  R.  Anderson,  Lieut.  Hol- 
man  B.  Anderson,  Charles  Arnold,  Daniel  Anderson,  W.  F.  Applegate, 
Edgar  Atkins,  H.  D.  Austin,  Charles  \V.  Allen,  Charles  H.  Arnold, 
Charles  S.  Avery  paroled  p  Dec.  7  64,  Riley  B.  Avery,  George  E.  Allen, 
Orlando  R.  Achorn,  Roscoe  G.  Avery,  John  G.  Abbott,  John  F.  Arnold 
w  Oct.  13  64,  Edward  Austin  d  June  13  65,  Charles  F.  Applebee,  George 
Arbo,  Josiah  S.  Arey  jun.,  Charles  M.  Batchelder,  Byron  Branch,  Wil- 
liam M.  Brick,  Cyrus  Bishop,  William  Burns,  Charles  Bushey,  Benj. 
F.  Barrows  w  and  p  64,  Amasa  M.  Bennett,  Q.  M.  George  W.  Brown, 
William  W.  Bruce,  S.  H.  Billington,  Thomas  G.  Billington,  John  S. 
Brown  d  in  Libby  Prison  Nov.  63,  James  D.  Brooks  w  Dec.  13  62, 
James  Britt,  Samuel  G.  Brannan,  Stephen  B.  Brannan,  Joshua  E.  Black- 
well,  John  H.  Babcock,  Darius  Brooks  d  of  wounds  June  18  64,  Joseph 
Brooks,  William  A.  Brown,  William  Bolton,  George  H.  Brick,  Lieut. 
George  A.  Barton  w  May  6  64,  James  E.  Bell,  Benjamin  Backliff,  Ed- 
ward K.  Bacon,  Lieut.  Silas  C.  Barker  p  at  Manassas,  Isaac  D.  Billing- 
ton, Edward  Brady,  Chap.  Horace  L.  Bray,  Thomas  Brennan,  Surg. 
George  E.  Brickett,  Jesse  M.  Black,  John  W.  Blomvelt,  Walter  L. 
Boynton,  John  W.  Boynton,  Peter  R.  Breen,  Charles  L.  Brann,  John 

>riLITARy   HISTORY.  137 

H.  Breene,  Capt.  Uriah  W.  Briggs,  Col.  Edwin  Burt,  Lieut.  William 
H.  Briggs,  Jcseph  L.  Brown,  Joseph  Bushey,  William  Barber,  William 
Bready,  John  Buderman,  Jonas  Bruce,  Joseph  Bunk,  Frank  Babbitt, 
Charles  F.  Berry,  Samuel  Berry,  Charles  H.  Bradbury,  William  Buck- 
man,  Hezekiah  Bean,  George  H.  Brackett,  Isaac  Bennett,  Charles 
Clark,  Augustus  Chadwick,  Charles  C.  Chagnon,  Rodger  Connelly  d  in 
rebel  prison,  Andrew  Clark  jun.,  Everett  Colson,  Richard  Cunning- 
ham, Ezra  G.  Ca,swell  jun.,  Thomas  Cready,  Thomas  Clow,  John  Cun- 
ningham. John  Canton,  William  Collins,  James  P.  Capron,  Alonzo 
Clark,  Charles  O.,  Thomas  Cole,  Anthony  Conway,  Morris 
Cogan,  Rowland  S.  Clark  d  Feb.  27  63,  Charles  E.  Caswell,  David  B. 
Cole,  Albert  Call,  Lieut.  William  Campbell,  William  A.  Campbell, 
Frank  Carlin,  Judah  A.  Chadwick.  Elbridge  G.  Chick,  George  E.  Cham- 
berlin  d  in  rebel  prison  Nov.  11  64,  Reuel  Chamberlin,  Horace  Church, 
Leander  M.  Clark,  Reuel  Clark  paroled  p,  .Stephen  R.  Clark,  Theodore 
Clark  d  in  rebel  prison  Nov.  1  64,  George  M.  Clark,  Clinton  G. 
Clark,  James  H.  Cook.  John  A.  Clark,  Llewellyn  Clough,  Joseph 
Cogan,  John  Connor,  Lieut.  George  Cony,  Lucius  Cony,  Robert  A. 
Cony  jun.,  Surg.  Richard  L.  Cook,  Eugene  W.  Cross,  Robert  Cochrane, 
Robert  Crawford,  Lieut.  Warren  Cox,  Charles  Cunningham,  Maj. 
Nathan  Cutler,  Uriah  Cunningham  w  June  26  64,  D.  H.  Cunningham, 
Henry  C.  Daley,  James  Davis  k  May  8  64,  David  Day,  Henry  Day, 
William  H.  Day,  Serg.  Maj.  John  N.  Dennen,  George  W.  Dill  d  in 
hospital  Feb.  4  6.^,  William  H.  Dill,  Benjamin  R.  Dingley,  Lieut.  Ed- 
ward P.  Donnell,  Benjamin  Douglass  w  July  20  64,  Thomas  Doyle,  John 
E.  Dresden,  Edmund  M.  Dunham,  Dan  forth  Dunton,  Capt.  Robert  T. 
Dyer,  Sylvester  Davis,  James  F.  Doyle,  George  H.  Devine,  Thomas 
Doyle,  John  W.  Dinsmore,  Henry  S.  Donnell,  George  W.  Dudley, 
Henry  Dresser,  Kneeland  A.  Darrow,  Charles  Dickson, William  Dwyer, 
Peter  Donnelly,  George  Donahoe,  John  F.  Duggan,  Frank  Edgerty, 
Cyrus  H.  Elems  w  June  8  64,  Charles  F.  Emerson,  Sylvester  S.  Fall, 
Samuel  S.  P'arnham,  Gustavus  A.  Farrington  d  Oct.  30  64,  Edmund 
Fay,  George  E.  Field,  Dennis  Finnegan,  George  H.  Fisher,  Roland  R. 
Fletcher,  Edward  Fogler  w  Aug.  18  64,  Henry  G.  Frizzell,  D.  FuUock, 
Eugen  S.  Fogg,  Miles  Frain,  Francis  J.  Folsom,  Augustine  Fowler, 
John  Fenney,  John  Feeny,  John  Fitzgerald,  Patrick  Flenning, William 
J.  P'orbes,  Andrew  Fox,  Alfred  F.  Gage,  Marcellus  Gale,  Harvey  R. 
Getchell,  Artemus  K.  Gilley,  P.  P.  Getchell,  Lieut.  Fred  W.  Gilbreth, 
Merritt  Goodwin,  Daniel  Gordon,  Charles  H.  Gordon  d  about  June  15 
64,  Solomon  Gordon,  James  R.  Gordon,  Josiah  H.  Gordon,  William  O. 
Grady,  Leonard  J.  Grant  d  Mar.  6  64,  Mark  C.  Grant,  Calvin  P.Green, 
John  F.  Greeley,  Elbridge  Gardiner,  Edward  Grover,  John  Greene, 
Lorenzo  W.  Hackett,  Elisha  Heath  jun.,  Otis  Haskell,  William  F.  Hus- 
sey,  Warren  C.  Harlow,  Thomas  A.  Harvey,  Abner  Haskell,  Hadley 
O.  Hawes,  Charles  R.  Haynes,  John  Hayes,  Capt.  Albion  Hersey,  Ed- 


ward  H.  Hicks,  Charles  E.  Higgins,  Henry  Hodsdon,  William  H> 
Holmes,  William  Holmes,  Charles  P.  Hubbard,  George  A.  Hussey  w 
July  3  63,  Merrill  Hussey,  John  F.  Hussey,  Capt. Charles  K.  Hutchins, 
Alonzo  F.  Hill. George  H.  Heath,  Henry  W.  Hawes  d  Apr.  9  63,  Simon 
Higgins,  Amos  A.  Hansom,  Greenfield  P.  Hall,  Harvey  A.  Hovey^ 
Valentine  Holt,  Daniel  W.  Hume,  Patrick  Hynes,  David  Haggerty, 
James  Higgins,  Henry  Hugh,  John  Howard,  F.  H.  Hamilton,  John 
Hogan.  Harry  Ingraham,  Martin  Ingraham  w  June  14  63,  Thomas  F. 
Ingraham,  John  Jenkins,  James  Jordan,  Lieut.  Hannibal  A.  Johnson, 
John  Johnson,  William  J.  Johnson,  Frank  Jones,  Llewellyn  Jones^ 
William  Jung,  William  O.  Kaherl,  John  Kavanagh,  Stephen  Keating, 
Edward  B.  Keene,  Isaac  Keene,  John  W.  Kenney,  Michael  Kennedy, 
George  Kelly,  Thomas  H.  Kimball,  William  King,  Henry  G.  Kimball 
w  Aug.  16  64  d  Dec.  12  64,  Charles  N.  Kincaid  w  May  18  64,  George 
W.  Ladd,  Frank  H.  Lailer,  Col.  Moses  B.  Lakeman,  Nathaniel  Lane  k 
May  6  64,  John  Larrabee  p  June  29  64,  Cyrus  A.  Langton,  Hampton 
W.  Leighton  w  at  Gettysburg  63,  Thomas  Lilley  d  in  rebel  prison  Nov. 
16  64,  Robert  A.  Lishness,  Ruel  Littlefield,  Amasa  Lord,  Converse 
Lowell,  Judson  A.  Lovejoy,  Newman  B.  Lane,  Robert  Lishness,  John 
Leighton,  John  Laughton,  Daniel  Lane,  Martin  Lynch,  George 
C.  Lawrence,  Nelson  G.  Libby,  Reuel  Lambard,  Timothy  Lucey,  Cor- 
nelius Lane,  William  H.  Lyon,  David  S.  Lyon,  Henry  A.  Mann,  Adj. 
Joseph  H.  Metcalf,  Josiah  M.  Morse,  William  Morgridge,  Hiram  C. 
Moody,  Daniel  McGrath,  James  McGrath,  John  H.  Moore,  H.  W.  Mer- 
rill d  of  disease  Mar.  27  65,  Francis  McBride,  Patrick  Maloney,  Joseph 
Meek,  Stephen  S.  Morse,  Daniel  B.  Morey  w  May  20  64,  John  McMas- 
ter  jun.,  John  McMaster,  Daniel  Mahoney  p  Oct.  63,  James  W.  Miller, 
Melville  Merrill,  Milford  Mahoney,  George  E.  Maloon,  Charles  J.  Mar- 
den,  Ambrose  Marriner,  Alfred  J.  Marston  p  June  22  d  Sept.  12  64, 
Benjamin  R.  Marston,  Charles  L.  Marston,  Henry  C.  Marston,  George 
T.  Mason,  Enoch  Merrill,  Amos  Merrill,  Florentus  R.  Merrill,  Capt. 
Joseph  H.  Metcalf,  Eben  McFarland,  John  H.  Miller,  Stephen  Miller, 
Charles  Mile,  Stephen  McKenney,  Henry  A.  McMaster,  Wilder  Mc- 
Mitchell,  Charles  F.  Moore,  James  Moren,  Edward  Miner,  James  Mc- 
Grath, James  McGann,  John  Murphy,  William  Murphy  p,  Capt.  J.  D. 
My  rick,  Timothy  Mahoney,  Thomas  Mmton,  Fred  E.  Marshall,  Daniel 
Murry,  Fred  Morrison,  James  Malone,  Hugh  McKenna,  John  R. 
Meyer,  William  F.  Moody,  Capt.  William  C.  Morgan,  William  N.  Mur- 
ray d  of  wounds  Apr.  2  65,  Eugene  Moraney,  Oliver  Marr,  Isaac 
Moody  w  May  6  64,  William  G.  Merrill  d  of  disease  63,  Thomas  Mur- 
phy, Jeremiah  Murphy  k  at  Middletown  Oct.  19  64,  Thomas  J.  Nary, 
Albert  H.  Norcross,  Patrick  Naughton,  Albert  P.  Nichols,  Lieut.  A.  J. 
Nichols,  Charles  F.  Nichols  w  June  63  p  June  28  64,  John  W.  Nicholas, 
Col.  Joseph  Noble,  John  B.  Nutting,  John  O'Brien,  John  O'Neal,  Pat- 
rick O'Gara,  Whitman  L.  Orcutt,  James  Orrick,  Samuel  Orr,  Dennis 


O'Brien,  Samuel  A.  Packard,  Albert  H.  Packard,  James  E.  Parker, 
Charles  B.  Patterson,  Daniel  Pease,  Frank  W.  Peaslee  dof  disease  Mar. 
6  65,  George  Peva,  John  W.  Phinney,  Augustus  W.  Plummer,  Charles 
M.  Phillips  d  Feb.  19  64,  Allen  Partridge,  Capt.  Edward  C.  Pierce, 
Phillip  Piper  p  Oct.  19  64,  George  E.  Pond,  Charles  H.  Powers,  Michael 
Powers,  Joseph  Pluskey,  Jones  F.  Pratt,  Eben  E.  Pushor,  Nathan  E. 
Quint,  John  Rappel,  Sewall  R.  Reeves,  Moses  Richards,  Orlando  W. 
Richardson  w  May  16  64,  Albert  Ricker,  James  Rideout,  Thomas  B. 
Rideout,  Andrew  J.  Riley,  Lieut.  George  E.  Rines,  George  F.  Ray, 
Charles  C.  Rideout  d  Apr.  13  65,  John  Rollins,  James  B.  Robbins  w 
May  19  64,  Philander  W.  Rowell,  Franklin  Ruffin,  William  Reed,  Jo- 
seph Ruggles,  Silas  H.  Runnell,  Michael  Ryan,  Hollis  M.  Sabine, 
Capt.  James  M.  Safford,  Omar  F.  Savage,  George  Scates,  Stephen  M. 
Scates,  Adj.  Henry  Sewall,  Capt.  Samuel  G.  Sewell,  Lorenzo  D.  Shaw, 
Thomas  Singleton,  William  B.  Small,  Augustus  C.  Smith,  Augustus 
L.  Smith,  Charles  F.  Smith,  Corp.  George  W.  Smith,  Wilson  C.  Smith, 
Lieut.  William  T.  Smith.  William  E.  Smith  d  in  rebel  prison  Nov.  64, 
Orrin  P.  Smart  w  June  6  64,  Greenlief  Smart,  Richard  N.  Smart,  Jo- 
seph Snow,  James  F.  Snow,  Bt.  Maj.  G.  T.  Stevens,  Lorenzo  D.  Stev- 
ens, George  Stewart,  Edward  P.  Sargent,  John  F.  Short,  David  W. 
Small,  John  Stewart  w  July  9  64,  Charles  O.  Stone,  George  A.  Snow, 
Edwin  F.  Stone,  Joseph  M.  Springer,  Abraham  Stickney,  George  H. 
Smith  d  at  Augusta  Maine  Aug.  15  63,  Homer  R.  Stratton,  Albert  M. 
Scott,  Fred  A.  Sullivan,  Daniel  B.  Savage,  David  Stuart,  Michael  Sul- 
livan, Patrick  Sullivan,  Jacob  Sleeper,  John  Smith,  August  Smith, 
George  Taylor,  Howard  W.  Taylor,  Richard  C.  Taylor,  William  W. 
Taylor,  Everett  Temple,  Augustus  G.  Thomas,  Lieut.  James  L. 
Thompson  d  of  wounds  June  6  64,  Actor  P.  Thompson,  William  O. 
Tibbetts  d  of  wounds  May  1  64,  Lauriston  G.  Trask,  Anson  T.  Tilson, 
James  R.  Tibbetts,  Henry  Towle,  Charles  F.  Tibbetts,  Joseph  A.  Tur- 
ner, Sumner  W.  Turner,  Albion  R.  R.  Twombley,  Nicholas  Vickolby, 
Charles  Victor,  Theodore  C.  Van  Clasburg,  Charles  De  Villenenoe, 
Charles  H.  Wade,  George  Wall,  Lieut.  William  H.  H.  Ware,  Jeremiah 
Watkins,  John  O.  Webster,  Col.  James  W.  Welch,  Thomas  Welch, 
Benjamin  Wells,  John  P.  Wells  d  in  rebel  prison  Jan.  12  65,  Eben 
Wellman,  Benjamin  H.  Wescott,  Charles  H.  White,  Caleb  F.  Wade, 
William  A.  R.  Withee,  Andrew  P.  Webber,  William  T.  C.  Wescott, 
Philander  E.  Worthley,  Stephen  Wing,  Oliver  P.  Webber,  Joseph 
Whitney,  Henry  A.  Whitney,  Eben  B.  Whitney,  Michael  Whalen, 
Charles  Woodman,  John  L.  Watson,  George  N.  White,  Frank  White, 
Oliver  Woodbury,  Joshua  R.  Webber  d  May  28  63,  William  H.  H. 
Ware,  John  Wentworth  d  at  Barrancas  Fla.  Dec.  10  64,  Nathaniel  W. 
White,  True  Whittier,  Fred  A.  Wilson,  John  Wil.son,  Albert  N.  Wil- 
liams d  July  3  63,  Frederick  A.  Williams,  Henry  Williamson,  Holmes 
B.  Williamson,  Reuel  Williams,  John  Wills,  Gilmore  S.  Wing,  Atwell 


M.  Wixson  p  63,  John  H.  Woodbury,  Capt.  Edward  F.  Wyman,  Charles 
O.  Wyman,  William  C.  Young  p  d  Aug.  24  64,  David  H.  Young,  A.  J. 

Belgrade— ]ose])\\  A.  Ackley,  isaac  Adams,  Charles  Allen,  Bowman 
V.  Ames,  George  E.  Andrews,  John  W.  Austin,  Thomas  J.  Austin  d 
of  wounds  Oct.  27  64,  Theodore  Ayer.  Charles  A.  Bailey,  Edwin  L. 
Barker,  William  B.  Bates,  Charles  M.  Bickford,  Milford  Bickford, 
Thomas  M.  Bickford,  William  Bickford  d  Mar.  24  63,  George  F.  Bliss, 
Franklin  Brann,  George  H.  Boston,  George  F.  Breeden,  William 
Brooks,  Frederick  C.  Brookings,  Franklin  L.  Bumpus,  William  Bushee, 
James  Cavanaugh,  Sylvanus  W.  Chamberlain,  Nathaniel  F.  Clark  d  in 
hospital  July  29  65,  George  Clark,  Charles  A.  Clement,  Thomas  Crosby, 
Asa  J.  Cummings,  Joseph  S.  Cummings,  Charles  C.  Damren,  James  C. 
Damren,  Willard  H.  Darmen,  Charles  A.  Davis,  George  Dow,  Charles 
F.  Ellis,  Freeman  Ellis,  George  W.  Emerson,  Amasa  T.  Fall,  Lorenzo 
Farnham,  Otis  B.  Faulkingham,  Samuel  Fitzherbert,  Thomas  W. 
Flint,  Daniel  L.  Folsom,  William  T.  Foss,  Sylvester  W.  Giles,  William 
Garrett,  George  Guptill  w  Oct.  19  64,  George  Grant,  Lieut.  Henry  W. 
Golder,  Charles  B.  Goldsmith,  George  W.  Grose,  Henry  Grover, 
Franklin  Grant,  John  J.  Gundlack.  Guard  Guard,  George  W.  Glidden, 
John  Hammond  jun.,  John  Harris,  Rufus  H.  Hopkins,  Ausburn 
Hutchins,  Levi  Higgins,  William  H.  Huskins,  Cyrus  Huff,  Rodna 
Flegwood,  Charles  A.  Hinkley,  Charles  L.  Hutchings,  P.  P.  Hutchins, 
Henry  L  Hotchkiss,  Henry  Huff,  Samuel  Jobbot,  William  Joneas, 
Silas  P.  Leighton,  James  A.  Lombard,  Allen  Leavitt,  Charles  H.  Lit- 
tlefield  d  at  Frederick  Md.  Apr.  25  65,  Acel  A.  Littlefield  k  June  20  64, 
Manselus  N.  Libby,  William  H.  Leighton,  William  Mathews,  Harthorn 
Marston,  Edward  H.  Merchant  d  in  hospital  July  18  65,  Asal  L.  Mer- 
chant d  in  hospital  July  25  65,  Lyman  Maxwell  p,  H.  A.  Mills,  Alex- 
ander McDavitt,  Michael  McLaughlin,  George  McMullen,  Edwin  G. 
Minot  d  in  hospital  Sept.  17  64,  Stephen  C.  Mills,  Alphonzo  W.  Mc- 
Kay, George  W.  Morrill,  Ambrose  Merrow,  Charles  B.  Moseley,  Flor- 
ence McCarty,  James  R.  Nickerson,  Everet  A.  Penney,  William  A. 
Parker,  Fred  B.  Philbrick,  John  Patridge,  Greenwood  C.  Pray,  John 
W.  Pray,  Reuben  H.  Pray,  John  Putman,  Fred  E.  Patridge,  Leonard 
H.  Pratt,  George  F.  Parks,  Gideon  Powers,  Asst.  Surg.  Ingraham  G. 
Richardson,  Joel  Richardson,  Royal  Richardson  d  Aug.  15  63,  J.  D. 
Rhoades,  William  Rankins,  Henry  Richardson,  Peter  W.  Swan  d  Apr. 
1  64,'  Cathbert  E.  Stonehouse,  Charles  Simmons,  Henry  J.  Spaulding, 
Edward  L.  Smith  d  Oct.  7  64,  Aaron  Simpson,  George  B.  Stevens,  Cy- 
rus Shaw,  Elijah  J.  Stevens,  Joel  Spaulding,  Jesse  Spaulding,  David 
Strong,  George  F.  Smith,  Arthur  Stewart,  Ezra  W.  Trask  w  May  5  d 
Sept.  14  64,  William  A.  Tibbetts,  Miles  J.  Temple,  Thomas  C.  Wadley, 
John  Worster  w  at  Petersburg  June  19  64,  Hiram  G.  Wellman,  John 
W.  Weaver,  Charles  H.  Webber,  George  Warren,  William  V.  White- 


house  k  July  24  64,  George  D.  Wyman,  William  E.  Willey,  John  M. 
Williams,  Ruel  Williams,  A.  J.  Woodbury,  William  Wilbur,  Thomas 
S.  Wyman,  Alphonzo  H.  Wadley  d  of  wounds  July  2  64,  Jotham  D. 

Benton.— Oliver  Averill,  Daniel  R.  Bartlett,  Isaac  S.  Bicknell,  Al- 
pheus  Brown,  James  A.  Brown,  Charles  S.  Buken,  Benjamin  F.  Buz- 
zell,  Asbury  Cole,  Abijah  Crosby,  John  Crowley,  Daniel  F.  Davis, 
William  L.  Davis,  Loren  Dodge,  John  E.,  Leander  H.  Dow 
d  from  injuries  May  19  65,  George  W.  Flagg,  Gershan  Flagg,  Stephen 
Flood,  Daniel  S.  Foss,  James  H.  Foster,  Charles  Gage,  Alvin  Gibson, 
Charles  Giles,  George  W.  Grace,  John  Gray,  Albert  Gray  jun.,  Charles 
Goodale,  David  Goodale  d  of  disease  Apr.  28  6a,  William  H.  Goodale, 
James  Goodale,  John  M.  Goodin,  Joseph  Conner,  Freeman  Hansworn, 
James  F.  Hern,  Theodore  V.  Hill,  James  Henderson,  Benjamin  Hun- 
ter, John  H.  Hyer,  Aaron  Johnson,  Henry  Johnson,  Isaac  W.  Kenner- 
son,  John  F.  O.  Malloy,  Watson  D.  Marston,  David  Mason,  John  O. 
Dodge  w  Oct.  27  64,  Frank  McGray,  S.  F.  McKenney,  John  A.  McKinney, 
William  H.  Morrill,  Richard  McVinet,  Charles  Noble,  Henry  Noble, 
Thomas  Pamphay,  Noah  S.  Paul,  Lyman  Pettigrow,  A.  R.  Preston, 
Frank  Raneo,  Charles  B.  Reed,  Henry  M.  Reed,  Albert  Rideout, 
George  A.  Roundy,  George  F.  Runnells,  James  Ryan,  Cyrus  Savage, 
C.  W.  Smith,  John  Smith,  Charles  H.  Spaulding,  Charles  Spauldiug, 
Henry  E.  Spaulding,  William  Spaulding,  John  Spaulding,  Hollis 
Spearing,  Charles  Spencer,  Charles  A.  Speneer,  Samuel  Stacy,  John 
H.  Stephens,  Alonzo  Sylvester,  Gershom  F.  Tarbell,  Isaac  Trask, 
Orrin  S.  Usher,  Bowman  Wood,  Daniel  Wood,  Henry  Wood,  Ephraim 
Win.ship,  Lorenzo  Wyman. 

Chelsea.— Charles  E.  Ames,  Charles  M.  Bailey  k  Apr.  6  64,  William 
H.  Bolton,  George  T.  Blanchard,  Samuel  L.  Blanchard,  Cyrus  Brann, 
Daniel  C.  Brown  jun.,  Rinaldo  Brown,  Plummer  H.  Butler,  Edwin 
Cappers,  Rinaldo  A.  Carr,  John  M.  Chase  d  Feb.  20  63,  Stephen  Cobb 
w  May  27  63,  Alfonzo  C.  Collins,  Augustus  H.  Collins  k  July  30  64, 
Augustus  Collins,  Frank  Condon,  Albert  Cooper,  Frank  Cooper, 
Uriah  Cunningham,  David  P.  Cornish,  William  A.  Drake,  James  S. 
Emerson,  George  A.  Evans,  Charles  F.  French.  Stephen  H.  French, 
Arnold  L.  Foye,  William  A.  Foye,  Joseph  L.  Haskell,  James  F.  Has- 
kell, James  Hogan,  Joseph  Irving,  Ruel  W.  Keene.  Wilbert  W.  Ken- 
iston,  Otis  W.  Littlefield,  Lorin  N.  Marston,  Nathaniel  H.  Meader, 
Andrew  Morang  w  May  12  64,  William  Morgan,  Calvin  Morang,  Ce- 
phas Morang  d  July  17  63,  Simon  Morang,  James  G.  Morang,  Hiram 
Moulton,  George  H.  Neal,  Lyman  C.  Neal,  Henry  L.  Patterson,  Isaac 
L.  Page,  Reuben  H.  Page,  John  E.  Page,  George  M.  Perkins,  Augus- 
tus H.  Pinkham,  Solomon  H.  Preble,  Mark  L.  Rollins,  Harrison  B. 
Sanborn   d  64.  Charles  M.  Searls  d  June  8  63,  Henry  Stevens,  Eben 


Tasker,  James  Wellman  d  July  7  64,  Fred  H.White,  Henry  E.  White, 
Arad  Woodbury  d  May  17  64,  James  M.  Wright. 

China. — Edwin  Alley,  John  L.  Allen,  John  C.  Andrews,  Joseph  E. 
Babb,  F.  S.  Barnard,  AVilliam  Bell,  Asst.  Surg.  David  P.  Bolster, 
•George  A.  Bosworth,  Edmund  Bragg,  Everett  H.  Bridgham,  John  S. 
Briggs,  Orpheus  P.  Brann,  John  Brown,  Alonzo  Burrill,  John  Burrill, 
Thomas  E.  Carpenter,  Lendell  S.  Caswell,  Gustavus  B.  Chadwick, 
-Charles  F.  Choate,  Stillman  Choate,  Thomas  F.  Clark,  Osgood  Coffran, 
Ezekiel  L.  Cole  p  Aug.  19  61  d  Feb.  2  65,  William  J.  Cole,  Elias  Colla- 
tnore,  Elisha  Cooley,  William  B.  Coombs.  Joseph  Coro  w  at  Gettys- 
burg 63,  Atwell  J.  Cross,  Watson  W.  Cross,  Greenlief  P.  Curtis,  Philip 
W.  Day,  Aaron  Davis  jun.,  John  D.  Davis,  Wallace  A.  E.  De  Beque, 
Addison  G.  Deering,  Adolphus  W.  Doe,  George  L.  Dow,  John  Doyle, 
James  H.  Ellis,  Orren  Emerson,  Jacob  Emery  d  Aug.  27  64,  Jeremiah 
H.  Estes,  Isaac  W.  Fairbrother,  William  H.  Fairbrother,  Reuben  M. 
Farrington  d  64,  John  Farris,  Alvanna  V.  Farris  d  July  24  64,  Oscar  M. 
Fernold,  Abisha  B.  Fletcher,  Capt.  Alfred  Fletcher,  Charles  B.  Fletcher, 
Eben  L.  Fletcher,  Edward  A.  Fletcher,  Edwin  A.  Fletcher,  Charles 
Fowler,  Alden  H.  Frazier,  Oscar  S.  Frost,  James  E.  Fulton,  Frederick  G. 
Gage,  Samuel  S.  Galligar,  Joseph  Gelcott  jun.,  Samuel  D.  Giddings,  F. 
C.  Goodspeed,  Charles  B.  Greeley,  Alfred  M.  Hamlin,  Thomas  E.  Har- 
rington, Joseph  H.  Haskell,  Orrin  A.  Haskell,  Oscar  H.  Haskell, 
George  S.  Hawes,  Thomas  E.  Harrington,  Myron  C.  Harrington,  Am- 
brose B.  Hanson,  Quimby  H.  Hamilton  d  of  disease  Apr.  19  63,  Ste- 
phen Harmon,  Sylvester  L.  Hatch  d  of  disease  Sept.  23  65,  Sumner 
Haskell,  Joseph  Hatch,  J.  W.  Hall,  Samuel  C.  Haskell,  Edwin  H. 
Hana,  Andrew  B.  Hubbard,  George  K.  Huntington  w  May  20  64,  Fred 
E.  Hutchinson,  George  H.  Hussy,  Charles  H.  Jackson,  Willis  J.  James, 
Charles  H.  Johnson,  Amos  Jones,  John  Jordan,  Edwin  Kelley,  Charles 
A.  Ketchen  d  Jan  13  64,  Charles  Kellran,  Amos  Keller  d  Aug.  18  64 
in  Florida,  J.  Kempton,  James  Knichler  d  Sept.  18  64,  Edwin  D.  Lee, 
Aaron  Libby,  Albanah  H.  Libby  d  in  rebel  prison,  Llewellyn  Libby, 
Moses  Libby,  Capt.  Willard  Lincoln,  Charles  F.  Lord,  Bartice  vS.  Luce, 
John  C.  Marston,  Orville  W.  Malcolm,  John  S.  Marsh,  James  H. 
Mathews,  Edward  A.  Maxfield,  Frederick  Maxfield  d  at  China  63, 
Henry  W.  Maxfield,  Dustan  McAllister,  Charles  McCavron  jun.,  Gar- 
diner F.  McDaniel,  Burnam  McKeene,  Franklin  Mitchell,  Judson  A. 
Mitchell  d  of  di.sease  Dec.  7  62,  William  W.  Murphy,  Winthrop  Mur- 
ray, James  E.  Mosher,  Charles  H.  Nelson,  Erastus  F.  Nelson,  John 
Norris,  Thomas  Norton,  Henry  B.  Page,  Laforest  Parmater,  James  H. 
Peavey,  George  S.  Percival,  Avery  Percival  d  of  disease  July  30  63, 
William  Perham,  Franklin  A.  Perry,  Mark  Porter,  Abraham  R.  Pow- 
ers, Alden  H.  Priest,  Charles  Proctor,  Lorin  Proctor,  George  H.  Ram- 
sell,  Henry  C.  Rice,  Franklin  D.  Robbins,  John  L.  Robbins,  William 
Robbins,  Everett    Robinson,    H.    G.    Robinson,    Timothy    Robinson, 


'Henry  A.  Rogers,  David  Savage  jun.,  Orrin  L.  Seco  d  Oct.  11  64,  John 
H.  Seekins,  Eliab  W.  Shaw,  Appleton  W.  Shorey  p  Aug.  19  64  d  Feb. 
64,  Edwin  Small,  Herbert  M.  Starbird,  Augu.stus  H.  Starkey  d  July  64, 
Samuel  C.  Starrett,  William  H.  Squires,  Benjamin  F.  Stetson,  Charles 
F.  Stevens,  Charles  B.  Stuart,  Alvin  Sylvester,  Henry  H.  Talbott,  At- 
well  A.  Taylor,  Samuel  A.  Taylor,  Charles  H.  Temple,  Charles  E. 
Thomas,  William  L.  Toby,  William  B.  Toby,  Ambrose  E.  Trask, 
James  O.  Trask,  Charles  W.  Turner,  Elias  Tyler  w  July  2  63  d  July  15 

63.  Charles  F.  Waite,  Orren  B.  Ward  d  Aug.  10  64  in  New  Orleans, 
Wilbur  N.  Ward,  George  Wentworth,  Abner  D.  Weeks,  Albert  R. 
Ward,  Freeman  C.  Ward.  Howard  G.  Ward,  Uriah  E.  Ward,  Thomas 
B.  Washburn,  Richard  Welch,  George  Wentworth,  Charles  W.  Wey- 
mouth, E.  A.  Whitney,  John  Q.  A.  Whitley,  Andrew  D.  Wiggins, 
James  M.  Wright,  Charles  Worthing,  William  P.  Worthing  w  May  12 

64,  James  Wyman,  Lorenzo  York,  Edwin  F.  Young. 

<r//«/^«.— Albert  Ames,  Charles  Andrews,  Moses  H.  Arthur,  Thomas 
Armstrong,  Benjamin  G.  Bagley,  Franklin  Bagley,  John  H.  Balow, 
George  Barrow,  Capt.  Charles  W.  Billings  d  of  wounds  July  15  63, 
William  M.  Brown,  Leroy  T.  Blackwell,  Edward  P.  Blood,  Alvin 
Brann,  William  Brenney,  Charles  S.  Brimner  d  63,  John  W.  Brown, 
Rufus  N.  Brown,  Capt.  Samuel  S.  Brown,  Jfimes  L.  Bush,  Eben  Bur- 
ton, Peter  Cane,  Ezra  S.  Chase,  Francis  A.  Chamberlin,  Edwin  J. 
Chase,  James  F.  Chaney.  John  D.  Chandler,  Charles  H.  Clark  or  Card, 
George  L.  Cole,  John  S.  Cleveland,  Horace  Cole,  Patrick  Connor  k 
May  16  64,  Jeremiah  Conway,  James  L.  Colmer,  Patrick  Dacey,  Oliver 
W.  Dickey  d  Mar.  17  63,  Enos  Dow,  Gardiner  L.  Eastman,  Shepard 
Eldridge,  Freeman  Emery,  John  Flarety  d  of  disease  June  24  63, 
Henry  R.  Flood,  Francis  P.  Furber  w  May  6  64,  Oliver  P.  Gates,  James 
A.  Gardiner,  William  F.  Gerald  w  63,  Increase  F.  Goodwin,  E.  C.  Good- 
win d  Mar.  28  63,  Horace  Goodwin,  Jeremiah  Goodwin,  John  H.  Good- 
ale,  Lieut.  Stephen  R.  Gordon,  H.  F.  Harwood,  George  W.  Hall,  Simon 
Hall,  John  C.  Hall,  Isaac  C.  Hodgdon,  Asa  Holt,  George  W.  Holt  d 
Apr.  11  63,  John  D.  Hoffman,  Osgood  Howland,  Q.  M.  Albert  Hunter, 
Melvin  Hunter,  Charles  A.  Jaquith,  John  M.  Jewell,  James  Johnson, 
Stephen  M.  Johnson,  Henry  P.  Jones,  Lyman  B.  Kimball,  Jesse  Kim- 
ball, Samuel  Leighton,  Amos  Leonard  w  64,  Wilson  C.  Lewis,  Jopa- 
than  Lewis,  Joseph  G.  Linnell,  Francis  Low  jun.,  Nelson  Mallett,  Al-  Manson,  Alexander  McDonald,  Albert  C.  McMaster,  John  Mor- 
rill, John  McKenney,  Hason  McNully,  George  S.  Mullen,  Thomas  J. 
Murphy,  Milford  Nye,  Adelbert  L.  Orr,  Oliver  P.  Paul,  William  H. 
Pearson,  Herbert  D.  Perkins,  Charles  C.  Pierce,  John  G.  Pierce, 
Thomas  A.  Patter,  Samuel  D.  Prescott,  Stephen  H.  Powell,  William 
Pre.scott,  Michael  Quiley,  Horatio  N.  Reed,  Ezra  R.  Reed  p  June  22 
64,  John  RenchlerrStephen  B.  Rhodes,  Perley  H.  Richardson,  George 
Ricker,  Joseph  F.  Rolf,  Peter  Rudnick  k  Nov.  12  64,  John  Ryan,  Wil- 


liam  Ryley,  Elias  D.  Rowell,  Lieut.  Marcus  Rowell.  Theodore  H. 
Smith,  Albert  T.  Snow,  Franklin  Snow,  Daniel  Y.  Sullivan,  Oscar  Al. 
Sabine,  Thomas  Scanlon,  Francis  Seede,  George  E.  Snow,  Perry  Snow, 
Albion  Spurling,  James  C.  Spaulding,  Lewis  B.  Spaulding,  John 
Spikes,  Merritt  Stinson,  Era.stus  Tarball  k  May  S  64,  Calvin  Taylor  d 
Apr.  24  64,  James  Thurston,  Charles  F.  Tibbetts,  John  H.  Taylor, 
John  Thompson,  Jeremiah  Thornton,  Daniel  Thurston,  Charles  L. 
Totman  d  of  disease  Mar.  2  63,  John  A.  Totipan  w  May  27  63,  John  F. 
Townson,  Laforest  P.  True,  Montgomery  Tuttle,  Norman  Vault, 
Henry  F.  Waldren,  James  W.  Waldren,  David  S.  Wardwell,  John  C. 
Walter,  Retire  W.  Webber,  Daniel  J.  Wells,  Alfred  Weymouth,  John 
Weymouth,  Marshall  Weymouth,  Osgood  Weymouth,  Warren  We}'- 
mouth,  George  Whitten,  Otheo  W.  Whitten,  John  W.  Willey,  Charles 
T.  Winslow,  Henry  Young. 

Faruiingdale. — James  Andrews,  Alverdo  Averell,  Horace  W.  Baker, 
Marcellus  Blair,  George  W.  Briggs,  Edmund  J.  Brookings,  George 
Campbell,  Ezekiel  Chapman,  John  Clery,  Charles  A.  Cooke,  James  S. 
Cote,  Charles  R.  Curtis  d  July  8  64,  William  H.  Curtis  w  July  1  63, 
James  R.  Dill,  Joseph  C.  Dill,  Alfred  Douglass,  George  S.  Fogg,  Sum- 
ner Gardiner,  Samuel  S.  Glidden,  Jonathan  S.  Goodrich,  John  P. 
Greeley,  Timothy  Higgins,  Benjamin  S.  Hodgdon,  John  Holmes, 
Joel  Howe,  G.  W.  Hunt,  Charles  W.  Johnson,  Edward  Kelley,  Joseph 
S.  Lowell,  John  A.  Lyons,  Albert  McCausland,  Alonzo  McCausland, 
Moses  B.  McCausland,  Charles  Meader,  Charles  B.  Millett,  Gustavus 
Moore,  Henry  M.  Neal,  John  H.  Pease,  J.  A.  Perkins,  Charles  T.  Rice, 
George  W.  Rice,  John  G.  Robie,  George  H.  Seavey,  Reuben  Seavey, 
Daniel  R.  Shaw,  Joseph  E.  Sims,  Horace  L.  Smith,  Lieut.  Emilus  N. 
D.  Small,  George  H.  Stone,  Frank  Sweetland,  William  H.  Sweetland, 
James  D.  Tibbetts,  Samuel  L.  Tibbetts  w,  S.  C.  Thomas,  John  W. 
Waterhouse,  Nathan  W.  Walker,  William  Wiley. 

/rt,,f//,.._Philip  C.  Adams,  C.  H.  Bacheldor,  Osbert  L.  Basford, 
Benjamin  F.  Bruce,  Michael  Buckley,  Milton  W.  Burnham,  Francis  A. 
Bryant,  Arthur  D.  Chase,  Lieut.  Adolphus  J.  Chapman,  Martin  V.  B. 
Clark,  Loren  S.  Clough,  Charles  L.  Crane,  Francis  A.  Crane,  Mark  F. 
Ditson,  John  F.  Dwyer,  Isaac  Emerson,  Samuel  H.  Fifield  w  Dec.  13  62 
d  Dec.  29  63,  William  H.  Fish,  H.  H.  Folsum,  Stephen  H.  French,  Asst. 
Surg.  Albert  G.  French,  Charles  H.  H.  French,  Clarence  C.  Frost,  Ste- 
phen Fellows,  Lovell  L.  Gardner,  Calvin  S.  Gordon,  Lewis  C.  Gordon, 
John  C.  Gurney,  William  Hasty,  Edgar  Hathaway,  Charles  Hunter, 
William  H.  Irish,  Charles  L.  Jones,  Edwin  C.  Jones  p  Aug.  19  64, 
Moses  I.  Jones,  Sylvester  H.  Jones,  Daniel  Lennon,  Henry  Magan, 
John  Mangan,  Elijah  D.  Marden,  George  L.  Moore  d  of  wounds  May 
20  64,  Daniel  W.  Morrill,  Timothy  Nickoles,  Tyler  Newton,  Albert  A. 
Palmer,  Thomas  Powers,  William  H.  Richmond  w  May  19  64,  E.  P. 
Sanborn,  James  Scott,   Marcus  M.  Small,  James  W.  Smith,  Robert 


Smith  jun.,  Jnsiah  H.  Sturtevant,  Lewis  F.  Sturtevant,  John  H. 
Thurber,  Edward  M.  True,  Lieut.  John  H.  True,  Isaac  Warren,  Sam- 
uel D.  Weed,  James  M.  Wiswell,  Charles  W.  Wing. 

Gardiner. — John  E.  Atkins.  Capt.  Eleazer  W.  Atwood,  Col.  George 
AL  Atwood,  Adj.  George  E.  Atwood,  Peter  Aliff,  Lieut.  Ellis  W.  Ayer 
k  Sept.  9  64,  Lieut.  Alfred  G.  Brann,  Sanford  Brann,  Appleton  Babb, 
Edward  Bird,  James  H.  Booker,  Mark  G.  Babb,  George  A.  Bowie,  Ros- 
coe  G.  Buck,  Daniel  Brann  d  in  rebel  prison  Nov.  1  64,  Lieut.  Cyrus 
W.  Brann,  George  H.  Baker,  William  Brann  d  in  hospital  P'eb.  1  64, 
James  S.  Benson,  George  H.  Berry,  Charles  P.  Brann,  Lieut.  Freder- 
ick H.  Beecher,  Emery  H.  Brann,  S.  S.  Bennett,  Lieut.  Thomas  A. 
Brann  w  at  Fair  Oaks,  Lanson  G.  Brann  d  of  disease  May  11  64,  Dan- 
iel Booker,  Edward  Brush,  John  W.  Bennett,  John  Burke,  Michael 
Burnes,  Gideon  Bowley  jun.,  Edward  Brown,  Daniel  Brooking,  Daniel 
Black,  Emery  M.  Brann,  David  R.  Campbell.  Albert  E.  Clary,  George 
W.  Church,  Cornelius  Card,  George  W.  Cheney,  John  H.  Crowell,  John 
P.  Church,  George  W.  Cross,  Abiel  Cowen,  Pell  Clason,  George  Clark, 
John  Coleman,  Patrick  H.  Cummings,  Pell  Clason,  Albert  Dudley, 
Charles  W.  Dill,  Charles  B.  Dexter,  Ambrose  Dudley.  Dorson  M.  Dale, 
Aaron  Dudley,  John  S.  Dennis,  Frank  W.  Dirgen,  James  Delaney, 
John  Ducott,  Ambrose  S.  Douglass,  Silas  A.  Dixon,  Charles  E.  Deer- 
ing,  J.  W.  Douglass,  Stephen  W.  Dana,  Charles  F.  Davis,  Robert 
Davis  w  at  Gettysburg  July  1  63,  Charles  W.  Dill,  Thomas  Douglass  d 
Mar.  3  64,  Jcseph  C.  Dill,  Albert  Dudley,  Ruel  M.  Dunlop,  Augustus 
Dudley,  L  C.  Dalton,  Howard  Doyle,  Randall  Eldridge  w  Aug.  18  64, 
John  H.  Emerson,  Franklin  Eastman,  Amasa  P.  Elwell,  B.  F.  Flan- 
ders, E.  B.  Follett,  Charles  F.  Garry,  George  W.  Gardiner,  O.  M. 
Franklin  Glazier,  Edward  Gould,  James  A.  Goodwin,  Ichabod  Gray, 
Nathaniel  P.  Goodwin,  Charles  H.  Godney,  James  Gallagham,  Benja- 
min F.  Goodwin,  William  H.  Gardiner,  Rufus  C.  Gerry,  Frank  Gil- 
bert, Fred  E.  Gowell  d  Sept.  15  64,  William  C.  Gardiner  d  Nov.  16  64, 
C.  F.  Gray,  William  Garland,  John  Grant,  George.  H.  Hooker,  David 
Haines,  A.  M.  C.  Heath,  Ora  K.  Hinkley,  William  H.  Huntington  w 
at  Gettysburg  July  9  63,  Israel  W.  Holbrook,  Phineus  B.  Hammond, 
Henry  Harrison,  Joseph  S.  Hill,  Charles  A.  Hildreth,  Surg.  Thadeus 
Hildreth,  Silas  N.  Hinkley,  James  Horn,  Warren  Hooker,  Lieut. 
Melvin  S.  Hutchinson,  Albion  T.  Hutchinson,  Ora  K.  Hinkley,  Seth 
C.  Hutchins,  William  W.  Hutchinson,  George  H.  Harrington,  George 
N.  Houghton,  Daniel  R.  Hodgdon  w  Feb.  6  64,  William  Hall,  George 
Holmes,  Charles  F.  Hutchinson,  P.  B.  Hammond,  Charles  E.  Handy, 
Joseph  E.  Hooker,  William  R.  Hutchins,  Andrew  Hooker,  C.  A. 
Hooker,  Capt.  Charles  T.  Hildreth,  William  H.  Hodges  w  Feb.  6  64, 
George  Jackson,  Eli.sha  James  jun.,  Abram  Jordan,  Thomas  P.  Jordon, 
William  Jordan  d  Nov.  21  64,  Joseph  A.  Jordan,  Stephen  E.  Johnson 


Freeman  A.  Johnson,  Major  Kelley,  George  W.  Kelley,  Edward  Kel- 
ley,  Samuel  W.  Kimball  jun.,  Henry  Kimball,  John  P.  Kirk,  Capt. 
George  S.  Kimball,  Benjamin  C.  Kittridge,  Alfred  W.  Knight,  John 
Lawson,  Charles  F.  Lawrence,  Lieut.  Horatio  S.  Libby,  William  Libby 
jun.,  Benjamin  Lincoln,  Ivory  Littlefield,  Frank  Lord,  William  H. 
Lunt,  Nicholas  Maker,  Smith  R.  Morrill,  John  Montgomery,  Amos 
Muzzy,  Augustus  W.  McCausland  w  July  1  63,  Albert  McFarland  w 
Dec.  13  62,  Asa  Moore,  John  C.  Meader,  Rufus  S.  McCurdy,  Charles 
H.  Merrill,  John  A.  Mann,  William  H.  Merrill  w  June  12  64,  Jesse  A. 
Meader,  James  S.  Morang,  James  H.  Morang,  Nicholas  Maher,  George 
Moore,  Charles  H.  Martin  w  Feb.  6  64,  Alfred  A.  Mann  d  of  wounds 
Apr.  22  65,  Patrick  Mulligan,  Peter  McCann,  George  E.  Maker,  John 
Miller,  Amasa  R.  Meader,  Benjamin  A.  Merrill,  Ansel  L.  Meader, 
Thomas  McNamara  d  Aug.  15  64,  Clark  D.  Meader,  James  H.  Morang, 
Loring  C.  Marriner,  John  F.  Merrill  d  Nov.  11  65  in  Florida,  Mitchell 
R.  Nobridge  p  June  25.  Ingraham  P.  Nickerson,  Gideon  P.  Noyes, 
Alden  Norton,  Luther  Oliver,  Alfred  Oliver,  James  R.  Peacock, 
Thomas  Page,  David  Page,  Charles  H.  Potter  d  of  wounds  June  2  64, 
David  Potter,  Almon'j.  Packard,  Jacob  Patterson,  William  S.  Peacock, 
George  R.  Parsons,  Sidney  Porter,  Lieut.  James  A.  Pray,  k  June  18  64, 
Joseph  J.  Perry,  Leander  Potter,  Samuel  F.  Pope,  C.  W.  Price,  Lorenzo 
Quint,  Joseph  A.  Ricker.  Peter  Reves,  Benjamin  F.  Ring,  Daniel  W. 
Robinson,  James  R.  Rosignal,  John  F.  Royal,  Hiram  H.  Ricker, 
George  E.  Rhodes,  John  Ray,  William  H.  Robinson  p  July  63  w  in 
action  64,  William  J.  Rowe,  Charles  M.  Stevens,  David  H.  vStevens, 
William  F.  Sherman,  Jacob  M.  Steward,  Mandred  O.  Savage  w  May  6 
64,  Everett  B.  Small,  Charles  Senaque,  William  H.  Simmons,  Capt. 
George  W.  Smith,  William  C.  Stoddard,  John  Shea,  H.  W.  Smith, 
Leander  Stanley,  David  S.  Stevens,  Calvin  W.  Smith,  George  B.  Saf- 
ford,  Benjamin  S.  Smith,  Horace  Sturtevant,  Martin  C.  Stephenson, 
Merrill  Savage,  Harrison  A.  Sturtevant,  William  H.  Stackpole,  Charles 
L.  Swift,  Eugeane  A.  Smith  d  Aug.  22  64  at  New  Orleans,  James  L. 
Stoddard,  Frank  W.  Sawyer  d  Oct.  9  64,  Alex.  Simpson  w  May  10  64, 
Timothy  W.  Sheehan,  Robert  S.  Starbird  d  Aug.  4  63,  Benjamin  C. 
Smith,  David  S.  Stevens,  Thomas  E.  Smith  w  Apr.  1  65,  Naham  Spear, 
George  F.  Strong,  Charles  D.  Smith  p  in  64,  William  K.  Savage, 
Charles  Sprague  k  Dec.  13  62,  Aaron  Stackpole,  James  O.  Smith,  Lieut. 
Sanford  W.  Syphers,  William  F.  Swift,  Francis  A.  Taylor,  William  F. 
Taylor,  Simeon  P.  Taylor,  George  F.  Taylor,  Abijah  W.  Tripp,  George 
W.  Taylor,  Silas  H.  Taylor,  George  W.  Tyler,  Martin  Tyler  w  June  3 
64,  Elbridge  Thomas,  Caleb  Taylor  p  July  30  64,  William  F.  Taylor, 
Martin  Taylor,  John  S.  Towle,  Peter  Thorp,  Alonzo  F.  Tinkham, 
Charles  H.  Tabor  d  at  Annapolis  Sept.  17  63,  Leonard  L.  Taylor, 
Elijah  Towsier,  Edmund  S.  Towsier,  Emerson  Turner  jun.,  David  H. 
Wakefield,  William  Wallace,  William  S.  Ward,  Charles  M.  Winslow, 


Charles  A.  Washburn,  William  B.  Webber,  Charles  H.  Welch,  Charles 
W.  Webber,  William  H.  Wilson,  William  White,  Owen  Woods,  Wil- 
liam H.  H.  Waterhouse,  Cyrus  K.  Witham,  Chester  Whitney  p  Sept. 
27  64,  Thomas  B.  Whitney,  George  W.  Wakefield,  Franklin  Williams, 
Stephen  D.  Wakefield,  Andrew  Ware,  William  Wallace,  George  M. 
Washburn,  Winfield  S.  Witham,  Moses  S.  Wadsworth,  Phineas 
Witham,  James  T.  Williams,  Wesley  Webber,  George  M.  Wentworth, 
Warren  E.  Welch  d  Jan.  26  65,  Joseph  W.  Welch,  Charles  O.  Wads- 
worth  w  June  24  64.  William  O.  Wakefield,  Warren  C.  Waterhouse, 
George  E.  Webber,  John  M.  Webber. 

Hallowell.—CyrviS  Allen,  Eben  P.  Allen,  Moses  H.  Arthur,  John  D. 
Bailey,  Asa  E.  Bates,  Elijah  H.  Barter,  William  C.  Bartlett,  Josiah 
Bean,  Rufus  Besse,  George  W.  Booker,  Albert  Borner,  Charles  M.  Bur- 
ley,  Hugh  Burns,  Charles  A.  Brown,  Albert  S.  Buswell,  Horace  E. 
Choate  w  Aug.  16  64,  George  L.  Crummett,  Alvah  H.  Davis,  Winfield 
S.  Dearborn  d  of  disease  June  14  63,  George  F  Douglass,  Thad.  H. 
Fairbanks,  Albert  Flye,  William  Flye,  William  A  Forrest,  George  A. 
Francis,  Samuel  S.  George,  Owen  Getchell,  Eugene  B.  Getchell,  Wil- 
liam H.  Oilman,  Edward  R.  Gould,  William  C.  Gray,  Surg.  John  Q.  A. 
Hawes,  William  W.  Heath,  John  R.  Holt,  Joseph  E.  Howe,  James 
H.  Howard,  George  W.  Hubbard,  Col.  Thomas  H.  Hubbard,  Alvin 
T.  Huntington,  Buzzella  L.  C.  Hussey,  Horace  S.  Jackson,  Henry 
A.  Johnson,  Lewis  E.  Kauffer,  Morris  Kennedy,  Thomas  Keenan 
supposed  prisoner,  Waldo  B.  Keen,William  H.  Libby  d  in  New  Or- 
leans June  28  64,  Thomas  C.  Littlefield,  Michael  McCoUer,  Edward 
Minor,  George  O.  Morrill,  Capt.  Charles  E.  Nash,  Winslow  Niles, 
John  O.  Northy,  Darius  Nye,  Simon  C.  Paine,  Lieut.  John  A.  A. 
Packard,  Silas  Palmer,  Thomas  L.  Palmer,  Charles  E.  Pinkham,  Sanford 
L.  Pinkham,  Levi  W.  Pitts,  Ashbury  F.  Pottle,  Ellas  N.  Remick, 
James  K.  Reynolds,  George  S.  Ricker  d  Mar.  21  64,  Levi  Robinson, 
John  W.  Rogers  w,  George  S.  Rowell,  Lieut.  Edwin  W.  Sanborn, 
Lieut.  John  W.  Sanborn  w  Sept.  19,  George  E.  Shurborn,  Augustus  H. 
Smith  k  May  5  64,  Emery  N.  Smith,  Thomas  Smith  d  in  hospital  Oct. 
12  64,  Richard  D.  Smith,  Michael  T.  Smith,  William  R.  Stackpole, 
Nahum  R.  Stone,  Francis  B.  Swan,  Joseph  W.  Swan,  Jeremiah  Sulli- 
van, Charles  H.  Thing,  William  Thurston,  Elijah  C.  Town,  Elisha 
Towns,  Reuben  A.  Towns,  Capt.  Orville  T.  Tuck,  Thomas  E.  Wagon- 
er, John  W.  Welch,  Reuben  A.  Wentworth,  George  Whitcom  d  of 
wounds  June  6  64,  Charles  H.  S.  White,  George  O.  White  w  at  Gettys- 
burg, Robert  A.  Witherell,  William  P.  Wood,  Samuel  Wynoskey, 
Dunbar  H.  Young. 

Litchfield.— ChRvl&s  H.  Adams  d  Oct.  20  62,  Thomas  B.  Aderton  p  64, 
d  in  prison  Dec.  12  64,  Franklin  A.  Bailey,  G.  W.  Baker,  Lieut. William 
C.  Barrows,  Allen  G.  Barrows,  William  Berry,  William  H.  Bosworth, 
George  W.  Brown,  William  O'Brien  jun.,  Cyrus   E.   Burke,  Morrill 


Burke,  John  S.  Buker,  James  H.  Buck,  Lieut.  Joseph  W.  Burke,  Joseph 
Cameron,  John  C.  Chandler,  Charles  G.  Clifford,  William  W.  Cook  d 
of  disease  Apr.  1  63,  Davis  S.  Curtis.  John  H.  Davis,  George  P.  Day, 
George  R.  Douglass,  Clement  H.  Douglass,  John  Dyer,  Henry  D.  Earl, 
Dennis  Gatchell,  Andrew  J.  Goodwin,  Marcellus  Goodwin,  Amaziah  E. 
Googins,  Levi  Gordin,  Nathaniel  O'Gowell,  John  D.  Gowell,  Abiel  W. 
Hall,  David  Harmon,  Augustus  Hatch,  Joseph  S.  Hatch,Wilson  M.  Hat- 
tin,  Charles  M.  Hattin,  John  Holland  jun.,  Daniel  G.  Huntington,  Fred 

E.  Hutchinson,  Nelson  G.  Hutchinson  d  of  disease  Aug.  14  63,  Benjamin 
G.  Hunter,  Lieut.  Amos  M.  Jackson,  Joseph  E.  Jack,  Samuel  Jackson, 
William  L.  Johnson,  Thomas  H.  Lambert,  Joseph  E.  Latham,  Jo.seph 
Sawyer,  John  Lewis,  Napoleon  D.  O.  Lord,  Daniel  McAlister,  Josiah  A. 
Marston,  Joseph  Y.  Maxwell,  Joseph  H.  Maxwell  w  Apr.  24  64  d  July  5 
64,  Isaac  Meader  p  64,  George  Meader,  Joseph  Meader,  Augustus  Mer- 
rill, David  Mitchell  d  Sept.  11  64,  Alexander  McNear,  Elijah  Nickerson, 
Jonathan  Newell,  James  O.  Nickerson,  Edward  E.  North,  Charles  E. 
Parks,  Daniel  W.  Perry,  George  S.  Perry,  Charles  W.  Potter,  John 
Potter,  Alden  H.  Powers,  James  W.  Powers,  Corrector  K.  Richardson 
k  May  6  64,  Lorenzo  M.  Richardson  d  Apr.  13  65,  James  Ricker,  Daniel 
W.  Robinson,  Andrew  S.  Robinson,  Charles  G.  Runnells,  George  E. 
Safford,  John  D.  Smith  w  June  22  64,  David  G.  Smith  w  May  17  64, 
Charles  A.  Smith,  Richard  Spear,  Col.  Isaac  W.  Starbird,  Charles  D. 
vStarbird  w  Aug.  14  64,  William  W.  Stevens,  James  O.  Stevens,  Joseph 
B.  Stevens,  George  N.  Thurlow,  Orrin  A.  True,  Daniel  G.  True,  Anson 
Turner,  Jones  M.  Waire,  George  D.  Wakefield,  George  S.  Wedgewood, 
Newton  J.  Wedgewood,  Baptiste  Willet  jun.,  William  C.  Williams, 
Henry  Wilson,  Tom  Wolf,  Daniel  W.  Woodbury,  William  Wyman. 

Manchester.— K\or\zo  C.  Atkins  w  Oct.  2  64,  John  H.  Avery,  Brad- 
ford S.  Bodge,  Elbridge  Y.  Brainard  d  June  21  64,  Edward  A.  Bow- 
man, James  Brazor,  William  C.  Blake,  Heman  B.  Carter  d  in  rebel 
prison  Jan.  20  64,  Alonzo  Campbell,  Hiram  W.  Campbell,  John  B. 
Campbell  w  at  Gettysburg  63,  Leonard' Dearborn,  Joseph  L.  Dow  d 
Apr.  26  65,  Nathaniel  F.  Dow,  Lieut.  Loring  Farr,  Frank  S.  Harriman 
d  Jan.  10  64,  John  H.  Haskell,  John  Harlor,  Joseph  T.  Hewin,  Thomas 
Hill,  William  H.  Hock  d  at  home  Aug.  10  63,  Elias  Howard,  John  F. 
Hutchinson,  Charles  F.  King,  Voramous  Kimball,  Charles  W.  Lincoln, 
John  P.  Lowell  d  of  disease  Aug.  7  63,  George  A.  Levering  d  July  20 
63,  Byron  Lowell,  Ira  Mason,  Thomas  Mason,  James  F.  Mears, William 

F.  Nickerson,  Augustus  Parsons,  Charles  W.  Sinclair,  James  Smith, 
Joseph  A.  Spencer,  Marshall  Thaxter,  Jairus  Towle,  James  Wade, 
Daniel  H.  Wheaton,  Alden  Wright,  Marcellus  Wells. 

Moninojith.—]&  H.  Allen,  Charles  W.  Ayer,  Edwin  F.  Bailey, 
Samuel  W.  Barker,  David  Bartlay,  Mathias  A.  Benner,  Samuel  D. 
Blake,  Samuel  T.  Blake  d  of  wounds  June  5  64,  Lieut.  Ara  C.  Brooks 
d  Sept.  26  62,  Horace  Burrill,  Michael  Burke,  John  S.  Chandler,  Wil- 


Ham  B.  Chick  w  May  20  64,  James  H.  Chick,  Leander  L,  Clark,  Simon 
Clongh,  David  H.  Coburn,  William  Coburn,  Con  Collins,  Charles  H. 
Crowell,  C.  F.  Cummings,  Alexander  H.  Day,  Charles  E.  Day  d  in 
Libby  Prison  Dec.  19  64,  Silenus  Decker,  George  E.  De  Witt  d  of  dis- 
ease Nov.  9  64,  Almon  B.  Donnell,  Edwin  L.  Donnell,  James  E.  Dud- 
ley, Edward  Durgin,  Nathaniel  J.  Emerson,  Charles  C.  Ellis  p  June  30 
64,  Stone  G.  Emerson,  Warren  Farrar,  James  S.  Field,  Lemuel  T. 
Field  d  Apr.  23  64,  Andrew  J.  Fogg,  Daniel  W.  Folsom,  Alpheus  S. 
Folsom,  George  D.  Frost  d  Sept.  64,  George  W.  H.  Frost,  Horace  C. 
Frost,  Samuel  A.  Frost,  William  B.  Frost,  John  Fuller,  John  F.  Fur- 
bush,  David  H.  Gilman,  William  Gray,  Joseph  D.  Greenlief,  Alan-son 
G.  Hall,  David  S.  Hall,  George  E.  Hathane,  Willard  K.  Hathorn,  Wil- 
liam C.  Hannaford,  Charles  H.  Hinklay  k  May  12  64,  Joseph  E.  How- 
ard, John  F.  Howard,  George  S.  Hutchinson,  James  Jaquith  d  Dec.  1 
63,  John  H.  Johnson  p  .Sept.  16  64,  Thompson  S.  Keenan  p  64,  George 
J.  Ketcham,  Samuel  J.  King,  Philip  Kighrigan,  George  L.  Landers, 
Lewis  Lane,  Lyman  E.  Leach,  Benjamin  F.  Leighton  p  June  29  64, 
Cephas  H.  Leighton,  Charles  H.  Leighton,  George  W.  Marston,  David 
T.  Moody,  Frank  G.  Moody,  Frank  S.  Mountfort,  Charles  E.  Nason, 
Charles  A.  Norcross,  Constant  F.  Oakman,  W^illiam  Paddaux,  John 
Perry,  James  A.  Pettingill  d  of  disease  Jan.  12  63,  Andrew  B.  Pink- 
ham,  Joseph  W.  Pinkham,  Charles  E.  Plummer  w  May  5  64,  Charles 
H.  Prescott,  James  M.  Prescott,  Herald  A.  Price,  Wilbur  F.  Priest, 
George  H.  Putney  p  at  Antietam,  Edwin  G.  Randall,  Charles  A.  Reed 
d  Feb.  17  64,  William  Regan,  Carlton  K.  Richardson,  Edward  A.  Rich- 
ardson, Lieut.  James  D.  Robie,  Frank  Ronco,  James  F.  Rowe,  William 
Rowkes,  Albert  J.  Sharp,  William  H.  Shorey  d  July  4  63,  Josiah 
Smith,  Jeremiah  Spelman,  Lucias  C.  Stockin,  Lander  C.  Thompson, 
Charles  F.  Thurston,  Jerry  E.  Thornton,  Nathaniel  W.  Titus,  Howard 
P.  Todd,  John  F.  Tolman,  Samuel  T.  Torsey,  Charles  E.  Towle,  Wil- 
liam A.  Tozier,  Francisco  W^adsworth,  Cyril  N.  Walker,  Thomas 
Ward,  Peter  Wedge,  Philip  Wedge,  Edward  P.  White  w  Apr.  1  65, 
Edward  Wilkes,  John  A.  Wilcox  w  at  Antietam  64,  David  Wilson  d  of 
disease  Mar.  8  63,  Samuel  F.  Wing,  Samuel  S.  Wyman. 

Mi.  Vernon. — Charles  A.  Allen,  James  M.  Allen,  Jonathan  Allen, 
Orlando  V.  Andrews,  John  Bartlett  k  Apr.  1  65,  Charles  P.  Bazin, 
George  W.  Bean,  Moses  T.  Bean,  George  Blake,  John  D.  Blake,  James 
Bennett,  D.  C.  Bagley,  Josiah  P.  Bradbury,  John  Bubier,  Alvin  Butler, 
Henry  H.  Cain,  George  A.Carson  d  Nov.  21  64,  Almon  B.  Carr,  Gilman 
N.  Carr,  Stephen  Carroll,  Benjamin  J.  Cram,  Stephen  A.  Cram,  Charles 
B.  Creighton,  Henry  A.  Davis  d  May  5  63,  Samuel  Davis,  Heman  N. 
Dexter,  Charles  Dolloff,  John  Doe,  Hiram  T.  Drew,  George  E.  Dudley, 
Calvin  Dunn,  Cornelius  Dutton,  Jo.seph  W.  Fogler,  Frank  M.  Furber 
d  of  Sept.  19  65,  Charles  H.  Gordon,  Emery  H.  Gordon  w  May 
27  63,  John  H.  Gordon,  John  S.  Gordon,  Henry  S.  Gordon,  Samuel  H. 


Gordon  d  of  wounds  June  30  63,  Nelson  Gould,  Madison  F.  Glidden, 
Benjamin  Hamilton,  William  H.  Hantoon,  George  W.  Hanna  d  Dec. 
14  64,  Leroy  D.  Hopkins  d  Dec.  26  04,  Thomas  vS.  Hopkins,  Lieut. 
Georg-e  C.  Hopkins,  Frank  Hubbard,  Samuel  G.  Hutchinson,  William 
C.  Jackson,  William  H.  Jack.son,  Charles  N.  King,  Erastus  O.  Kelley, 
Gancelo  King  d  July  30  63,  George  E.  Knox,  John  A.  King  w  May  27 

63,  Edwin  L.  Ladd,  Edson  M.  Lougee,  Nicholas  R.  Lougee,  Delano 
Leighton  w,  Leander  S.  Leighton  d  July  18  63,  Timothy  Leighton, 
James  E.  Linscott,  William  McGoud,  Harthon  Marston,  William  B. 
Morse,  Stephen  Norton  jun.,  Charles  Oaks,  Melvander  Packard,  Ben- 
jamin F.  Paul  w  64,  Fred  B.  Philbrick,  Dudley  O.  Philbrick,  Maurice 
S.  Philbrick,  Milton  P.  Philbrick,  Lemuel  Porter,  Orestes  H.  Porter  d 
Mar.  8  63,  Orville  Porter,  George  Prentice,  John  Ryan  p  Apr.  9  65, 
George  O.  Reed,  Joshua  B.  Smith,  Henry  G.  Smith,  John  Smith,  Ar- 
thur Smith,  Marcellus  Smith  w  May  12  64,  Ezra  Smith  w  Sept.  4  64, 
James  Shaw,  Leander  Shaw,  Richard  Shorey,  Lloyd  H.  Snell,  Francis 
C.  Stewart,  John  M.  Stockwell,  Emulus  D.  Small,  Hilton  H.  Sidelinger, 
James  M.Stevens,  George  A.  Storer  d  Aug.  24  64,  John  Swatz,  Charles 
"h.  Smith  w  May  12  64,  Everett  Thing,  Charles  Thompson,  John  R. 
Teague,  Walter  Vail,  Joseph  AVard,  James  Wardwell,  Elisha  L.  Wells, 
George  Whittier,  James  L.  Whittier,  Samuel  Whitney,  Albert  L.Willis, 
John  Willitt,  Charles  B.  Wyman,  Lieut.  George  W.  Woods. 

Pittston. — William  Allen,  Charles  Allen,  Edmund  Allen,  Alvin  G. 
Bailey  d  June  22  63,  Hiram  Barker,  John  Berry,  George  L.  Blair  w 
July  13  63,  William  Blair,  Eli  Blair,  John  F.  Blodgett,  George  H. 
Blodgett,  Eben  N.  Brann,  Edward  Brown,  Eben  Brookings  w  Aug.  16 

64,  Samuel  C.  Brookings  k  July  2  63,  John  Brookings,  Mark  C.  Cass  w 
Oct.  19  64,  Elisha  S.  Chase,  John  L.  Clark,  William  Connor,  James  S. 
Colburn,  Isaac  Crocker,  Benjamin  F.  Crocker,  Llewellyn  Crocker, 
Roland  H.  Cutts,  John  Desmond,  William  Day  d  Apr.  19  64,  Fred 
Dobson,  Michael  Donovan,  E.  H.  Doyle,  Thomas  Doyle,  John  G. 
Drake,  Edwin  Dudley,  Lewis  H.  Dudley,  Lewis  C.  Dudley,  William  H. 
Dudley,  Charles  E.  Fillebrown,  O.  B.  Frank,  John  Gallagher,  Wilbert 
H.  Oilman,  Frederick  Goud,  Humphrey  Grant,  John  Grant,  George 
W.  Goodwin,  Albert  Goodwin,  Hamilton  Goodwin,  Joseph  H.  Good- 
win, James  A.  Hall,  William  D.  Hanover,  George  T.  Haley,  Benjamin 
B.  Hanson,  Adj.  Charles  C.  Hinds,  Enoch  Hollis  jun.  p  Aug.  25  64, 
Charles  Hunt,  Kingsbury  Hunt,  Lewis  Hunt  d  Dec.  4  64,  Reuben 
Heseltine,  Thomas  Hunnewell,  Charles  A.  James,  James  Jackson,  Jo- 
sephus  James  w  July  3  63,  George  W.  James  jun.,  Hiram  S.  James, 
Lewis  W.  James  d  of  disease  Apr.  9  63,  Charles  H.  Jones,  Albert  Jor- 
don  d  of  Mar.  19  63,  Joseph  C.  King,  William  King  d  of 
wounds  June  18  64,  William  Katon  d  in  New  Orleans  Oct.  4  64,  Howard 
Lamson,  Lieut.  Eugene  Leeman,  Clarence  Leeman,  Elbridge  Mames 
d  of  disease  Dec.  10  62,  Alden  Mar.son,  Charles  B.  Mansir  d  at  home 


July  10  64,  Alden  Marson,  Benjamin  Marson  d  of  wounds  July  11  64, 
George  H.  Martin,  Sawyer  McLaughlin,  Charles  W.  Moody,  Edwin 
W.  Moody,  Leonard  Moody,  Lucius  Moody,  Edward  Morton,  Edward 
Mosher  d  on  transport  May  23  64,  John  Moulton,  Wesley  Murphy  d  in 
hospital  Aug.  12  64,  William  H.  Noyes,  William  W.  Paris  w  June  4 
63  p  Dec.  18  64,  P.  W.  Parker,  William  H.  Paris,  Melvine  Parsons, 
George  W.  Palmer,  James  H.  Peacock,  Hartley  Peasley,  Myrick  Per- 
ham  p  June  22  64,  Ellery  Pinkham,  Thomas  D.  Pinkham,  William 
Pinkham  d  at  Point  of  Rocks  Aug.  13  64,  Mellen  Potter.  David  Pottle, 
Moses  Pottle,  Hiram  Pratt,  Loren  A.  Pushard,  Fred  P.  Pulsifer,  Charles 
E.  Ramsdell  w  May  6  64.  Sew.  D.  Ramsdell,  Eben  Richardson,  Brad- 
ford H.  Reed,  Jesse  Reed,  T.  A.  Richardson,  Capt.  Asbury  C.  Rich- 
ards, Daniel  W.  Robinson,  Patrick  Ryan,  David  F.  Shea,  Lincoln  L. 
Sheldon,  Joseph  W.  Stuart,  Joseph  F.  Silver,  O.  A.  Sibley,  Joseph  A. 
vShea,  James  L.  Small  w  May  18  64,  David  Small  d  of  wounds  May  13 
64,  Calvin  C.  Smith,  John  H.  Sprague,  John  B.  Stevens,  George  W. 
Stevens  w  July  15  64,  John  Stewart,  Harrison  Stewart,  A.  M.  Stilphen, 
John  W.  Tarr,  Henry  Thompson,  James  F.  Thompson,  Jesse  M. 
Troop,  Lieut.  Melvin  C.  Wadsworth,  Alphonso  R.  Warren,  Charles 
M.  Warren,  Charles  N.  Ware,  Moses  A.  Ware,  Warren  Ware,  Auguste 
Wagner,  Charles  E.  Webster,  Frederick  L.  Wells,  Joseph  A.  White, 
David  White,  Pary  R.  Winslow,  Albert  O.  Wood,  John  Wyman,  Lieut. 
George  T.  Yeaton,  Benjamin  Young  w  July  3  63. 

RcadJicU.—\\\  H.  H.  Adams  d  Apr.  18  63,  Freeland  N.  Albee  w, 
George  L.  Armstrong,  Reuben  Atwood,  George  R.  Allen,  James 
Barnes,  Milton  A.  Bean,  Edward  Beathan,  Benjamin  B.  Brown,  Charles 

C.  Brown  w  July  18  d  at  Hilton  Head  Dec.  5  61,  Samuel  E.  Brown  d 
Mar.  18  63,  Charles  H.  Bubier,  George  B.  Bodwell,  Walter  C.  Boying- 
ton,  Charles  H.  Chapman  d  Mar.  19  63,  William  Coakley,  Charles  B. 
Cobb,  Lewis  E.  Clark,  Albanus  Clough  w  June  3  64,  Francis  D.  Clough, 
John  S.  Craig,  Edwin  H.  Cram,  Charles  S.  Crowell,  Robert  M.  Cun- 
ningham, Capt.  Hiram  A.  Dalton,  Charles  L.  Davenport,  Thomas 
Devins,  George  Diplock,  William  H.  Dunham,  J.  P.  Dudley,  Orrin  C. 
Estes,  Elnathan  S.  Fairbanks  d  July  7  63,  Dudley  S.  Fogg,  Enos 
Foster  w  d  Sept.  4  63,  Francis  J.  Folsom,  Edwin  Freeman,  John  Gal- 
vin,  Stillman  P.  Getchell,  John  W.  Gilman  w  Sept.  30  64,  Martin  Cod- 
ing, Robert  Gordon,  Daniel  E.  Gordon,  Joel  H.  B.  Goss,  George  W. 
Graves  d  of  wounds,  Charles  E.  Hall,  Charles  W.  Hamlin,  Abba  C. 
Hicks,  Henry  Holmes,  Jonathan    Howe,  William  H.  Hunt,  Jefferson 

D.  Hunton,  Emery  L.  Hunton,  William  H.  Hutchins,  George  W. 
Jackson,  Noah  Jewett  2d,  Dennis  B.  Jewett,  Joseph  P.  Johnson,  Moses 
king,  Frederick  S.  Knowlton,  James  M.  Ladd  d  Mar.  7  63,  George  M. 
Lane,  Frank  Lancaster,  William  H.  F.  Libbey,  Samuel  Lisherness, 
John  Little,  Daniel  H.  Lovejoy,  Frank  Manson,  Levi  Martin,  F.  R. 
McKeen,    William    Morrill,    Frank    J.  Norton,    Charles    E.    Palmer 


Ansel  B.  Perkins,  Nathan  Peva,  Charles  H.  Pbilbrick,  Henrj^  Pooler, 
John  Putman,  C.  V.  Putten,  A.  A.  Robertson,  William  L.  Robbins, 
Joseph  F.  Rogers,  Michael  Russell,  Lieut.  George  A.  Russell,  Nahum 
Q.  Sanborn,  Thomas  Sawtelle,  Gustavus  Smith,  Lucias  Smith,  Nathan 
Smith,  Asa  V.  Starville,  Daniel  Sullivan,  John  B.  Tarr,  Dexter  Taylor, 
Silas  C.  Thomas,  H.  C.  Thomas,  Ferdinand  Tinker  jun.,  Charles  H. 
Torrey  d  Apr.  28  65,  James  Turner,  George  H.  Waugh,  Lewis  Web- 
ber, Nathan  Wentworth,  John  M.  Williams,  George  R.  Williams, 
Leonard  L.  Wing,  Thomas  J.  Woodworth,  Eben  H.  Wing,  Horace  G. 

Rome. — Benjamin  Austin,  Arthur  E.  Charles,  Benjamin  F.  Charles 
w  at  Gettysburg  63,  William  H.  Cook,  Lorenzo  Cookson,  George  H. 
Cunningham,  Moses  Cunningham,  William  Dinnon,  Hartley  Rasters, 
Frederick  Z.  Eaton,  Charles  Edwards,  James  H.  Erskine,  George  Fair- 
banks, George  E.  Fifield,  Ebenezer  Foss  d  Jan.  1  63,  William  H.  Foss, 
Levi  Gorden,  John  McGraw,  Ira  Hammon,  Charles  Hunnan,  David 
AL  Kelley,  Otis  B.  Kelley,  John  Loftus,  Joseph  P.  Littlefield,  Edward 
L.  Martin  d  Mar.  3  63,  Mark  McLaughlin,  Abram  L  Meader,  William 
H.  Merrow,  William  Meyor,  Baxter  C.  Moshier,  Charles  R.  Moshier, 
George  Mo.shier  jun.,  Israel  Moshier,  William  Moshier,  Abram  H. 
Mundy,  Albert  Page,  Andrew  C.  Perkins,  Flezekiah  S.  Perkins,  Rob- 
ert Perkins,  Robert  A.  Ripley,  Edward  A.  Robbins,  Emons  Robinson, 
John  F.  Robinson,  Isaiah  M.  Sawtelle,  Levi  E.  Stevens,  Samuel  I. 
Stevens,  Charles  Taylor,  William  Thomas,  Edward  Thompson,  Henry 
Turner,  William  H.  Ward  jun.,  Moses  Warren,  Increase  E.  Watson. 

Sidney. — Henry  A.  Annis,  AVilliam  A.  Arnold,  Charles  E.  Avery  w 
and  p  May  5  64,  Artemus  R.  Bacon,  Charles  H.  Bartlett,  William  H. 
Bean  w  May  27  63,  William  Bennett,  Thomas  S.  Benson,  Hartson  M. 
Bragg,  Austin  Bragg,  George  B.  Brown,  William  M.  Burgess,  Charles 
Butler,  Edward  Butler,  Frank  Butler,  Alfred  L.  Burgess  d  July  4  63, 
Ephraim  L.  Chamberlain,  Enoch  S.  Chase,  Lieut.  Martin  V.  B.  Chase, 
Lorenzo  D.  Clark  d  Oct.  8  63,  George  A.  Clark,  Franklin  L.  Connor, 
Amasa  L.  Cook,  Benjamin  T.  Curtis  d  Aug.  5  63,  Jedediah  Cronkhite, 
Thomas  J.  Cunningham,  Henry  C.  Davenport  d  May  6  63,  Roscoe  G. 
Davenport  d  Feb.  27  63.  Charles  H.  Davis,  Andrew  Denifer,  John 
Dexteeter,  Benjamin  F.  Dow,  Henry  J.  Dyer  d  on  transport  Oct.  12  64, 
Sullivan  Ellis,  William  Ellis,  Patrick  Falney,  Eben  M.  Field,  AlbusT. 
Field,  Jo.seph  F.  Field,  Eben  M.  Field,  Timothy  R.  French  w  June  3 
64,  Mark  Frost,  Joseph  A.  Gray,  Horace  Hall,  Henry  A.  Hallett,  Q.  M. 
John  Ham,  Enoch  B.  Hamlin,  Albert  H.  Hallett,  Simon  C.  Hasting."--, 
H.  W.  D.  Hayward,  William  W.  Hersom,  Melville  Irish,  John  Kelley, 
Harvey  M.  Leighton,  Granville  B.  Libby,  Joseph  M.  Lincoln,  Samuel  S. 
Longley,  Sewall  Lovejoy  w  May  6  64,  David  Low,  David  A.  Low,  John 
Mahon,  Fred  FI.  Mann  k  June  3  64,  James  S.  Marble  p  May  10  63,  Darius 
Meader,  Daniel  McLaughlin,  John  McLaughlin,  John  McRay,  Winslow 


H.  Mclntire  d  of  wounds  June  15  61,  Charles  H.  Nason  d  Aug.  1  64, 
Hiram  B.  Nichols,  Thomas  M.  Packard,  David  O.  Parks,  Henry  R. 
Perkins,  Mulford  B.  Reynolds  p  June  24  64,  William  H.  Reynolds, 
George  M.  Reynolds  w,  Asa  Robbins  d  Sept.  22  64,  Hiram  Robinson, 
George  W.  Rollins,  Joseph  Royal,  Edward  B.  Sanderson,  Charles  W. 
Sanderson  d  of  wounds  June  IS  64,  Charles  E.  Sawtelle,  Justine  A. 
Sawtello,  Samuel  W.  Scofield,  Charles  Sherman  d  Mar.  24  63,  A.  B. 
Sibley,  Augustine  Smiley  d  at  Stevensburgh  Va.  Jan.  5  64,  Eben 
Springer,  George  E.  Staples,  Jeremiah  C.  Stephens,  Daniel  Sughire, 
Jethro  H.  Sweat  w  May  16  64,  William  H.  Stewart,  Leavitt  Thayer, 
James  W.  Vanwart,  Silas  N.  Wait,  George  W^hitney,  Alexander  Wil- 
son, Richard  W.  Withee,  Alonzo  Wixon  d  Aug.  27  63,  Edward  Wixon, 
Vernal  A.  Woodcock,  Adj.  Joseph  T.  Woodward. 

Unity  Plantation. — Orison  T.  Brown,  George  W.  Flagg,  Sicard 
Felix,  George  A.  Hanson,  Elisha  Libby,  Joseph  McClure,  William  A. 

Vassalboro. — Benjamin  Adams,  Peter  Aikin  d  in  hospital  Nov.  13 
65,  George  J.  Allen,  George  E.  Allen,  James  U.  Atwood,  Charles  L. 
Austin,  William  A.  Austin  w  Mar.  27  63,  Stilman  G.  Bailey  d  Nov.  24 

62,  George  Baker,  George  Baldwin,  George  W.  Barnes,  Lieut.  Edwin 
C.  Barrows,  Charles  Baxter,  Isaac  F.  Bourne,  Oliver  Brackett,  Joseph 
O.  Bragg,  Robert  C.  Bragg,  Lewis  Bragg,  Jefferson  D.  Bragg,  Robert 
C.  Brann,  Hiram  N.  Brann,  Frederick  Bridge,  Benjamin  Bubier,  C.  D. 
Bubier,  Ambrose  Burgess  d  Dec.  26  62,  Antome  Cady,  Michael  Cain, 
Darius  Cain,  James  R.  Carney,  Henry  F.  Chadwick,  Samuel  Chute,- 
Edwin  W.  Clark,  George  W.  Clififord,  Robert  Cole,  Edmund  G.  Cole- 
man, Charles  E.  Collins,  William  E.  Cox,  Charles  S.  Crowell,  John 
Dalton,  Albert  F.  Day,  H.  G.  Dickey,  Samuel  K.  Doe,  Lewis  B.  Doe 
accidentally  k  Jan.  4  63,  James  R.  Eaton,  John  Emerson,  James  S. 
Emery,  William   English,  Redford  M.  Estes,  John   H.  Estes  w  July  2 

63.  Gustavus  K.  Estes  k  Oct.  27  63,  William  D.  Ewes,  H.  A.  Ewes  w 
July  1  64,  George  W.  Fairfield,  Orrin  Farnham,  Lorenzo  Farrington, 
Elbridge  C.  Fassettd  July  12  63,  Andrew  Flanigan,  Thomas  Flanigan, 
John  H.  Frazier,  Charles  A.  Freeman,  John  M.  Fogg,  Willard  O.  Fogg, 
Robert  M.  Fossett  d  Oct.  25  62,- Joseph  E.  Fossett,  Norman  H.  Fossett, 
James  Footman,  George  H.  Gardner,  Henry  W.  Gardner,  Joseph  C. 
Gardiner,  Abraham  Gorow,  Eliheu  Getchell,  Van  T.  Gilbert,  Charles 
Gibson  win  action  May  27  63,  Joseph  A.  Glazier,  E.  R.  GofT,  Lawrence 
Griffin,  Rishworth  Gray,  Henry  A.  Hamilton,  Charles  L.  Hamlin  w  at 
Gettysburg  63,  James  H.  Handy  d  Apr.  17  63,  John  Hart,  iMichael  Har- 
mon, Edwin  P.  Hatch  w,  Michael  J.  Hanlin,  William  P.  Hawes,  G. 
Hayford,  Henry  Heath,  Charles  H.  Holt,  Stephen  A.  Hoyt  p  July  1  63, 
C.  W.  Hussey,  Isaac  Hussey,  George  H.  Hussy  k  in  action  May  12  64, 
Waterman  T.  Hutchins,  John  F.  Irving  d  May  18  63,  James  W.  Irv- 
ing, Preston  B.  Jones,  R.  F.  Jordan,  William  Keaton,  William   Keefe, 


Robert  J.  Kitchen  d  Sept.  30  64,  L.  R.  Lambard,  Samuel  R.  Latte. 
Wardman  Littlefield,  Ezra  B.  Lord,  Prescott  M.  Lord,  George  M.  Luf- 
kins,  H.  W.  Lyon,  Lieut.  Thomas  A.  Maxfield,  John  McCormick  w  in 
head  at  Manassa.s,  William  McCormick,  Fred  E.  Mellen,  Shepherd  H. 
Marrow,  James  McGuin,  Horace  S.  Mills  p  Apr.  1  65,  Albion  B.  Mills 
d  of  wounds  Aug.  7  63,  Jacob  N.  McKay  p  May  2  63  w,  Artemas  Mc- 
Kay, Robert  McMahon,  Peter  McNalley,  Simon  Morrison,  Charles  A. 
Morse  w  63,  Thomas  Moody,  Alexander  Murrey,  Daniel  Nicholas, 
James  Nicholas,  John  Olson.  Joseph  P.  Phillips,  James  Phillips, 
Frank  W.  Pierce,  Greenlief  Pillsbury,  John  T.  Pratt,  Albert  H. 
Pratt,  Orrin  Prebble,  H.  F.  Priest  k  at  Gettysburg  July  1  68,  Edward 
A.  Priest  d  at  New  Orleans  Mar.  7  65,  James  S.  Priest,  N.  P.  Randall, 
William  Reed,  John  Regan,  F.  T.  Reynolds,  Orson  F.  Richardson 
d  Oct.  62,  Edward  Rice,  Reuben  F.  Robbins,  Oliver  P.  Robbins, 
Harlan  P.  Robbins,  Lieut.  Henry  H.  Robbins,  Albert  F.  Roberts, 
George  W.  Sabin,  Isaiah  C.  Sabins,  Varnum  B.  Saulsbury,  Charles  H. 
Savage,  Warren  Sennett,Warren  vSeward  p  from  Aug.  18  64  to  Mar.  65, 
Charles  F.  Shaw,  Edmund  R.  Shaw  d  of  wounds  Apr.  24  64,  G.  F. 
Shaw,  Eugene  Shaw,  George  Shaw,  Charles  W.  Shaw,  Walter  B.  Shaw 
w  May  12  64,  Melville  B.  Sherman  d  Apr.  9  63,  Charles  Simpson,  Rob- 
bert  H.  Sinclair,  Lieut.  Bradford  W.  Smart,  Robert  Smart,  Sylvester 
Smart,  Wilbur  F.  Snow  d  of  wounds  June  1  64,  W.  M.  Starkey  d  Mar. 
13  63,  AVilliam  R.  Starkey,  Samuel  J.  Starkey,  Alonzo  Stillings,  Charles 
Sullivan,  William  Sweeney,  Frank  P.  Taber  d  at  Warrenton,  William 
•  F.  Taber,  Charles  F.  Tarbell  k  in  action  May  27  68,  C.  W.  Taylor,  John 
Tibbetts  p  Sept.  16  64,  AVilliam  W.  Tibbetts,  C.  E.  Tobey,  Warren  H. 
Tobey,  Jo.siah  Totten,  AVilliam  LTowne,  J.  M.  Underwood,  George  H. 
AValdron  d  Apr.  15  68,  George  AA'.  AVard,  Henry  AA'are,  Edwin  A.War- 
ren, A.  S.  AA'ebber,  Gustavus  H.  AA^ebber  w  in  action  63,  A^irgil  H.AA^eb- 
ber  k  at  Gettysburg  July  1  63,  Charles  E.  Webber  d  Apr.  4  63,  Ben- 
jamin Weeks,  William  AVhite,  James  D.  White,  Hollis  M.  White, 
Henry  W.  White,  George  C.  Wentworth,  Edwin  A.  Wentworth,  Frank- 
lin Wentworth  d  Feb.  6  64,  AA^illiam  AA'entworth,  George  H.  AVilley, 
Samuel  W.  Wood,  Jacob  H.  Woodsum  w  May  27  63,  Ed.  E.  Worth, 
Francis  Worth  d  at  Washington  Jan.  14  64,  Benjamin  F.  Worth  w 
Aug.  18  64. 

Fz>;/;/rt.— Robert  Baldwin,  George  AA^  Barker,  Isaac  A.  Bent,  James 
H.  Bean,  Leonard  Bean,  John  Brown,  Orlando  Brown,  Rice  Brown, 
George  W.  Briggs,  Charles  S.  Bunker,  Jonathan  Burgess,  Nahum  Cole, 
Jo.seph  O.  Colley,  Valentine  S.  Cumner,  Almon  Cunningham,  Edward 
E.  Davis,  Henry  E.  Dexter  p  July  1  68,  Lendall  C.  Davis,  Emulus  M. 
Dearborn,  Calvin  H.  C.  Dearborn,  Henry  F.  Dowst,  John  Alanson 
Dowst  w  May  19  64,  Selden  M.  Dowst,  vSewall  Dolloff,  Samuel  D.  Eaton, 
Frank  Fairbanks,  Josiah  M.  Fellows,  Freeman  C.  Foss,  Asst.  Surg. 
Stillman  P.Getchell,  Dennis  Grover  d  Nov.  20  62,  Noah  Hoyt,  Upham 


A.  Hoyt,  Isaac  M.  Hutchins,  George  R.  Ireland.  John  F.Johnson,  Fred 
A.  H.  Jones,  Silas  R.  Kidder,  Samuel  W.  Kimball,  Charles  W.  Kim- 
ball, Charles  Ladd,  Anthony  W.  Little,  George  Lord,  Arno  Little, 
Ethan  Little,  Eugene  E.  Mooers,  John  Augustus  Morrill,  John  Morrill, 
Nathaniel  B.  Moulton,  Charles  L.  Nichols,  Charles  E.  Philbrick  d  in 
prison  Dec.  28  64,  James  A.  Pettengall,  Augustus  F.  Smart,  George  A. 
Smith  w  May  6  64,  Ephraim  M.  Tibbetts,  Llewellyn  Tozier,  Daniel 
Tozier,  Marcellus  Wells,  Alvah  Whittier.  Emulus  F.  Whittier,  Fred 
M.  Whittier,  Henry  Whittier,  Howard  Whittier,  John  Almon  Whit- 
tier, Perley  Whittier,  Reuben  D.  Whittier,  Charles  H.  Wight,  Martin 
V.  B.  Williamson,  Richard  H.  Wills,  John  R.  Witham  d  in  hospital 
July  3  65. 

IVaf^rviUf. —ChcLTles  Abear,  Manley  Allen,  George  E.  Alexander, 
Leroy  Atkinson,  John  Avery,  Col.  Isaac  S.  Bangs,  Charles  Bacon,  An- 
drew J.  Basford,  John  H.  Bacon,  Alexander  Bailey,  John  W.  Barnes, 
John  H.  Bates,  William  Bates  k  at  Gettysburg  July  1  63,  Nelson  G. 
Bartlett,  Portal  M.  Black,  John  Blair,  Charles  H.  Blackstone,  Daniel 
Black.stone,  Capt.  William  E.  Brooks,  George  C.  Blackstone,  William 
Blalentine  w,  Bennett  Bickford,  Cyrus  Bickford,  Hiram  Billings,  Asst. 
Surg.  Frank  Bodfish,  Warren  Boothby,  Henry  H.Bowden,  Lieut.  Mar- 
tin T.  V.  Bowman,  Orrin  Bracket,  Elisha  R.  Branch,  Milton  H.  Branch, 
James  Brown,  William  W.  Brown,  John  Bubier  p,  Levi  Bushy,  George 
H.  Bryant,  Charles  M.  Branch,  John  G.  Calder,  Joseph  Cary,  Henry  A. 
Chandler,  George  Chase,  Isaac  Check,  Albert  M.  Clark,  Charles  H. 
Clark,  Selden  I.  CliiTord,  Augustus  Campbell,  Moses  W.  Cook  w  at 
Gettysburg  July  1  63,  Andrew  Cookran,  Alonzo  Copp,  Lieut.  William 
H.  Copp,  John  H.  Caruth,  Prentice  M.  Cousins,  Levi  Coyonette,  Carl- 
ton Cress,  Charles  E.  Cross,  Joseph  Cross,  Francis  M.  Cunningham, 
Walter  L.  Cummings,  Arba  S.  Davis,  Daniel  B.  Davis,  Octavus  A.  Davis 
p  Sept.  16  64  d  in  prison  Nov.  14  64,  George  H.  Dearborn,  Thomas 
Dearborn,  George  Delaware,  William  H.  Dewolfe,  Henry  A.  Dore, 
Levi  A.  Dow,  George  H.  Downs,  Nelson  Drake,  Frank  Dusty  w  May 
12  64,  Hadley  P.  Dyer  w  May  27  63,  James  A.  Dyer,  Luther  Ellis  w 
June  6  64,  Paul  Enwan  w  Apr.  23  64,  Stephen  Ellis,  Sullivan  Ellis, 
Francis  H.  Emery,  Leander  H.  Evans,  Nathaniel  S.  Emery,  William 
H.  Farnham,  Lieut.  C.  A.  Farrington  d  of  wounds  June  27  64,  Dennis 
M.  Foster,  Dudley  C.  Frazier,  George  B.  Frezzille,  Henry  W.  Frost, 
Franklin  Q.  Fuller,  Moses  H.  Gallefer  p  Sept.  16  64,  John  Garland  w 
May  17  63,  George  Garney,  Ezekiel  Gerald,  Lieut.  George  C.  Getchell, 
J.  F.  Gibbs,  George  R.  Gleason,  Russell  Gleason,  Albert  J.  Gray,  Jo- 
seph Greene,  Lieut.  Alonzo  Goff,  Daniel  F.  Goodwin,  John  F.  Good- 
win, Lieut.  Foster  D.  Goodrich,  George  Cormier,  Charles  W.  Mc- 
Guyer.  William  H.  Ham  d  Nov.  25  64,  Fred  C.  Hatch,  Joseph  H. 
Hatch,  Wilson  Hawes,  Thomas  G.  Herbert,  Milford  Hersom,  Samuel 
T.  Hersom,  William   H.  Hersom,  Albert   H.  Higgins,   George   Hill, 


Frank  E.  Hitchings,  Hiram  Horn  w  Oct.  10  64,  Llewellyn  Horn,  David 
F.  Houghton,  Lieut.  John  H.  Hubbard  w  in  action  May  27  63,  Lieut 
George  W.  Hubbard,  Henry  C.  James,  Frank  Jilcott,  George  J.  Jones 
Sidney  Keith,  John  King,  John  J.  Kirby,  Sylvanus  Knox,  William 
Knox,  Chap.  Henry  C.  Leonard,  Capt.  Addison  W.  Lewis,  Lieut.  Ed 
ward  C.  Leon  2d,  David  J.  Lewis,  Henry  H.  Libby,  Charles  W 
Louden,  William  Love,  Charles  W.  Low  w,  William  H.  Low 
Frank  B.  Lowe,  A.  M.  Lowell,  Charles  F.  Lyford  d  Dec.  14  62 
James  M.  Lyford  p  July  1  63,  William  Henry  Macartney,  Joseph 
Marshall,  Daniel  E.  Martin.  Hugh  McDonald,  Deugald  McDonald 
Harrison  Merchant,  Charles  W.  Merrill,  Daniel  McNeal,  John  McGil 
vey,  Timothy  McLaughlin  w  Feb.  6  64,  Daniel  Magrath,  John  Morri 
son.  Earnest  Morton,  Francis  B.  Mosher,  Madison  Mosher,  George 
Mayers  jun.,  Charles  D.  Murphy,  Joseph  Murrey,  Lewis  Murrey, George 
E.  Muzzey,  George  E.  Muzzey,  William  H.  Newland,  Frank  H.  Oliver, 
Ezekiel  Page,  Benjamin  Parker,  John  H.  Parker  w  July  27  64,  Orlando 
I.  Pattee,  John  M.  Peave}',  Charles  H.  Penney,  Everett  A.  Penney,  Ira 
D.  Penney  d  in  rebel  prison  Jan.  10  65,  Williain  H.  Penney  d  at  New 
Orleans  Mar.  5  64,  James  L.  Perkins,  Howard  Perkins,  Richard  Par- 
ley, Charles  Perry,  George  Perry,  George  Pierce,  Lieut.  Andrew  Pink- 
ham,  Edwin  Plummer,  John  H.  Plummer,  Ephraim  Pooler,  Joseph 
Pooler  d  July  14  64,  Andrew  H.  Porter,  John  Porter,  Edmon  E.  Pres- 
cott,  Peter  Preo,  Alexander  W.  Pulcifer,  Clement  Ouimby,  George 
Ranco,  William  Rankins,  Lorenzo  D.  Ray,  Robert  Rey,  Joseph  Rich- 
ards, Moses  Ring,  John  Roderick,  David  Rowan,  Ervin  J.  Rogers,  Ad- 
dison H.  Rowe,  Joseph  Sands,  Capt.  George  S.  Scammon,  Stephen  D. 
Savage  w  May  6  64,  James  A.  Sawyer,  Edgar  Scates  w  Sept.  30  64  d 
June  3  65,  William  J.  Sharp,  Resolve  Shaw,  Alfred  .Shepherd,  Elbridge 
Shepherd,  Richard  A.  Shepherd  k  at  battle  of  the  Wilderness  May  6 
64,  Lieut.  Charles  R.  Shorey,  Albert  R.  Smiley,  Charles  N.  Smiley, 
Allen  Smith,  James  T.  Smith  d  Nov.  29  62,  John  M.  Smart,  Martin  B. 
Soule  w,  Josiah  Scule  d  June  6  65,  Cyrus  Southards,  Nathan  F.  Spauldin, 
Edwin  C.  Stevens  k  Aug.  18  64,  George  E.  Stevens,  William  H.  Stev- 
ens, William  D.  Stevens,  Capt.  William  A.  Stevens,  Charles  H.  Stew- 
art, Nathan  M.  Sturtevant,  Reward  A.  Sturtevant,  Martin  Tallows  k 
Oct.  8  64,  Vedar  Tashus,  Got  Teatlip,  George  Teatlip,  Adin  B.  Thayer 
p  64,  George  S.  Thing,  David  T.  Thomas,  John  P.  H.  Thomas,  James 
Thompson,  James  H.  Thorn,  Samuel  J.  Thayer,  Albert  F.  Tozier, 
Henry  M.  Tozier,  Capt.  Henry  E.  Tozier  k  Dec.  10  64,  Walter  N. 
Tozier  w  Apr.  9  64  d  in  hands  of  enemy  Apr.  14  64,  George  C.  Tracy, 
Alexander  Trask,  Elbridge  Trask,  Thomas  E.  Treson,  Levi  Vique, 
James  Wade,  N.  A.  Ware,  Andrew  P.  Watson,  James  H.  Webb,  James 
B.  Welch,  Moses  A.  Welch,  David  Woodbury,  James  O.  West  w  May 
12  64  d  May  23  64,  Howard  W.  Wells  w  at  Fredericksburg,  John  C, 
Willey,  George  A.  Wilson,  Henry  Wingate,  Hiram  C.  Winslow,  An- 


drew  J.  Williams,  Albert  B.  Witham,  William  W.  Wyman  d  of  wounds 
June  1  63,  Hiram  Wyman,  Hiram  R.  Wyman,  Increase  Wyman, 
Eugene  H.  Young. 

Wajnie.— Samuel  W.  Adams,  Paschal  B.  Allen,  Thomas  J.  Bartlett, 
Benjamin  F.  Berry,  Square  F.  Bishop,  Josiah  M.  Bishop  d  Nov.  2  64, 
James  Boutin,  David  L.  Boyle,  Orison  S.  Brown,  Freeman  W.  Bun- 
nell, James  H.  Carson,  Martin  Cassey,  James  Colkins,  Thomas  Clark, 
Charles  M.  Connor,  Othna  Crosby,  Francis  M.  Cumner,  Edmund  F. 
Davis,  James  Davis,  Patrick  McDermott,  Edward  G.  Dexter,  George 
M.  Dexter,  Henry  A.  Dexter,  Nathan  P.  Downing,  Sidney  F.  Down- 
ing, Lieut.  Henry  N.  Fairbanks  w  Apr.  28  64,  0.  M.  O.  A.  Fillebrown, 
John  Forrester,  Levi  F.  Foss  d  Jan.  12  65,  William  H.  H.  Foss,  Albion 
B.  Frost,  Lieut.  Clarence  C.  Frost,  David  G.,  Charles  Hall,  Lieut. 
George  W.  Hall,  Edwin  W.  Harrington,  Michael  Hart,  Chauncy  Hig- 
gins,  William  H.  House,  F.  A.  Hutchinson  d  Dec.  24  64,  Seth  W.  Jen- 
nings, William  H.  Johnson,  William  Jones,  Cyrus  Keller,  James  Kel- 
ley,  Elijah  Knapp,  Davis  E.  Lane,  Daniel  Lothrop.  Charles  M.  Love- 
joy  w  64,  George  G.  Luce,  John  Maguire,  Andrew  J.  Maxim  d  Nov.  18 
62,  Benjamin  F.  Maxim,  Daniel  H.  Maxim,  Charles  H.  McNear,  James 
Murphy,  Solomon  A.  Nelke,  Capt.  Grafton  Norris,  George  O.  Norris, 
Augustus  Parlin,  Joseph  A.  Penley,  Sewell  Pettingill,  Adelbert  Pratt, 
William  W.  Pratt,  Elias  H.  Raymond,  John  S.  Raymond,  John  R. 
Raymond,  Russell  F.  Reynolds,  Charles  V.  Richards,  E.  K.  Richard- 
son, Abington  H.  Ridley,  John  P.  R.  Sleeper,  Elhanan  Smith,  Lieut. 
Joseph  O.  Smith,  Orrin  A.  SnoM%  John  L.  Spear  d  Dec.  29  64,  James  B. 
Stetson,  George  S^  Sturtevant,  Valmore  Sturtevant,  William  V.  Sturte- 
vant,  Cleveland  Swift,  Millard  F.  Thing,  Henry  W^  Towns,  James  O. 
Trask,  John  E.  Welch,  William  Wilson,  Charles  E.  Wing,  Leonard  L. 
Wing  d  in  hospital  at  New  Orleans,  Llewellyn  T.  Wing,  Lewis  H. 
Wing  k  before  Petersburg  Sept.  11  64,  William  A.  Young  w  June  2  64. 
IVfst  Gardu/t-r.—Anhuv  B.  Andrews,  Hiram  Babb,  Jonathan  C. 
Bartlett,  Charles  H.  Bailey,  John  Blanchard  jun.,  Lieut.  Alfred  G. 
Brann,  Calvin  N.  Brann,  John  E.  Brann  w  May  6  64,  David  Campbell, 
F.  A.  Chesley,  Daniel  M.  Cole  d  July  30  63,  Charles  O.  Crosby  d  Aug. 
12  64  at  New  Orleans,  Allen  T.  C.  Crowell,  William  H.  Crosby,  R. 
Cunningham,  James  A.  Cunningham.  Oliver  L.  Dennison,  Charles  E. 
Dillingham,  Charles  H.  Dill,  John  Edgecomb,  A.  K.  P.  Edwards,  Wil- 
liam W.  Eslar,  Benjamin  F.  Fairbanks,  Edwin  Fairbanks,  William  H. 
Fairbanks,  George  S.  Fogg,  W.  Forrest,  George  W.  Fuller,  Gustavus 
Fuller,  Gardiner  H.  Fuller,  George  W.  Garland,  Hannibal  George, 
Alfred  Grover  w  June  2  63,  George  E.  Grover,  Lester  Guilford  k  Feb. 
64,  Charles  E.  Howard,  David  H.  Haines,  Hiram  Haines,  William  F. 
Haines,  Robert  G.  Hildreth  d  63,  John  T.  Hatch,  William  H.  Jewett, 
Charles  O.  Knox,  August  Kuehew,  James  Marston,  George  E.  McCaus- 
land  d  July  28  63,  Charles  H.  Merrill,  F.  L.  Merrill  w  64,  M.  A.  Morse,, 


James  A.  Mosher,  Joseph  H.  Neal,  George  W.  Newell,  George 
Newell,  vSimon  Nudd,  William  Parker,  Dexter  W.  Page,  Jacob  Page  w 
at  Antietam,  Charles  W.  Patterson,  Solomon  E.  Peach  w  64,  Edward 
Peacock  jun.,  Solomon  Peacock,  Thomas  A.  Pinkham,  Augustus  B. 
Plummer,  Ansel  L.  Potter,  Emerald  M.  Potter,  Simeon  Potter,  John 

A.  Potter,  Rosco  H.  Potter,  George  F.  Reed,  James  W.  Robinson, 
James  Robinson,  Gardiner  Roberts  jun.,  George  A.  W.  Rooker,  George 
Ross,  Alonzo  Sampson,  Elisha  P.  Seavey,  Hubbard  C.  Smith,  Charles 
Small,  Lieut.  Oliver  R.  Small,  Alvin  Spear,  Charles  A.  Spear,  Franklin 
Spear  d  Feb.  4  63,  John  A.  Spear,  John  Spear  2d,  John  A.  Spear, 
Joseph  M.  Spear,  Joseph  F.  Spear  w  Feb.  6  64,  Justin  F.  Spear,  Milton 

C.  Spear,  Richard  H.  Spear  k  June  23  64,  Gardiner  Todd,  Joseph  Traf- 
ton,  Edward  W.  Wakefield  d  of  disease,  Tene  Wendenburg,  A.  W. 
Whittier,  Elbridge  E.  Whittier,  Nickolas  Williams. 

Wmdsor.— Charles  H.  Ashford,  Homer  P.  Barton,  Charles  H.  Bar- 
ton, Eloin  C.  Barker  d  of  disease  at  Alexandria  Va.,  Reuben  W. 
Brown,  Abram  Bryant,  Frank  U.  Butler,  Charles  J.  Carroll  d  July  10 

63,  Freeman  Casey,  Abram  Choat,  Henry  B.  Coombs,  Warren  H. 
Colby,  Decator  S.  Chapman  d  May  28  63,  Elbridge  B.  F.  Colby,  Joseph 
Carver,  Thomas  M.  Clark,  George  G.  Colby,  George  W.  Craige,  Albert 
N.  Craige,  George  W.  Chapman  k  May  6  64,  A.  C.  Davis,  William  H. 
Dearborn  d  May  8  63,  Moses  J.  Donnell,  George  F.  Doe  d  of  wounds 
received  Aug.  25  64,  Yeaton  Dunton,  James  W.  Dackendoff,  Laforest 
Dunton  d  Feb.  26  63,  George  Duval,  James  M.  Evens,  Charles  E.  For- 
saith,  Stephen  L.  French,  Charles  F.  French,  George  H.  French, 
James  Garrity,  Maddison  T.  Glidden,  Granville  Coding,  John  W.  S. 
Gould,  Alonzo  E.  Gove,  Elias  Gove,  Elijah  S.  Grant,  Nathaniel  N. 
Gray,  Capt.  John  Goldthwait,  Daniel  Hallowell,  John  Hallowell  jun., 
William  Hallowell,  David  D.  Hanson,  William  H.  Harriman  w  Aug. 
23  64,  William  H.  Hilton,  Charles  A.  Hilton,  John  Hutcherson,  Daniel 
W.  Hutcherson,  John  B.  Hunt,  Ira  B.  Hyson,  John  F.  Hyson,  Jeremy 

D.  Hyson,  Daniel  L.  Jackson,  John  Johnson,  Daniel  H.  Jones,  Benja- 
min R.  Jones,  William  G.  Keen,  James  W.  Kendall,  William  Laskey, 
Edward  H.  Leach,  Franklin  P.  Lewis,  Marcelous  C.  Lynn,  John  Lynch 
d  Mar.  17  63„  Andrew  K.  Maguire,  Erastus  Marr,  George  L.  Marson, 
John  Martin,  Charles  H.  Maxwell  w  May  20  64,  George  W.  McDonnel, 
Leonard  H.  Merrill,  Melvin  A.  Merrill,  Enoch  Merrill,  George  W. 
Merrill  k  in  action  May  6  64,  Abram  Merrill,  James  F.  Merrill,  Isaac 
N.  Marsh,  George  R.  Mitchell,  Benjamin  H.  Moody,  Appleton  Mer- 
rill, John  McPherson,  Daniel  McDickens,  Andrew  J.  Murch,  John  B. 
Murray,  James  O'Brien,  James  O'Donnell,  William  H.  Peva  w  Aug.  16 

64,  Nathan  R.  Peavey,  Fred  C.  Perkins,  Lieut.  Warren  H.  Pierce,  Al- 
phonzo  Pierce  d  Nov.  64,  Isaiah  H.  Pierce  d  of  wounds  received  May 
18  64,  Everts  P.  Plummer,  David  Potter,  William  F.  Proctor,  Sumner 

B.  Proctor,  Samuel  Reeves,  Charles  A.  Reynolds,  Timothy  W.  Rey- 


nolds,  Roswell  Richardson,  Jasper  Robinson,  William  Russell,  David 
O.  Sawtell,  John  Simmons,  Rockwell  Scribner,  William  H.  Seekins  k 
May  27  63,  Frank  Smith,  John  Smith,  James  Stanley.  Nathaniel  W. 
Stetson  jun.,  Levi  W.  Sterns,  Joseph  A.  Stewart,  Samuel  S.  Thompson, 
James  B.  Tobin,  Stephen  Trask  d  Sept.  25  63,  Ruel  W.  Trask,  John 
Tye,  Marcelous  Vining,  Granville  B.  Warren  d  Aug.  3  63,  Charles 
Watson  d  Oct.  64,  Charles  O.  Watson,  L.  H.  Whitehouse,  John  Q. 
Wentworth,  Andrew  F.  White,  James  S.  Wingate,  Lieut.  Frederick 
D.  Wight,  Luther  Witham,  George  P.  Wyman,  Reuben  Vining. 

U'iHs/ou'.— Ashman  Abbott  d  Apr.  16  63,  Edward  S.  Abbott  d  Apr. 
17  63,  Stephen  H.  iVbbott,  Daniel  B.  Abbott,  Albert  A.  Abbott,  Mel- 
ville C.  Blackwell,  Samuel  M.  Bragg,  Joseph  Brown,  William  Brown, 
Lemuel  Bubier,  Eben  A.  Brook,  Daniel  Burgess,  Charles  M.  Bryant, 
Orin  Burgess,  Alfred  H.  Buchard,  William  Cohoon,  Charles  A.  Cole- 
man, George  W.  Cushman,  J.  S.  Dodge,  Alfred  T.  Dunbar,  Benjamin 
F.  Dunbar  d  of  wounds  June  14  63,  Capt.  Joseph  Eaton  jun.,  Albert 
Ellis,  Henry  Ellis,  Henry  W.  Ellis,  John  R.  Flagg.William  H.  Flagg,  D. 
French,  Lieut.  Charles  P.  Garland,  Capt.  Joseph  P.  Garland,  Henry  W. 
Getchell,  Adelbert  M.  Gray,  Leonard  Goodrich,  George  E.  Gullifer,  Wil- 
liam Gullifer,  Henry  A.  Hamlin,  John  Harris,  Charles  Hollis,  Ira  D. 
Hodges,  George  W.  Hodges  d  May  3  63,  Francis  D.  Hodges,  Josiah  D. 
Houston.  William  A.  Keag,  Albert  S.  Kelley,  Frederick  King,  Edward 
Lynch,  Charles  E.  Low,  Sumner  Merrill,  James  Moony,  George  P. 
Morrill,  Albert  A.  Morrill,  Isaac  Morrill,  Addi.son  Morrill,  Frank  E. 
Nelson,  Oscar  W.  Nichols  d  in  pri.son,  L.  W.  Packard,  H. 
Palmer  jun.,  John  Palmer  k  Feb.  4  65,  William  T.  Patridge,  George 
W.  Pillsbury,  Hiram  S.  Pollard,  Charles  Pillsbury,  Albert  Plummer, 
John  R.  Pollard,  Charles  Pollard,  George  A.  Pollard  p  Oct.  19  64,  John 
R.  Pollard,  Homer  Proctor,  David  O.  Preast,  William  T.  Preble,  John 
T.  Preble,  Albert  Plummer,  Hanes  C.  Quimby,  Ansel  P.  Rankin, 
Thomas  G.  Rice,  Elmerin  W.  Richards,  Seth  M.  Richard.son,  Alex.  A. 
Richardson,  Edward  B.  Richardson,  Francis  E.  Robinson  d  Sept.  16  64, 
Zenas  M.  vShaw,  Winthrop  Shurland  w  June  18  64.  Winthrop  Shurland, 
Hollis  Simpson,  Albert  R.  Smiley,  Ellis  Smiley,  Charles  E.  Smiley, 
Isaac  Sanborn,  Albert  Southard,  Theodore  M.  Southard,  George  L. 
Spaulding.  Henry  Spaulding.  John  W.  Storkey.  Howard  H.  Taylor, 
AVilliam  Taylor  k  at  Gettysburg  63,  Richard  W.  Underwood.  John  F. 
Walker,  Charles  E.  Washborn,  John  B.  Wheeler,  Howard  R.  Wilson, 
John  S.  Wilson  d  of  wounds  Nov.  13  64,  Albert  Withee,  Bradley  B. 
Withee.  John  Withee.  William  F.  Wood  k  May  6  64,  John  P.  Wyman. 

lVi/i//{ro/>.— Ruel  D.  Allen,  John  L.  Armstrong  w  May  6  64,  Willard 
S.  Axtelle  w  May  5  64,  George  A.  Batchelder  d  July  20  65,  Roswell  D. 
Bates,  Asst.  Surg.  John  F.  Bates,  William  H.  Bates,  Frank  Beal,  George 
W.Beal,  Watson  C.  Beals.  William  H.  Beny,  Samuel  D.  Besse,  William 
Bird,   Darius   Blanchard,   Benjamin   A.   Bragdon,   William    Breckler, 


Henry  F.  Bridgham,  Franklin  S.  Briggs  d  Aug.  3  63  in  hospital,  James 
M.  Brown,  Sewall  M.  Bubier,  Andrew  J.  Burgess,  Benjamin  F.  Bur- 
gess, Roswell  Burgess,  Jacob  T.  Byron,  Josiah  B.  Byron,  Joseph  H. 
Caulfield,  Solomon  B.  Gates,  Albert  Chandler  d  of  wounds  July  1  64, 
Charles  H.  Chandler,  Charles  W.  Chandler,  Charles  A.  Chandler  d  of 
wounds  July  2  64,  Enoch  S.  Chase,  Samuel  G.  Chandler  w  July  2  63, 
Edgar  U.  Churchill,  Isaiah  M.  Cookson,  Samuel  B.  Coombs,  Eli  N. 
Cookson,  Josiah  L.  Cobb,  Thomas  Connor,  Charles  E.  Cottle,  Reuben 
H.  Crosby  w,  John  F.  Cummings  d  of  disease  Aug.  4  63,  Thomas  M. 
Daniels,  Calvin  Dearborn,  Charles  H.  Dearborn,  Thomas  Dealy, 
Harry  Dickey,  Frank  S.  Dwyer,  John  Dyer,  Josiah  N.  Eastman,  Lieut. 
William  Elder,  William  H.  Emery,  Joseph  W.  Esty,  David  Farr,  Mel- 
ville N.  Freeman,  William  F.  Frost,  David  P.  Freeman,  Lieut.  John 
F.  Gaslin,  Bethuel  P.  Gould,  Rufus  H.  Gould,  John  C.  Gaslin,  Samuel 
M.  Gilley,  Apollos  Hammon  d  Sept.  29  64  at  New  Orleans,  Samuel 
Hanson,  William  H.  House,  Joseph  A.  Hall,  Stephen  P.  Hart,  Charles 
W.  Heaton,  AVillard  C.  Hopkins.  George  Howard,  Henry  A.  Howard, 
John  L.  Hutch,  Samuel  Jackson,  David  D.  Jones,  John  A.Jones,  John 
W.  Jones,  Lennan  F.  Jones,  William  H.  Jones  d  of  disease  Apr.  1  64, 
Shepherd  H.  Joy,  William  DeForest  Kelley,  John  O.  Lawrence  d, 
Henry  S.  Lane,  Edward  N.  Leavitt,  George  W.  Leavitt,  James  W. 
Leighton,  Lewis  R.  Litchfield,  S.  W.  Lovell,  Edwin  Ladd,  Charles  H.. 
Longfellow.  Augustine  R.  Lord,  John  E.  Lowell,  Lieut.  Daniel 
Lothrop,  Nelson  H.  Martin,  Albert  Moore  jun.,  George  H.  Morton, 
Alden  F.  Murch,  Roy  P.  Moody,  George  W.  Nash,  Henry  O.  Nicker- 
son,  James  Nickerson,  Owen  St.  C.  O'Brien,  Thomas  A.  Osborn,  Ho- 
ratio M.  Packard,  Isaac  N.  Packard,  Thomas  M.  Packard,  Andrew  P. 
Perkins,  Benjamin  C.  Powers,  George  Perkins,  William  H.  Pettengill 
w  May  12  64,  John  Pettengill,  Winfield  S.  Philbrick,  Silas  Perry  d  July 
24  64,  Elias  Pullen,  George  F.  Rankin,  James  M.  Robinson,  John  Rob- 
bins,  Jacob  Savage,  John  Shea,  Enoch  H.  Skillings,  Benjamin  B. 
Smith,  George  L.  Smith  d  at  Annapolis  Oct.  28  64,  Harrison  N.  Smith 
d  July  16  65,  Frank  W.  Stanley,  Henry  H.Stevens,  J.  Wesley  Stevens, 
Lorenzo  D.  Stevens  d  July  26  6o,  Daniel  W.  Stevens,  Capt.  E.  Lewis 
Sturtevant,  Hiram  H.  Stilkey,  Newell  Sturtevant,  Josiah  Snell,  Aaron 
S.  Thurston,  Stephen  A.  Thurston,  Charles  A.  Thompson,  Gustavus 
A.  Thompson,  Frank  B.  Towle,  Henry  F.  Tilton,  Joseph  A.  Toby, 
Joel  W.  Toothaker,  Charles  L.  Towle  jun.  d  in  service,  Edwin  F. 
Towns,  William  P.  Varney,  Isaac  W.  Wardwell,  Dura  Weston,  Isaac 
Watts  d  Oct.  20  65,  Sullivan  R.  Whitney,  Edward  P.  Whiting,  George 
W.Williams,  George  W.  Wing,  Henry  O.  Wing,  Hubbard  R.  Wing  d 
Sept.  1  64,  Thomas  F.  Wing,  Henry  D.  Winter.  Elias  Wood,  Franklin 
Wood,  George  W.Wood,  Amaziah  Young  d  Aug.  14  64,  John  F.  Young. 
Records  had  been  kept  showing  the  bounties  paid  by  the  respective 
towns  to  promote  these  later  enlistments,  to  employ  substitutes  and. 


to  relieve  their  citizens  who  were  drafted.  The  total  disbursements 
for  these  purposes,  and  the  amounts  refunded  to  the  several  munici- 
palities from  the  state  bonds  were  as  follows: 

Albion paid,    $21,265.00  received,    $8,033.33 

Augusta "       100,456.00  "  44,466.07 

Belgrade "         43,080.00  "  9,041 .67 

Benton "         26,575.72  "  5,775.00 

Chelsea "         11,266.05  "  4,441.67 

China "         47,735.34  "  12,708.33 

Clinton "         40,625.00  "  10,175.00 

Farmingdale "         14,966.19  "  3,641.67 

Fayette "         16,920.00  "  4,966.67 

Gardiner "         65,070.53  "  23,108.33 

Hallowell "         16,421 .00  "  7,808.33 

Litchfield "         24,860.00  '•  9,158.33 

Manchester "         12,330.00  "  3,408.33 

Monmouth "         32,950.00  "  9,216.67 

Mt.  Vernon "         27,650.00  "  9,258.33 

Oakland " " 

Pittston "         33,939.14  "  11,208.33 

Randolph " "  

Readfield "         40,003.00  "  8,008.33 

Rome  "        25,675.00  "  3,666.67 

Sidney "         30,039.00  "  8,183.33 

Vassalboro "         73,100.00  "  14,750.00 

Vienna "         15,557.44  "  4,213.33 

Waterville "         68,016.00  "  19,888.33 

Wayne "         22,280.00  "  6,091.66 

West  Gardiner "         22,374.00  "  6,291.67 

Windsor "         35,044.00  "  7,925.00 

Winslow '•         25,658.00  "  7,375.00 

Winthrop "         50,430.00  "  12,350.00 

Unity  Plantation "  1,850.00  "  291.67 

From  other  sources  than  Captain  Clark's  preceding  lists  we  find 
some  records  of  soldiers  claiming  residence  in  Kennebec  county.  The 
brief  record  is  appended: 

A ii^nsta.— Daniel  D.  Anderson  July  18  63,  Alden  S.  Baker  w  Oct.  19 
64,  William  H.  Berry  d  Aug.  28  64,  John  F.  Brett  d  July  3  64.  Jason 
R.  Bartlett  d  in  prison  64,  Charles  F.  Bennett  k  Oct.  19  64,  George  W. 
Bemis  d  Aug.  63,  Brad  S.  Bodge  d  of  wounds  May  8  64,  John  Bradley 
w,  Thomas  J.  Bragg  d  May  28  64,  Joseph  Bushea  k  July  63.  Phillips 
N.  Byron  k  at  Cedar  Mt.  62,  Henry  C.  Chandler  d  Mar.  1  65,  Benjamin 
F.  Colby  p  Aug.  19   64,  Daniel  C.  Cunningham  d  Feb.  5  63,  Elisha 


Cooley  w  Aug.  18  64,  John  Curtis  d  in  prison,  Lewis  E.  Clark  w 
May  20  64,  Eugene  Cate  d  Oct.  9  64,  William  Dewall  w  June  17  64, 
Benjamin  Douglas  w  July  63,  Charles  A.  Davis  w  Apr.  4  65,  Lieut. 
James  Davidson,  Leroy  Farrar  w  June  64,  Albert  V.  French  w  May  12 
64,  Seth  B.  Goodwin  p  62,  Charles  Gannett  p  July  63,  Artemas  K.  Gil- 
ley  d  July  64,  Col.  Thomas  Hight,  Antoine  Harrogot  w  Sept.  64,  Rod- 
ney C.  Harriman  d  Sept.  64,  William  H.  Hayward  k  May  16  64,  James 

A.  Jones  p  62,  Augustus  Kachner  p,  Hiram  Kincaid  w  Sept.  64,  Sam- 
uel Lisherness  d  June  64,  Virgil  G.  Lanelle  d  in  pri.son  64,  William  H. 
Lowell  d  Feb.  65,  Thomas  B,  Lambert  p  July  63,  George  ]\IcGraw  w 
May  10  64,  Henry  Mullen  d  Apr.  65,  George  G.  Mills  d  Nov.  64,  Hiram 

B.  Nichols  w  Aug.  64,  William  O.  Nichols  w  Apr.  8  64,  John  B.  Parker 
d  of  wounds  May  64,  Levi  A.  Philbrook  w  May  64,  Charles  K.  Powers 
d  of  wounds  July  64,  Asa  Plummer  k  May  64,  Franklin  Perry  k  May 
64,  Glenwood  C.  Pray  d  Apr.  65,  Ezekiel  Page  w,  Lieut.  Nathaniel  H. 
Ricker,  William  D.  Randall  w  Sept.  64,  John  Riley  k  May  64,  Charles 
W.  Richards  d  Feb.  64,  Morrill  Rose  w  May  64,  Charles  F.  Shaw  d 
Jan.  65,  Samuel  Stevens  w  Oct.  64,  Edward  A.  Stewart  d  May  63, 
Henry  G.  Smith  w  May  64,  Henry  Smith  p  62,  James  Shortwell  w  May 
64,  William  B.  Small  w  June  64,  Joseph  H.vSpencer  d  at  Andersonville 
64,  Thomas  B.  Tolman  dof  wounds  July  64,  Henry  W.  Towns  w  June 
64,  Warren  D.  Trask  d  64,  Joseph  Weaver  d  Jan.  64,  Charles  H.  War- 
ren w,  Alonzo  S.  Weed  d  in  Richmond  prison  Oct.  63,  vStephen  Wing 
k  May  64,  Baptiste  Willett  jun.  w  64,  Frank  Williams  w  May  64,  Capt. 
James  M.  Williams  d  of  wounds  June  64. 

Albion.— Yr&nV  Brown  d  July  15  63,  Chandler  Drake  d  Mar.  62, 
Charles  Gage  w  May  64,  Lieut.  Maxey  Hamlin,  Warren  G.  Johnson  d 
Mar.  62,  Edward  L.  Pray  d  Mar.  62,  Oscar  Rollins  d  Sept.  62,  Allen 
Shorey  d  Mar.  63. 

Belgrade.— "^Ahridige  Bickford  w  62,  Asa  J.  Cummings  d  Mar.  62, 
Thomas  W.  Damon  d  64,  Elias  Freeman  d  Mar.  24  63,  Owen  Getchell 
d  July  64,  James  A.  Lombard  w  62,  Hiram  A.  Mills  d  Oct.  64,  Lyman 
Maxwell  d  Nov.  64,  William  L.  Rollins  w  Oct.  64. 

Be?!ton.^A\^)ionzo  C.  Brown  d  in  hospital  62,  Jefferson  W.  Brown 
d  Sept.  62,  Alvin  Gibson  p  63,  Royale  B.  Rideout  d  Oct.  62,  James  M. 
Rideout  d  Nov.  62,  Albert  M.  Spaulding  d  Mar.  62. 

Chelsea.— y[\\\s  O.  Chase  d  Dec.  22  63,  Lieut.  William  O.  Tibbetts. 

<:/«■««.— Charles  W.  Allen  d  Oct.  13  64,  Asst.  Surg.  D.  P.  Bolster, 
Joseph  Babin  w  May  64,  John  W.  Chisam  d  June  64,  William  Doe 
w  65,  Henry  A.  Hamlin  d  in  prison  Aug.  64,  William  Holmes  d  Dec. 
6],  Israel  D.  Jones  d  June  63,  William  F.  Priest  d  Feb.  63,  Benjamin 
C.  Studley  p  62,  Charles  E.  Washburn  w  64. 

Clinton. — George  W.  Emery  d  May  65,  John  Marco  k  at  Fredericks- 
burg, John  H.  Stevens  w  July  63,  Herman  P.  Sullivan  mortally 
w  Aug.  64,  George  A.  Weymouth  k  near  Richmond  Mar.  64,  Thomas 


E.  Whitney  w  d  in  prison  June  04,  David  H.  Whitten  d  Feb.  65,  Elisha 
Whitten  w  64. 

Fartningdalc. — Byron  Lowell  \v  Malvern  Hill,  William  H.  Mayo  p 
Sep:.  64. 

Fayette.— ?xa.nQ.\s.  J.  Folsom  w  Oct.  64,  Charles  W.  Judkins  w  65, 
Charles  F.  Palmer  d  of  wounds  May  64. 

Gardiner. — George  W.  Austin  w  at  Gettysburg  63,  Arrington  Brann 
d  June  64,  Calvin  W.  Brann  d  Sept.  64,  Lieut.  Calvin  Boston  d  July  64 
of  wounds,  George  Clough  d  May  62,  Charles  A.  Douglas  w  64,  Daniel 
Fitzpatrick  k  June  64,  C.  W.  Gilpatrick  d  in  prison  64,  Frank  Johnson 
w  Aug.  64,  Charles  A.  Jordan  p  64,  Danforth  M.  Maxcy  d  Aug.  63, 
Barney  McGraw  p  61,  George  H.  Nason  d  Aug.  64,  Joseph  M.  Ring  d 
Dec.  63,  Capt.  George  W.  Smith,  Capt.  Oliver  R.  Smith,  Franklin  W. 
Swift  w  64,  John  Smith  w  May  64,  James  W.  Taylor  k  June  64,  George 

F.  Tyler  w  64. 

/i^rt/^wr//.— Joseph  L.  Bailey  w  Oct.  64,  Charles  F.  Campbell  w  64, 
James  S.Emerson  k  June  64,  Edwin  R.Gould  k  May  63,  Lieut.  Charles 
Glazier,  Capt.  Samuel  L.  Gilman,  Henry  D.  Otis  d  Sept.  64,  Joseph 
Pinkham  d  Aug.  64,  Lieut.  John  A.  A.  Packard,  John  W.  Rodgers  d 
Jan.  65,  Frank  Sweetland  d  65,  George  S.  Sherborn  w  July  63,William 
F.  Sherman  d  in  prison  64. 

Litchfield.— Cc^^t.  George  W.  Bartlett,  Merton  Maxwell  d  at  Alex- 
andria Sept.  62,  Asst.  Surg.  Silas  C.  Thomas. 

Manchester. — Josiah  H.  Mears  w  64. 

Monmouth. — Loring  P.  Donnell  d  Oct.  62,  Corp.  Lot  Sturtevant  d  of 
wounds  Apr.  65,  Thomas  Keenan  p  Oct.  64. 

Mt.  Vernon.— Krno  Little  w  Oct.  64,  David  G.  Morrell  k  May  64. 

Pittston.— George  H.  Blair  d  July  63,  George  F.  Bliss  d  July  64,  Jo- 
seph S.  Call  k  May  64,  Lorenzo  Cookson  w  May  64,  Reuel  M.  Heath  d 
of  wounds  May  64,  Xenophen  Heath  d  Oct.  62,  Moses  King  w  May  64, 
Warren  Maines  d  of  wounds  June  64,  Warren  H.  Moores  w  64,  Lieut. 
James  G.  Rundlette  w  June  64,  Aaron  Tucker  d  April  64. 

Readfie/d.— Chap.  George  C.  Crawford,  Lewis  E.  Davis  d  May  62, 
Albert  L.  Deering  w  63,  Henry  C.  Kennison  d  June  62,  Asst.  Surg. 
Joseph  D.  Mitchell,  Charles  H.  Robie  w  May  62,  George  W.  Smith  d 
Aug.  64. 

Rome. — Capt.  Hiram  AL  Campbell,  Russell  Clement  w  62,  Frank 
Fairbanks  d  Nov.  62,  Lieut.  Stephen  H.  Mosher,  Joseph  Meader  k 
Oct.  64. 

Sidnej'.—Asst.  Surg.  John  S.  Gushing,  William  H.  Farnham  Mar. 
63,  Thomas  R.  Holt  mortally  w  July  64,  William  H.  Hoxie  p  May  63. 

Vienna. — Joseph  O.  Colley  w,  Nathaniel  F.  Dow  d  July  62,  Ben- 
jamin F.  GrifSn  w  Aug.  64. 

Vassalboro. — Josiah  S.  Arey  d  Aug.  64,  A.ndrew  J.  Burgess  d  Mar. 
65,  Jeremiah   Estes  k  Sept.  63,  Charles   H.  Gibson  k  Sept.  64,  Edwin 


W.  Gould  w  June  (14,  Joseph  H.  Header  d  of  wounds  July  64,  Timothy 
Nicholas  w  May  64,  George  E.  Pishon  d  63,  Benjamin  Weeks  k  May 

64,  Osa  C.  Wyman  p  64. 

IVtrvj/c. — Rufus  Bessee  d  June  64,  Edward  P.  Bussey  d  June  64, 
Valentine  S.  Cumner  k  June  64,  Lieut.  Clarence  E.  Frost,  Robinson 
Sturtevant  w  and  p  64,  Thomas  B.  Wing  d  July  64. 

WaUrviV/c— Davis  P.  Arba  w  Sept.  64,  Bickford  Bennett  d  May  64, 
William  Chapman  k  in  battle  64,  Hiram  Cochrane  d  Dec.  63,  John  G. 
Gay  d  Dec.  64,  Lieut.  Daniel  F.  Goodrich,  Joseph  Jerow  d  in  prison  64, 
Moses  King  p  64.  Charles  Love  w  63,  Lieut.  Frederick  Mason  w  Apr. 

65,  Euarde  Paulette  d  of  wounds  July  64,  James  B.  PoUon  w  and  p  '64, 
Henry  Porter  d  July  64,  Albert  Quimby  d  64,  George  Robinson  k  July 
64,  William  A.  Stevens  k  June  64,  Joseph  D.  Simpson  k  July  68,  Ellis 
Stephens  k  May  63. 

IVest  Gardiner.— GsLTdiner  H.  Fuller  d  Sept.  64,  George  M.  Garland 
d  Sept.  64,  Sanford  L.  Pinkham  d  June  64,  James  H.  Peacock  d  Apr. 
64,  Michael  T.  Smith  d  June  63,  George  W.  Tyler  d  May  63. 

Windsor.— Sylvenus  T.  Hatch  p  64,  Elias  T.  Libby  w  64,  John 
Scales  p  64. 

PVins/ou'.— William  F.  Good  d  at  Gettysburg  63,  Christopher  C. 
Sanborn  d  July  62,  Hiram  Wixon  w  Mar.  62,  George  L.  Webber  d  Dec. 

/r'V«///r<?/.— Lieut.  Charles  B.  Fillebrown,  Franklin  M.  La  Croix  d 
Jan.  63,  John  W.  Leavett  d  Mar.  64,  Orrin  Perkins  d  June  6  64,  Wil- 
liam H.  Pettingill  w  May  64,  Capt.  Albert  H.  Packard  d  of  wounds 
June  64. 

It  would  not  be  possible,  at  the  present  time,  to  secure  a  complete 
record,  nor,  probably,  a  complete  list  of  the  sons  of  Kennebec  who 
performed  their  faithful,  honest  duty  in  the  days  of  the  nation's  need. 
Many  are  known  to  have  served  in  the  navy,  in  the  regular  army  and 
in  the  regiments  of  other  states.  The  remaining  list  in  this  chapter 
includes  the  names  of  many  of  these,  whose  homes  had  been  in  the 
towns  named. 

Albion. — Reuben  C.  Jaquith,  William  H.  Kidder,  Augustus  Drake, 
Alphonso  Crosby,  George  W.  Plummer,  Crowell  Robinson,  Horatio 
Robinson,  George  Stratton. 

Augusta. — Edward  Boston,  Ward  Burns,  Edwin  T.  Brick,  Charles 
Goldthwaite,  Benjamin  A.  Swan,  Albert  E.  Snow,  Fred  O.  Fales, 
Charles  H.  Gowen,  J.  A.  Snow,  William  H.  Davenport,  Dana  Estes, 
Henry  T.  Hall,  George  Albee,  Henry  W.  Hersom,  Lieut.  Horace  P. 
Pike,  George  Hamlin,  Thomas  Jones,  Charles  F.  Moore,  David  Mc- 
Farland,  Benjamin  F.  Rust,  Jesse  Stover,  Charles  C.  Hartwell,  William 
Place,  William  W.  Lord,  James  Newman,  David  Young,  A.  A.  Whit- 
temore,  Paymaster  Augustus  H.  Gilman,  James  McGrath,  Henry  Pond, 


William  E.  Tobey,  Andrew  Williamson,  Brig.  Gen.  Seth  Williams, 
Joseph  Wedge,  Charles  Savage. 

Belgrade. — Frank  Abbott,  George  O.  Austin,  Charles  Knox,  Lendall 
Yeaton,  Cyrus  Q.  Pray,  Calvin  Weaver,  Robert  Damon,  James  H.  Dun- 
lap,  David  Titcomb. 

Benton. — Hiram  Robinson,  Charles  Preston,  Edward  Preston,  Abi- 
jah  Brown, 

Chelsea. — John  F.  Camiston,  vSamuel  Chase,  George  Booker,  Jerome 

China. — Dana  H.  Maxfield,  Daniel  Norton,  Hiram  Robinson,  Fran- 
cis A.  Starkey,  Edwin  Ward,  Frank  Ward,  Francis  P.  Ward,  Jedediah 
F.  Trask,  Sandford  Cotton,  Wilder  W.  Mitchell. 

Clinton. — Charles  Hobbs,  Richard  Richardson,  Roswell  Welch. 

Farnmigdale . — James  T.  Hatch,  W^illiam  R.  Hatch,  William  H. 
Higgins,  Timothy  Higgins.  John  E.  Lombard,  Alonzo  M.  Neal. 

Fayette. — James  W.  Smith,  Isaac  M.  Wentworth. 

Gardiner. — Sewall  Mitchell,  George  Merrill,  Benjamin  Rollins,  Au- 
gustus Carleton,  George  E.  Donnell,  Mason  G.  Whiting,  Charles  E. 
McDonald,  Charles  F.  Palmer,  Charles  R.  Lowell,  Charles  W.  Rich- 
ardson, George  W.  Richardson,  Nathan  Willard,  Michael  Burns,  Oliver 
Colburn,  Hiram  E.  Davis,  Augustus  Dixon,  Benjamin  Lawrence  jun., 
Joseph  A.  Sturtevant,  Horace  E.  Neal. 

Hallowell. — John  Edson,  Dwight  Miner  jun. 

Litchfield.— YldaX-woW  Keyes,  John  H.  Keyes,  Sylvanus  D.  Water- 
man, Melville  A.  Cochrane,  Arthur  L.  Allard,  Joseph  G.  Allard,  Wil- 
liam Henry  Baker,  Horace  L.  Smith,  James  Woodbury. 

Manchester. — Henry  Winslow,  Charles  B.  Goldthwaite. 

Monmouth. — Henry  C.  Thurston,  Jonathan  V.  Gove,  James  R.  Nor- 
ris.  Charles  H.  Ballou. 

Mt.  Vernon. — Horace  O.  Blake,  Eugene  A.  Gilman,  Orlando  V.  An- 

/'///i-/w^.— Alfred  G.  Hanly,  Henry  Allen,  Franklin  H.  Cole,  William 
H.  Gray,  Samuel  Gray  jun.,  George  W.  Stevens,  Albion  Still,  John 
Still,  Henry  V.  Thomas,  William  Warren,  L.  A.  Albee,  David  B. 
Brookings,  John  P.  Hale,  John  Handren,  David  McDonald,  Sewell 
Ramsdell,  Isaac  D.  Seyburn. 

Readfield. — Augustus  Hutchinson,  Roscoe  Luce,  Horace  A.  Ma- 
comber,  George  D.  Norton. 

Rome. — Henry  Perkins,  Benjamin  Tracy  3d. 

Sidney. — Anson  B.  Barton,  Henry  Kenney,  George  Sawtelle,  Allen 
H.  Smith,  Charles  H.  Brown,  William  L.  Kelly,  Henry  W.  Brown, 
Thomas  F.  Sanborn. 

Vassalboro. — Amory  Webber,  George  A.  Emery,  James  S.  Emery, 
Frederick  A.  Hopkins,  Walter  Phillips,  John  B.  Elliott,  Simon  B.  El- 


liott,  John  B.  Stowe,  Henry  R.  Calder,  Zachariah  B.  vStewart,  Eugene- 
Whitehouse,  Henry  W.  Worth,  Harlow  D.  Weeks. 

Watcrville. — Alonzo  Copp,  John  F.  Gibbs,  .Samuel  Haines,  Albert 
W.  Percival,  Henry  W.  Percival,  Benjamin  C.  Allen,  Samuel  H.  Black- 
well,  John  AV.  Emery,  Samuel  D.  Emery,  John  W.  Soule. 

fFrtj/w.— Lloyd  Clark,  Charles  A.  Hall,  William  H.  Holman,  Dan- 
iel W.  True,  Williston  Jennings. 

West  Gardiner. — James  Whitney. 

Windsor. — George  W.  Jackson,  James  Noon  jun. 

Winslow. — Horatio  Morse,  Edward  Shurtleff. 

Wintlirop. — Lennan  F.  Jones,  Charles  E.  Parlin,  George  W.  Parlin, 
Lewis  K.  Littlefield,  Moses  B.  Sears. 

General  Seth  Williams.— Prominent  among  the  many  able  offi- 
cers who  rendered  valuable  service  in  the  war  of  the  late  rebellion, 
was  Brevet  Major  General  Seth  Williams,  of  Augusta.'  He  was  born 
at  Augusta  March  22,  1822;  received  a  military  education  at  West 
Point  and  graduated  July  1,  1842;  was  made  second  lieutenant  of  the 
First  Artillery  in  1844  and  first  lieutenant  of  the  same  regiment  in 
1847.  His  first  service  was  in  the  war  with  Mexico,  where  he  served 
with  credit  as  aid-de-camp  on  the  staff  of  General  Patterson  and  was 
brevetted  captain  April  18,  1847,  "  for  gallant  and  meritorious  con- 
duct at  the  battle  of  Cerro  Gordo."  He  was  appointed  adjutant  at 
West  Point  in  September,  1850,  and  served  three  years,  having  re- 
ceived in  August,  1853,  the  appointment  of  assistant  adjutant  general, 
with  the  rank  of  captain,  in  the  Adjutant  General's  Department  at 
Washington,  and  served  in  that  capacity  until  the  breaking  out  of 
the  rebellion.  In  the  West  Virginia  campaign  of  General  McClellan, 
in  the  early  part  of  the  war,  Captain  Williams  served  as  adjutant  gen- 
eral on  his  staff.  He  returned  to  Washington  in  July,  1861,  and  in  following  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major  in  the  regular 

In  1861,  when  General  McClellan  succeeded  General  McDowell, 
Major  Williams  was  appointed  to  the  position  of  adjutant  general  of 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  on  September  23,  1861,  was  commis- 
sioned as  brigadier  general  of  volunteers.  The  duties  devolving  on 
him  were  arduous,  calling  for  .severe  application,  yet  he  filled  the 
position  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the  several  commanders  of  that 
army  through  the  many  eventful  battles  and  campaigns  until  January 
12,  1865,  when  from  failing  health,  though  naturally  of  a  vigorous 
constitution,  he  was  relieved  from  this  position  and  assigned  to  duty 
on  the  staff  of  General  Grant,  as  acting  inspector  general  of  the  armies 
operating  against  Petersburg  and  Richmond.  He  was  ordered  to 
Savannah  and  other  places  in  the  South  on  a  tour  of  inspection,  but 
returned  in  season  to  participate  in  the  closing  campaign  of  the  war. 


and  had  the  honor  of  conducting  in  part  the  negotiations  for  the  sur- 
render of  General  Lee's  army. 

In  recognition  of  the  very  able  services  rendered  he  received  the 
following  promotion.s  in  the  regular  service  during  the  war:  Lieuten- 
ant colonel,  July  17,  1862:  brevet  brigadier  and  brevet  major  general, 
both  bearing  date  March  13,  1865.  His  last  special  service  was  upon 
the  commission  which  convened  in  Boston  in  Januar)',  1866,  to  inves- 
tigate the  charges  made  by  the  Prussian  government  in  relation  to 
the  enlistment  of  some  of  its  subjects  into  our  army.  His  last  assign- 
ment to  duty  was  on  the  staff  of  General  Meade,  as  assistant  adjutant 
general  of  the  Military  Division  of  the  Atlantic.  Soon  after,  indica- 
tions of  a  serious  disease  became  manifest  and  he  was  conveyed  to 
Boston  for  skillful  medical  treatment,  where  he  died  March  23,  1866, 
from  inflamation  of  the  brain,  after  an  illness  of  about  four  weeks. 

The  distinguished  merits  of  General  Williams  as  an  officer,  and 
his  unblemished  private  character  as  a  man,  are  already  parts  of  the 
warp  and  woof  of  our  nation's  history.  It  may  be  truly  said  of  him: 
"  A  braver  soldier  never  couched  lance, 
A  greater  heart  did  never  sway  in  court." 
Though  unflinching  in  the  discharge  of  his  official  duties — how- 
ever disagreeable  they  might  prove  to  others — in  his  private  charac- 
ter, when  the  cares  of  the  camp  were  laid  aside.  General  Williams  was 
one  of  the  most  lovable  of  men.  He  was  possessed  of  a  rare  charm  of 
manner,  a  delicate  and  discriminating  tact,  and  a  never  failing  court- 
esy that  drew  all  hearts  to  him,  and  made  him  as  beloved  as  he  was 
respected  and  admired.  There  is  probably  not  a  Union  soldier  alive 
to-day  to  whom  the  name  of  General  Seth  Williams  is  unfamiliar,  and 
certainly  there  is  not  one  of  his  intimates  whom  death  has  spared,  in 
whose  memory  there  is  not  a  dear  and  sacred  niche  for  the  noble 
spirit  who  virtually  laid  down  his  life  in  his  country's  service. 

G.  A.  R.  Posts.— Nineteen  Grand  Army  Posts  have  been  organized 
in  the  county  during  the  last  quarter  of  a  century.  Nearly  all  of  them 
are  in  a  fiourLshing  condition,  if  the  ravages  made  by  death  in  the 
ranks  of  the  gallant  defenders  of  our  country  are  taken  into  consid- 
eration.    The  Posts  are  mentioned  here  in  their  numerical  order. 

Heath  Post,  No.  6,  of  Gardiner,  dates  from  November  15,  1867. 
They  purchased  a  vacant  church  in  Gardiner  and  transformed  it  into 
one  of  the  finest  Post  buildings  in  the  county.  The  first  commander 
was  Captain  Eben  D.  Haley.  His  successors  have  been:  Gustavus 
Moore,  P.  H.  Cummings,  A.  B.Andrews,  Giles  O.  Bailey,  S.  W.Siphers, 
Levi  Goodwin,  M.  C.  Wadsworth,  John  S.  Towle,  Frank  B.  Williams, 
Edwin  A.  Libby,  William  Wiley,  A.  J.  Packard,  A.  J.  Hooker,  Charles 
O.  Wadsworth,  George  H.  Harrington,  Edwin  C.  Teague,  Edwin  E. 
Lewis,  James  Walker,  J.  R.  Peacock,  J.  W.  P.  Johnson  and  A.  W.  Mc- 


Seth  Williams  Post,  No.  IS,--"  was  organized  July  20,  1872,  in  the 
armory  of  the  Capital  Guards  in  Augusta,  with  ihe  following  named 
charter  members:  Selden  Connor,  Henry  Boyuton,  B.  B.  Murray,  jun., 
A.  L.  Smith,  S.  J.  Gallagher,  H.  M.  Pishon,  W.  B.  Lapham,  Charles  E. 
Nash,  George  E.  Nason,  F.  M.  Drew  and  John  D.  Myrick.  The  name 
it  adopted  was  in  honor  of  General  Seth  Williams,  of  the  United 
States  army.  During  the  early  life  of  the  Post  its  growth  was  quite 
slow,  caused  doubtless  by  the  unfortunate  ending  of  the  O.  O.  Howard 
Post,  which  had  previously  had  an  organization  here;  but  as  the  real 
principles  upon  which  the  order  rested  became  more  generally  under- 
stood the  increase  became  much  more  rapid,  and  at  the  present  time 
from  the  small  beginning  it  stands  among  the  largest  in  membership 
of  any  in  the  state.  John  D.  Myrick  was  the  first  commander,  and 
the  following  named  comrades  have  also  held  the  position  m  succes- 
sion: William  B.  Lapham,  Selden  Connor,  Charles  E.  Nash,  Samuel  J. 
Gallagher,  Arthur  L.  Brown,  R.  C.  Clement,  Henry  F.  Blanchard,  John 
E.  Fossett,  Samuel  W.  Lane,  Lorenzo  B.  Hill,  George  Doughty,  Wil- 
liam A.  Swan,  John  O.  Webster,  Henry  G.  Staples,  Edmund  McMurdie, 
Lewis  Selbing,  William  McDavid  and  Prentiss  M.  Fogler. 

W.  S.  Heath  Post,  No.  14,  of  Waterville,  was  organized  December 
29,  1874,  with  twenty-six  charter  members.  The  following  is  a  chron- 
ological list  of  the  commanders:  F.  E.  Heath,  I.  S.  Bangs,  Atwood 
Crosby,  G.  M.  Matthews,  Charles  Bridges,  A.  O.  Libby,  J.  G.  Stover, 
D.  P.  Stowell,  N.  S.  Emery,  George  W.  Reynolds,  S.  S.  Vose,  George 
A.  Wilson,  P.  S.  Heald  and  J.  L.  Merrick. 

John  B.  Hubbard  Post,  No.  20,  of  Hallowell,  organized  October  24, 
1877,  with  fourteen  charter  members,  was  named  in  honor  of  Captain 
Hubbard,  who  fell  at  Port  Hudson  while  serving  on  the  staff  of  Gen- 
eral Weitzel.  The  meetings  have  been  held  at  Fraternity  Hall,  Hallo- 
well,  which  was  fitted  up  expressly  for  its  use.  Its  present  member- 
ship is  fifty-three.  The  commanders  of  the  Post  have  been:  George 
S.  Fuller,  D.  E.  Shea,  Major  E.  Rowell,  J.  W.  Bussell,  C.  A.  Brown,  J. 
L.  Chamberlain,  D.  B.  Lowe,  W.  R.  Stackpole,  H.  O.  Hawes  and  J.  D. 

The  Albert  H.  Frost  Post.  No.  21,  named  after  a  private  who  was 
killed  at  Gettysburg,  was  organized  at  Winthrop  June  5,  1879,  and 
now  has  seventy-seven  members  living  mostly  in  the  towns  of  Win- 
throp and  Wayne.  Meetings  are  held  twice  each  month  in  the  village 
of  Winthrop.  L.  T.  Carlton,  the  first  commander,  has  been  succeeded 
by  Alexander  G.  H.  Wood,  Franklin  Wood,  Sewall  Pettingill,  E.  O. 
Kelley,  F.J.  Davis,  L.  K.  Litchfield,  Charles  E.  Wing,  George  R.  Smith 
and  Thomas  Dealy. 

The  North  Vassalboro  Post,  No.  33,  was  organized  with  eighteen 
charter  members,  and  named  in   honor  of  Richard  W.  Mullen.     The 

*Sketch  by  Major  P.  M.  Fogler. 


successive  commanders  have  been:  Nathan  Stanley,  Reuel  C.  Burgess, 
John  Withee,  George  H.  Ramsdell,  E.  C.  Coombs,  Isaac  Hussey  and 
R.  C.  Burgess.     This  Post  has  a  membership  of  forty-two. 

Hildreth  Post,  No.  56,  was  organized  at  South  Gardiner  May  19, 
1882,  with  sixteen  charter  members.  E.  E.  Lewis  was  first  com- 
mander, and  has  been  succeeded  by  J.  A.  Ripley,  J.  H.  Lowell,  C.  L. 
Austin  and  Joseph  Burgess.  With  less  than  one  hundred  dollars  in 
their  treasury,  the  Post  built  a  commodious  hall  in  1887,  that  cost  over 
$2,000.     The  present  membership  is  twenty. 

Billings  Post,  No.  88,  was  organized  October  9,  1883,  at  Clinton, 
with  nineteen  charter  members.  The  commanders  have  been:  Alpheus 
Rowell,  1883-5  and  1888;  James  Thurston,  1886:  Daniel  B.  Abbott, 
1887:  H.  F.  Waldron,  1889-91.  The  Post  musters  at  Clinton  village 
in  Centennial  Hall.     The  present  membership  is  twenty-two. 

Libby  Post,  No.  93,  was  instituted  at  Litchfield  in  1884,  with 
twenty-four  charter  members.  Captain  E.  D.  Percy  was  the  first  com- 
mander, and  has  been  succeeded  by  Alfred  T.  Jenkins,  Herbert  M. 
Starbird,  Joseph  S.  Hatch.  Amaziah  E.  Googins  and  A.  C.  True. 
Since  its  organization  sixteen  members  have  been  admitted  by  mus- 
ter and  two  by  transfer.  The  Post  has  lost  one  comrade  by  death, 
three  by  transfer,  and  two  have  been  dropped  from  the  roll.  There 
has  always  existed  a  spirit  of  fraternity  and  harmony  among  its 
worthy  members. 

Sergeant  Wyman  Post,  No.  97,  was  instituted  at  Oakland  in  Decem- 
ber, 1883,  with  twenty-five  charter  members.  J.  Wesley  Gilman  was 
commander  two  years,  and  was  followed  successively  by  J.  M.  Rock- 
wood,  W.  H.  Macartney,  Hiram  Wyman,  C.  W.  Shepherd,  C.  W. 
Heney,  D.  E.  Parsons  and  Abram  Bachelder.  Twenty  of  the  members 
are  incorporated  by  special  act  of  the  legislature  as  "  Trustees  of  Ser- 
geant Wyman  Post  Corporation,"  who  own  Memorial  Hall,  erected  by 
the  citizens  in  1870. 

James  P.  Jones,  No.  106,  was  organized  at  South  China  April 
23,  1884,  with  twenty-five  charter  members.  Charles  B.  Stuart  was  the 
commander  for  several  years,  succeeded  by  Samuel  Starrett,  Franklin 
Goodspeed,  Augustus  Webber,  Sylvanus  Haskell  and  Alvah  Austin. 
The  Post  met  in  the  A.O.  U.  W.  Hall  until  their  present  commodious 
hall  was  erected.  Their  building  is  complete  in  itself,  containing  a 
large  hall,  offices,  rooms  for  Sons  of  Veterans  and  a  Woman's  Relief 
Corps,  and  suitable  banquet  hall. 

Vming  Post,  No.  107,  of  Windsor,  was  organized  June  2,  1884,  and 
named  in  honor  of  Lieutenant  Marcellus  Vining.  The  first  commander 
was  H.  A.N.  Dutton,  who  was  succeeded  by  Francisco  Colburn,  George 
E.  Stickney,  G.  L.  Marson,  Cyrus  S.  Noyes  and  Luther  B.  Jennings. 

Amos  J.  Billings  Post,  No.  112,  is  located  at  China  village.  It  was 
■chartered  June  17,  1884,  with  twenty  members.     The  successive  com- 


manders  have  been:  Llewellyn  Libbey,  John  Motley,  B.  P.  Tilton,  J.. 
W.  Brown,  Henry  C.  Rice,  Robert  C.  Brann,  A.  B.  Fletcher  and  John 

Joseph  W.  Lincoln  Post,  No.  113,  of  Sidney,  was  mustered  May  24, 

1884.  with  eleven  charter  members.  The  commanders  have  been: 
Nathan  A.  Benson,  A.  M.  Sawtell,  Thomas  S.  Benson,  John  B.  Saw- 
tell,  Simon  C.  Hastings,  James  H.  Bean,  Silas  N.  Waite  and  Gorham 
K.  Hastings.  The  Post  meets  in  the  Grange  Hall,  in  the  building  of 
which  its  members  contributed  considerable  labor.  The  present  mem- 
bership is  twenty-six. 

G.  K.  Norris  Post,  No.  127,  was  organized  January  6,  1885,  with  fif- 
teen charter  members,  although  more  than  thirty  had  signed  the  ap- 
plication for  a  charter.  The  commanders  have  been:  Simon  Clough, 
Henry  O.  Pierce,  Horace  C.  Frost,  Edwin  A.  Richardson,  Sylvanus  R. 
Simpson,  Adelbert  C.  Sherman,  Athan  Little.  The  Post,  with  a  pres- 
ent membership  of  thirty-six,  occupies  a  hall  at  Monmouth  Center, 
elegantly  fitted  for  its  use  by  Comrade  Simon  Clough. 

R.  H.  Spear  Post,  No.  140,  was  organized  in  December,  1885,  at 
West  Gardiner.  Its  very  comfortable  hall  used  to  be  the  old  academy 
building,  and  stands  near  Spear's  Corner.  The  Post  has  a  member- 
ship of  eighteen  veterans,  of  whom  the  following  have  been  com- 
manders: John  A.  vSpear,  Leander  Spear,  Edwin  Small,  Hiram  Babb, 
Joseph  E.  Babb  and  George  W.  Pelton,  who  now  holds  that  position. 
The  Post  was  named  for  Sergeant  Richard  Henry  Spear. 

Cyrus  M.  Williams  Post,  No.  141,  was  organized  at  Mt.  Vernon 
May  27,  1885,  with  twenty-four  charter  members.  The  first  com- 
mander was  Alvin  Butler  and  his  successors  have  been:  John  Carson, 
F.  M.  Gilman,  Levi  W.  French  and  F.  C.  Foss.  This  Post  comprises 
the  towns  of  Mt.  Vernon,  Vienna  and  Fayette,  and  has  at  present 
about  thirty  members,  who  meet  each  month  in  Masonic  Hall. 

Daniel  Brooking  Post,  No.  142,  of  Randolph,  was  organized  June  18^ 

1885,  with  seventeen  charter  members,  and  now  numbers  forty-six, 
who  meet  at  G.  A.  R.  Hall,  over  Kelly's  store.  The  commanders  have 
been:  Robert  vS.  Watson,  George  W.  Marston,  Eben  Brooking,  Charles 
H.  Dunton,  A.  P.  Thompson  and  William  H.  Dudley.  C.  H.  Dunton 
is  adjutant.  This  Post  has  an  appropriation  from  the  town  at  the 
March  town  meetings  to  defray  the  expenses  of  Memorial  Dav,  and 
the  graves  of  veterans  of  Randolph  and  Pittston  receive  a  tribute  of 
flowers.  The  Post  decorates  126  graves  in  the  two  towns  yearly,, 
which  number  includes  the  soldiers  of  1776,  1812  and  1861. 

Monuments. — With  the  surrender  of  Lee's  army,  the  rebellion 
practically  closed.  The  events  which  intervened  between  this  and 
the  capture  of  Jefferson  Davis  were  but  the  dying  struggles  of  the 
confederacy.     The  return  of  the  boys  in  blue,  the  tattered  flags,  the 


glad  welcome,  the  tears  of  joy — these  for  the  poet's  pen,  not  the  his- 
torian's ! 

Old  Kennebec  had  borne  well  her  part  in  the  sanguinary  struggle, 
and  of  all  the  regiments  from  Maine,  none  returned  more  heavily 
loaded  with  honors  than  hers.  But,  alas !  there  were  tears  that  were 
not  of  joy.  All  along  the  line  of  march,  on  the  battle-field  and  in  the 
depths  of  the  surging  ocean,  were  scattered  the  heroes  who  welded 
with  their  blood  the  parting  bonds  of  the  Union.  To  their  memory, 
in  many  of  our  larger  towns,  monuments  have  been  erected  by  a 
grateful  people,  on  which  are  inscribed  the  names  of  these  honored 

Of  all  these  monuments,  perhaps  the  most  beautiful  is  the  memo- 
rial tablet  which  has  been  erected  in  Memorial  Hall,  at  Waterville,  to 
immortalize  the  alumni  of  Colby  University  who  dropped  their  books 
and  grasped  the  sabre  at  the  nation's  first  appeal.  Surmounting  this 
tablet  of  richly  veined  porphyry  is  a  well  executed  copy,  in  pure  Car- 
rara marble,  of  Thorwaldsen's  "  Lion  of  Lucerne."  This  beautiful 
stone  edifice  cost  $8,000  and  is  the  first  structure  of  its  kind  dedicated 
to  the  memory  of  the  soldiers  of  1861-5.  The  tablet  bears  151  names, 
of  which  101  were  commissioned  officers  and  23  were  privates. 

Next  to  this  in  point  of  beauty,  and  far  more  imposing,  is  the 
soldiers'  monument  of  Augusta.  Its  base  is  triangular.  The  three 
faces  are  suitably  inscribed.     The  southeast  side  records  that — 










A.  D.  1881. 

The  west  side  bears  the  names  of  the  following  officers:  Lieut. 
Col.  Seth  Williams  U.  S.  A.  and  Brevet  Maj.  Gen.  U.  S.  Vols.;  Lieut. 
Col.  Edwin  Burt;  Lieut.  Col.  Harry  M.  Stinson,  aid  to  Gen.  Howard; 
Capts.  Charles  K.  Hutchins,  Albert  H.  Packard,  James  M.  Williams; 
Chaplain  George  W.  Bartlett;  Lieuts.  Warren  Cox,  James  L.  Thomp- 
son, William  O.  Tibbetts,  William  Campbell;  Quartermasters  Ivory  J. 
Robinson,  David  S.  Stinson;  Sergts.  Niles  A.  Hanson,  James  M.  Has- 
kell, William  F.  Locke,  Daniel  B.  Morey,  Asa  C.  Rowe,  Alonzo  P. 
Stinson,  Albert  N.  Williams,  John  P.  Wells,  Orison  Woods;  Corps. 
Charles  S.  Avery,  Edward  S.  Baker,  Jason  R.  Bartlett,  William  H. 
Brock,  Daniel  Chad  wick,  George  L.  Fellows,  Daniel  W.  Hume,  George 
A.  Lovering,  George  S.  Mills,  Charles  R.  Powers,  Greenwood  C.  Pray, 
Charles  C.  Rideout,  Samuel  E.  Remick  and  William  E.  Smith. 

The  names  of  120  privates  are  also  inscribed:  George  Allen,  George 
W.  Andrews,  Homer  S.  Bean,  George  W.  Bemis,  William  H.  Berry, 


Isaac  D.  Billington,  James  Boyce.  John  S.  Brown,  Thomas  j.  Bragg, 
Byron  Branch,  George  F.  Burgess,  Francis  M.  Caswell,  Miles  O.  Chase, 
G.  E.  Chamberlain,  Theodore  Clark,  John  Code,  George  Cunningham, 
Rodger  Connelly,  Edward  H.  Austin,  Josiah  L,  Bennett,  Charles  F. 
Beal,  Eli  A.  Black,  Charles  F,  Bennett,  Darius  Brooks,  Bradford  vS. 
Bodge,  Calvin  H.  Burden,  John  E.  Britt,  Eugene  Gate,  Jo.seph  Bushea, 
Rowland  S.  Clark,  John  Curtis,  Henrv  A.  Chandler  James  Davis, 
Jesse  M,  Clark,  D,  Cunningham,  William  H,  DeWolf,  George  Dill, 
Benjamin  Douglass,  Danforth  Dunton,  Gustavus  A.  Farrington,  Ed- 
mund Fay,  Elisha  S.  Fargo,  Edward  Flood,  Samuel  H.  Gage,  Charles 
H.Gordon,  Artemus  K.  Gilley,  Rodney  Harriman,  Henry  W.  Hawes, 
Elijah  L.  Horn,  John  C.  Holbrook,  Cieorge  A.  Kimball,  Henry  G.  Kim- 
ball, Thomas  Lilly,  John  Leavitt,  Ira  B.  Lvon,  William  H.  Lowell, 
Howard  W.  Merrill,  James  W.  McGregor.  William  C.  Moore,  James 
W.  Miller,  William  N.  Murry,  Henry  Mullen,  John  B.  Parker,'  John 
O'Connor,  Frank  W.  Peaslee,  Alonzo  L.  Page,  Charles  E.  Philbrick, 
Fred  B.  Philbrick,  S.  H.  Prescott,  Charles  M,  Phillips,  Enoch  vSampson, 
John  Riley,  Greenlief  Smart,  George  H.  Smith,  Alonson  G.  Taylor,  Ed- 
ward A.  Stewart,  Alfred  Trask,  Warren  P.  Trask,  John  O.  Wentworth, 
Thomas  H.  Welch,  Stephen  Wing,  Atwell  M.  Wixon,  George  H,  Gor- 
don, William  A.  Hayward,  Leonard  J.  Grant,  Alonzo,  James  A. 
Henderson,  Virgil  G.  Lanelle,  John  "W.  Jones,  Samuel  Lishness,  Na- 
thaniel Lane,  Alfred  J.  Marston,  Ruel  W".  Littlefield,  AVilliam  G.  Mer- 
rill, William  E.  Marriner,  John  M.  Mosher,  Edward  :\Iiner,  Thomas 
Murphy,  Jeremiah  Murphy,  Eben  Packard,  William  Nason  jun., 
Franklin  A,  Perry,  Henry  E.  Patterson,  Noel  Byron  Phillips,  James 
Perkins,  Samuel  Remick,  Asa  Plummer,  John  N.  vScott,  Charles  W. 
Richards,  Joseph  H,  Spencer,  Charles  F.  Shaw,  Fred  A.  Tiffany, 
George  W.  Stone,  Aaron  C.  Varney,  Moses  B,  Tolman,  Alonzo  S. 
Weed,  Joshua  R.  Webber,  William  D.  Wills,  Joseph  Weaver  and  Wil- 
liam C.  Young. 

The  monum.ent  at  Waterville  bears  the  plain,  modest  inscriptions — 







The  Hallowell  monument  is  a  fine,  square  shaft  of  granite.  Its 
west  face  is  inscribed— 





The  other  faces  preserve  the  names  of  the  patriot  dead,  with  the 
company  and  regiment  in  which  each  served:  Capt.  John  B.  Hubbard, 
Capt.  George  O.  Getchell,  Capt.  George  A.  Nye,  Lieut.  Charles  M. 
Bursley,  Ensign  Walter  S.  Titcomb,  Sergt.  Henry  A.  Albee,  Sergt. 
George  L.  Chamberlain,  Charles  Bancroft,  Samuel  D.  Besse,  William 
H.  Booker,  Sumner  Bryant,  Joseph  Bushea,  William  H., 
Western  Burgess,  Joseph  D,  Carr,   Edwin  C.  Miner,   Charles  E.  Mor- 


rill,  Alonzo  D.  Pottle,  William  F.  Richards,  George  W,  Ricker,  Charles 

B,  Rogers,  John  W.  Rogers,  Sanford  Runnells,  Frank  B.  Runnells, 
William  F.  Sherman,  Emerv  N.  Smith,  Augustus  Smith,  Thomas 
Smith,  George  Whitcomb,  Robert  A.  Witherell,  Heman  B.  Carter, 
W^infield  S.  Dearborn.  Sewall  Douglass,  Hazen  H.  Emerson,  John  C. 
Edson,  Nathaniel  Ellery,  Sherburn  E.  George.  Charles  C.  Gilman, 
Edward  R.  Gould,  Edwin  Goodwin.  Thomas  Keenan,  John  Leavitt, 
William  K.  Libbey,  Edwin  McKenney,  and  William  Matthews. 

The  Gardiner  monument  is  of  Hallowell  granite  and  stands  within 
an  octagonal  enclosure  of  iron,  in  the  city  park.      Its  north  face  is  in 

scribed — 





IN  THE  WAR  OF  1861 



A,  D,  1875. 

The  other  faces  bear  these  71  names:  T.  A.  Pray,  J.  M.  Ring,  G.  F. 
Spear,  C.  H.  Tabor,  G.  W.  Tyler,  J.  W.  Taylor,  G.  R.  Parsons,  F.  W. 
Sawyer,  H.  B.  Stevens,  R.  S.  Starbird.  Denola  Whitman,  E.  M.  Reed, 
A.  O.  Wood.  G.  W.  Weeks,  W.  E.  Welch.  G.  E.  Webber,  N.  W.  Walker, 
A.  F.  Tinkham,  C.  A.  Whitney,  T.  B.  Whitnev,  James  Siphers,  Hiram 
Wakefield,  C.  W.  Richardson,  C.  C.  Card,  H.  W.  Dale,  G.  R.  Moore, 
D.  N.  Maxcy,  William  Jordon.  A.  M.  Jordon,  A.  L.  Meader,  C.  D. 
Meader,  G.  S.  Kimball,  j.  F.  Merrill,  H.  W.  Huntington,  Oscar  Hil- 
dreth,  J.  A.  Foye.  A.  A.  Mann,  G.  H.  Smith,  C.  D.  Smith,  W.  H.  Noyes, 

C.  H.  Potter,  J.  H.  Peacock,  W.  H.  Peacock,  Charles  Sprague,  James 
McNamara,  Thomas  McNamara,  E.  A.  Smith.  E.  W.  Ayer,  B.  A.  Babb, 
M.  G.  Babb,  G.  H.  Berry,  C.  N.  Brann,  C.  W.  Brann,  Daniel  Brann, 
G.  H.  Clough,  S.  S.  Bennett,  E.  T.  Chapman,  Calvin  Boston,  Westbrook 
Dean,  J.  G.  Card,  William  Brann.  E.  O.  Blair,  L.  G.  Brann,  F.  E.  Gow- 
ell,  H.  N.  Jarvis,  G.  E.  Donnell,  L.  C.  Hinkley,  A.  M.  C.  Heath, 
Thomas  Douglas,  W.  W.  Hutchinson,  and  Arrington  Brann. 

At  Oakland  a  Memorial  Hall,  valued  at  $10,000,  was  erected  by 
private  subscription,  and  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  the  fallen  sol- 
diers, by  the  Memorial  Association  of  that  town.  Subsequently,  by 
an  act  of  the  legislature,  tlie  property  was  conveyed  to  Sergeant  Wy- 
man  Post,  No.  97,  G.  A.  R. 

The  Winslow  monument  was  authorized  by  town  vote  in  1887. 
The  Lockwood  Company  donated  a  site  and  the  town  appropriated 
$1,000  for  the  stone.  It  was  furnished  by  I.  S.  Bangs,  of  Waterville, 
who  cut  the  statue  which  surmounts  it.  In  1892,  having  been  removed 
to  its  present  site,  it  was  dedicated  with  appropriate  ceremonies.  Its 
inscriptions  show  that  it  was  ''Erected  by  the  town  of  Winsloiv  in  mem- 
ory of  her  dead  soldiers,  1889." 


The  thirty-one  names  recorded  on  it  are:  Ashman  Abbott.  Edward 
Abbott,  Joseph  Brann,  George  H.  Bassett,  Eben  Brooks,  Charles  L. 
Crowell,  Benjamin  F.  Dunbar,  Capt.  Joseph  Eaton,  Andrew  W.  Fuller, 
Henry  W.  Getchell,  George  W.  Hodges,  Frederick  C.  Jackins,  A.  Lit- 
tlefield,  Asa  Pallard,  Charles  Pollard,  William  Pollard,  John  S.  Preble, 
William  T.  Preble,  John  Palmer.  Winthrop  Shirland,  Christopher  C. 
Sanborn,  Henry  Spaulding,  William  Taylor,  Howard  H.  Taylor,  Al- 
bert E.  Withee,  William  F.  Wood,  John  S.  Wilson,  D.  W.  Wilson,  H. 
C.  Webber,  George  L.  Webber,  and  Lieut.  Thomas  Green  Rice. 



Early  Trading.— The  Beginning  of  the  Lumber  Trade.— Kennebec  Log  Driving 
Company.— Steam  Towage  Company.— The  Fish  Supply.— Manufacturing.- 
Shipbuilding.— The  Ice  Business.— Captain  Eben  D.  Haley.— The  Granite 
Industry. — Governor  Joseph  R.  Bodwell. 

THE  law  of  compensation  is  never-failing  in  its  exact  adjustment 
of  natural  conditions  that,  at  first  sight,  are  apparently  anti- 
thetical. Thus,  while  the  early  settlers  of  Kennebec  county 
doubtless  complained  of  the  rigors  of  its  climate,  and  the  harsh,  un- 
promising aspect  of  the  landscape,  seamed  as  it  was  with  rock  and 
covered  with  trackless  forests,  the  great  law  of  compensation  was,  in 
the  course  of  time,  to  turn  these  seeming  disadvantages  into  sources 
of  wealth,  prosperity  and  happiness,  and  literally  to  make  "the  wilder- 
ness blossom  as  the  rose."  The  severe  winters  produced  the  ice  that 
was  afterward  destined  to  find  a  profitable  market  in  states  and  coun- 
tries far  removed ;  its  granite  ledges  were  to  furnish  inexhaustible 
material  for  the  purposes  of  art  and  architecture;  and  its  spreading 
forests  were  to  supply  the  timber  for  thousands  of  homes,  and  scores 
of  vessels,  whose  flags  were  to  be  seen  on  every  sea;  while  the  clear- 
ings thus  made  and  constantly  increasing  with  the  flight  of  years 
were  afterward  to  become  the  scenes  of  varied  agricultural  pursuits, 
noticed  in  the  following  chapter. 

The  first  small  beginning  of  the  vast  and  varied  commercial  rela- 
tions of  the  county  with  the  outer  world  were  laid  in  the  trade  in  furs, 
along  the  river,  with  members  of  the  Plymouth  colony,  soon  after  1629. 
The  first  settlers  and  the  Indians  purchased  the  neces.saries  of  life 
with  the  skins  of  the  otter,  beaver  and  moose.  James  Howard  was 
licensed  to  sell  tea  and  coffee  at  the  Fort  in  1763,  and  Samuel,  his 
brother,  sailed  a  sloop;  and  cord-wood,  skins,  furs,  staves,  shingles, 
salmon  and  alewives  were  taken  for  merchandise,  and  in  turn  ex- 
changed at  a  profit  for  goods  to  fill  the  store.  The  Indians  exchanged 
their  furs  with  the  white  man  for  powder,  shot  and  rum. 

The  first  industry  of  the  settlers  was  to  erect  saw  mills,  and  the 
lumber  business  was  one  of  profit.  As  the  lands  were  cleared  the 
product  of  the  mills  found  ready  sale,  being  sent  out  in  large  rafts  as 
^oats,  or  in  vessels;  while  the  many  tanneries,  of  which  every  town  of 


the  county  had  two  or  more,  made  market  for  the  hemlock  bark,  which 
was  also  an  article  of  export. 

.  The  first  period  of  the  lumber  business  began  with  the  operations 
of  the  pioneers,  wh'ose  chief  aim  seems  often  to  have  been  the  clear- 
ing of  the  land  and  the  destruction  of  the  forest.  Better  facilities  for 
manufacturing  and  marketing  the  product  checked  these  wasteful 
tendencies  and  large  revenues  were  derived  as  the  forests  disappeared. 
The  great  lumbering  interests  in  this  county  at  the  present  day  belong 
to  an  entirely  distinct  period  and  are  strictly  manufacturing  enter- 
prises, dealing  not  with  the  product  of  the  county,  but,  at  the  great 
mills  along  the  river,  fitting  for  the  markets  of  the  seaboard  the  prod- 
ucts of  the  vast  timber  lands  around  the  sources  of  the  Kennebec. 

On  March  27,  1835,  at  Sager's  Inn,  in  Gardiner,  was  organized  the 
Kennebec  Log  Driving  Company,  now  the  oldest  existing  transporta- 
tion company  in  the  county — simply  a  cooperative  association  of  lum- 
ber dealers  to  hire  their  logs  run  down  the  river  in  the  best  manner, 
the  actual  expense  to  be  paid  by  pro  rata  assessment.  The  estimated 
amount  of  lumber  in  the  logs  handled  during  the  year  1891  was 
140,846,000  feet,  which  cost  about  thirty-five  cents  per  thousand  feet 
for  driving.  The  company  owns  a  number  of  booms  and  dams.  D.  C. 
Palmer,  of  Gardiner,  has  held  the  office  of  clerk  since  1863,  his  prede- 
cessor, Daniel  Nutting,  having  filled  that  office  from  the  organization 
of  the  company.  From  twenty-five  to  one  hundred  men  are  employed 
by  the  company  during  the  busy  season. 

The  Steam  Towage  Company  was  organized  at  Gardiner,  May  21, 
1881,  by  twenty  gentlemen.  Abraham  Rich,  W.  H.  Ring  and  Celon 
L.  E.  B.  Gooden  have  been  the  presidents.  The  duties  of  secretary, 
treasurer  and  agent  were  performed  by  F.  B.  Dingley  till  1889,  and 
by  W.  H.  Ring  since  that  time.  The  company  owns  the  tugboats 
Cliarles  Laivrcucc  and  the  Stella. 

Prior  to  180(),  the  principal  products  of  the  county — in  addition  to 
those  of  lumber  and  fur — were  potash  and  pitch,  though  the  abundant 
supply  of  fish  in  the  inland  ponds,  as  well  as  in  the  Kennebec,  was  a 
reliable  food  supply  for  the  early  settlers,  and  ultimately  became  the 
basis  of  one  of  their  important  industries.  Sturgeon  were  so  plentiful 
before  the  white  man  came  that  the  Indians  had  named  the  vicinity 
of  Gardiner  "  Cobbosseecontee  " — the  place  of  many  sturgeon.  Ken- 
nebec salmon,  always  so  excellent,  and  once  so  plentiful,  have  now 
disappeared;  and  where  thousands  of  barrels  of  herring  were  seined, 
as  late  as  1825,  they  are  now  practically  extinct. 

The  various  manufacturing  enterprises  throughout  the  county  have 
been  so  generally  the  principal  interests  of  the  cities  and  the  little 
hamlets  in  which  they  are  found,  and  their  origin  is  so  closely 
related  to  the  settlement  or  growth  of  those  localities,  that  they  have 
been  regarded  and  treated  as  proper  branches  of  the  succeeding  town 


histories.  It  may,  however,  be  stated  here  that  the  leading  enter- 
prises in  1820  included  81  saw  mills  running  91  saws,  63  grist  mills 
with  107  run  of  stones,  43  tanneries,  42  carding  machines,  29  fulling 
mills,  15  spinning  machines,  3  distilleries,  and  2  cotton  and  woolen 
factories.  The  combined  capital  invested  in  these  industries  was 

The  manufacture  of  paper  is  an  industry  of  considerable  import- 
ance, the  location  of  the  pulp  and  paper  mills,  and  their  daily  capacity 
of  production  being  as  follows:  Augusta  Pulp  Company,  20,000  lbs.; 
Cushnoc  Fibre  Company,  Augusta,  20,000;  Hollingsworth  &  Whitney 
Company,  Gardiner,  26,000:  S.  D.  Warren  &  Co.,  Gardiner,  26,000: 
Richards  Paper  Company,  Gardiner,  16,000;  Richards  Paper  Com- 
pany, South  Gardiner,  20,000;  Kennebec  Fibre  Company,  Benton, 
16,000  lbs.  The  Hollingsworth  &  Whitney  Company  are  erecting  a 
very  large  plant  at  Winslow.  From  a  hint  given  by  Dr.  H.  H.  Hill 
to  the  old  paper  mill  men  at  Vassalboro  that,  as  wasps  made  paper  from 
wood,  so  might  man,  grew  experiments  in  that  direction  which  have 
led  to  the  present  large  manufacture  of  wood  pulp. 

Shipbuilding  was  once  a  great  industry  of  the  county.  Captain 
vSamuel  Grant  came  from  Berwick,  Me.,  to  Benton,  at  the  close  of  the 
revolution,  and  furnished  the  first  masts  for  the  frigate  Constitiition, 
then  building  at  Boston.  With  his  son,  Peter,  as  partner,  he  estab- 
lished, in  1792,  a  ship-yard  at  Bowman's  point.  Farmingdale,  and  built 
a  number  of  vessels.  Peter,  jun.,  and  his  brother,  Samuel  C,  succeeded 
to  the  business  at  the  death  of  their  father,  in  1836.  Peter,  jun., 
retired  from  the  firm  some  years  later,  and  Samuel  C.  continued  the 
business  until  his  death  about  1858,  when  his  son,  William  S.,  suc- 
ceeded him.  The  latter  built  his  last  vessel  in  1858.  Peter  Bradstreet 
then  became  the  owner  of  the  Grant  ship-yard,  and,  with  his  brother 
William,  built  several  vessels  there. 

A  once  very  conspicuous  name  in  the  annals  of  shipbuilding,  but 
which  has  now  vanished  from  the  county,  was  that  of  the  Agry  family. 
Thomas  Agry  removed  from  Dresden  to  Agry's  point,  in  Pittston,  in 
1774,  where  he  built  some  of  the  first  vessels  constructed  above  Bath. 
His  sons,  Thomas,  John  and  Divid,  also  entered  the  business,  and  in 
the  long  list  of  vessels  built  at  Gardiner,  Pittston  and  Hallowell, 
from  1784  to  1826,  their  names,  as  owners  and  masters,  appear  with 
surprising  frequency.  David's  name  ceases  to  be  seen  after  1806,  he 
having  died  at  sea  shortly  after. 

About  1811  Major  AVilliam  Livermore,  of  Augusta,  built  in  front 
of  the  Old  South  Church,  Hallowell,  the  sloop  Primrose,  afterward 
altered  to  a  schooner.  Near  this  spot.  Page  &  Getchell  built  the 
brig  Neptune's  Barge  about  1817.  She  sailed  from  New  Orleans  to 
England  with  a  cargo  of  cotton.     Captain  Joseph  Atkins,  another  well- 


known  Hallowell  shipbuilder,  constructed  vessels  for  Isaac  Smith; 
Simeon  Norris  built  the  schooner  William  //>«rj/ about  1816;  and  Rob- 
inson &  Page,  about  1823,  built  the  ship  Marshal  Ney,  3.1  Pierce's  yard, 
on  the  Chelsea  side  of  the  river. 

About  1811  Judge  Dummer  built  the  ship  Halloi^'cll  on  the  east 
side  of  the  river.  She  was  captured  by  the  British,  and  her  bones  now 
lie  at  Bermuda.  From  1816  to  1825,  Captain  Isaac  Smith  built  a  num- 
ber of  coasters  at  Loudon  hill,  launching  his  vessels  directly  off  the 
shore;  and  during  the  same  period  Abner  Lowell,  at  his  wharf  in  the 
lower  end  of  Hallowell  (then  called  Joppa),  built  a  number  of  vessels 
for  the  West  India  trade.  Prior  to  this.  Captain  Shubael  West  built 
two  sloops,  just  south  of  Lowell's  yard;  and  anterior  even  to  that  date. 
Captain  Larson  Butler  built,  in  this  neighborhood,  a  sloop  for  the 
Boston  trade. 

In  1845,  Mason  Damon  built  a  schooner  at  a  point  north  of  the 
Grant  yard,  in  Farraingdale;  and  south  of  Grant's  yard,  Elbridge  G. 
Pierce  built  several  whalers  and  other  vessels  for  New  Bedford  parties. 
At  the  Grant  yard,  between  1851  and  1858,  clipper  barks  and  ships 
were  built  for  the  Boston  and  Galveston  line;  and  also  two  large  ves- 
sels, of  1,090  and  1,190  tons,  for  the  Calcutta  trade.  This  yard,  the 
largest  in  the  county,  ran  two  blacksmith  shops  for  ship-fitting,  and 
employed  from  twenty-five  to  seventy-five  men  the  year  round. 

Ice. — A  staple  export  of  the  county  is  ice,  the  purity  of  the  Kennebec 
being  such  that  its  ice  has  long  been  established  as  the  standard  of 
quality.  Years  before  the  opening  of  this  now  vast  industry  in  Maine 
the  consumption  of  ice  was  small.  The  first  authoritative  account  of 
ice  being  shipped  from  the  county  as  an  article  of  merchandise  was 
previous  to  1826,  when  the  brig  Orion,  of  Gardiner,  was  loaded  with 
floating  ice  during  the  spring,  and  sailed  for  Baltimore  at  the  opening 
of  navigation.  This  cargo  was  sold  for  $700.  It  is  said  that  several 
cargoes  were  thus  put  on  the  market  years  previous  to  any  attempt 
at  housing  for  summer  shipment.  The  Tudors,  of  Boston,  who  had 
had  exclusive  control  of  the  ice  trade  with  the  British  West  Indies, 
built  about  that  year,  on  Gardiner's  wharf,  Gardiner,  the  first  ice 
house  on  the  Kennebec. 

In  1826  Rufus  K.  Page,  in  company  with  a  Mr.  Getchell,  of  Hallo- 
well, erected,  in  Gardiner,  a  building  of  1,500  tons  capacity  on  Trott's 
point,  now  occupied  by  Captain  Eben  D.  Haley.  This  house  they 
filled  during  the  winter,  and  in  the  following  summer  loaded  it  in 
vessels,  on  account  of  the  Tudors.  The  speculation  proved  unprofit- 
able, however,  and  the  business  was  abandoned.  In  1831  the  Tudors 
acquired  the  building  and  filled  it.  At  the  same  time  they  erected  a 
house  on  Long  wharf,  in  Gardiner,  which  was  then  just  where  the 
bridge  now  stands,  and  in  it  some  3,000  tons  of  ice  were  stored.  No 
other  attempt  at  housing  is  recorded  until  1848-9,  when  the  Tudors 


again  began  operations  on  the  river;  and  W.  A.  Lawrence,  Dr.  C.  \V. 
Wliitmore  and  Cliarles  A.  Wiiite,  of  Gardiner,  cut  and  housed  2,000 
tons  at  South  Gardiner,  and  2,000  tons  at  Pittston.  Another  house 
was  also  filled  at  Pittston,  and  one  each  at  Bowman's  point.  Farming- 
dale,  and  Hallowell.  In  the  aggregate  some  10.,000  tons  were  cut  here 
that  year.  The  following  summer  it  was  loaded,  fifty  tons  being  consid- 
ered a  good  day's  work.  The  largest  cargo  was  three  hundred  tons. 
Consignments  were  made  to  New  Bedford,  New  York,  Washington 
and  Baltimore,  $2.50  per  ton  being  received,  but  the  cost  of  labor  and 
slow  progress  in  handling  made  the  profits  small. 

In  1860  the  industry  entered  upon  a  new  era  and  grew  into  a  more 
permanent  form.  James  L.  Cheesman,  a  New  York  retailer,  began 
stacking  at  Farmingdale,  and  the  following  year  entered  upon  exten- 
sive operations.  Until  1865  he  flourished  wonderfully.  In  1868,  how- 
ever, reverses  compelled  him  to  sell  out  the  Farmingdale  plant,  and 
later,  in  1872,  the  Pittston  plant,  to  the  Knickerbocker  Ice  Company 
of  Philadelphia,  which  now  exceeds  all  other  companies  here  in  the 
quantity  of  ice  handled  yearly. 

In  1867  the  Kennebec  Land  &  Lumber  Company  built  the  first 
modern  ice  house  at  Pittston;  and  in  1872  such  solid  corporations  as 
the  Great  Falls  and  Independent  Ice  Companies,  of  Washington,  D. 
C,  located  in  Pittston.  Under  the  firm  name  of  Haynes  &  De  Witt, 
J.  Manchester  Haynes,  of  Augusta — who  has  been  prominently  identi- 
fied with  the  ice  industry  since  1871— together  with  Henry  A.  De 
Witt  and  the  late  Ira  D.  Sturges,  controlled  a  large  business  on  the 
river;  and  in  1889,  with  others,  formed  a  corporation  known  as  the 
Haynes  &  De  Witt  Ice  Company.  Improvements  in  tools  and  ma- 
chinery had  taken  place  gradually  since  the  early  beginning  of  ice 
harvesting,  and  in  1890  Messrs.  Shepard  and  Ballard,  of  the  Knicker- 
bocker Ice  Company,  added  to  the  list  an  important  invention — an 
automatic  vessel-loading  machine— which  is  now  in  general  use. 

The  following  list,  corrected  to  date,  shows  the  location  and  storage 
capacity  of  the  ice  houses  on  the  Kennebec  and  within  the  county. 
Those  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  are:  Coney  &  White,  8,000  tons, 
Augusta;  Kennebec  Ice  Company  (two  houses), 25,000  tons,  and  Knick- 
erbocker Ice  Company,  12,000  tons,  Hallowell;  A.  Rich  Ice  Company, 
70,000  tons,  and  Knickerbocker  Ice  Company,  30,000  tons.  Farming- 
dale;  Morse  &  Haley,  5,000  tons.  Great  Falls  Ice  Company,  30,000,  and 
Eben  D.  Haley,  32,000,  Gardiner.  The  houses  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river  are:  Old  Orchard  (Knickerbocker),  20  000  tons,  and  Chelsea 
houses,  30,000  tons,  Chelsea;  Randolph  (Knickerbocker),  25.000  tons, 
Haynes  &  Lawrence,  13,000,  and  Centennial  Ice  Company,  15,000,  Ran- 
dolph; Morse  &  Haley,  20,000  tons,  Smithtown  (Knickerbocker),  65,- 
000,  Great  Falls  Ice  Company,  30,000,  Independent  Ice  Company,  60,- 
•000,  Haynes  &  De  Witt  Ice  Company,  12,000,  Consumers' Ice  Company 


of  New  York,  35,000,  and  Clark  &  Chaplin  Ice  Company  of  Portland' 
40,000,  Pittston.  The  total  capacity  of  the  above  houses  is  567,000 

In  the  development  of  this  great  industry  here,  as  well  as  on  the 
Hudson  river  and  Booth  bay,  Captain  Eben  D.  Haley,  of  Gardiner,  has 
borne  a  prominent  part.  His  grandfather,  Moses  Haley,  was  a  house 
carpenter  of  Bath,  where  he  raised  a  family  of  four  boys  and  two  girls. 
Woodbridge,  his  oldest  child,  born  in  1806,  grew  up  in  the  same  occu- 
pation as  his  father,  and  married  in  1833,  Jane  Button,  of  Gray,  Me., 
■where,  in  1833,  their  first  child,  Eben  D.,  was  born.  The  next  year 
they  came  to  Pittston,  where  four  more  children  were  born  to  them: 
Joseph  M.,  who  died  when  four  years  old;  George  T.;  Thomas  H.,  now 
in  the  dry  goods  business  in  Chicago;  and  William  D. 

Shipbuilding  was  then  very  active  on  the  Kennebec,  at  which 
Woodbridge  Haley  worked  for  several  years,  mostly  on  large  vessels 
for  Boston  parties,  some  of  them  at  Sheepscott  Bridge.  He  died  at 
his  home  in  Pittston  in  1863.  where  his  wife  still  survives  him  in  what 
is  now  Randolph.  Here  Eben  D.  passed  his  boyhood  days  to  the  age 
of  fourteen,  when  he  left  home  for  school,  first  at  Bath,  and  then  at 
Gardiner  Lyceum.  When  sixteen  years  old  his  school  days  were  ex- 
changed for  the  beginning  of  a  career  of  business  and  adventure  that 
is  still  at  its  maximum  activity.  He  first  entered  the  dry  goods  store 
of  Field  &  Reed  at  Bath,  leaving  there  at  the  end  of  one  year  for  a 
clerkship  in  the  store  of  N.  K.  Chadwick  in  Gardiner,  from  whence  he 
went  to  Rockland  and  worked  in  Wilson  &  Case's  store  till  he  was 
twenty-one.  Resolved  to  see  something  of  the  great  West,  he  went 
to  Keokuk,  Iowa,  where,  in  1857,  the  firm  of  Ricker  &  Haley  engaged 
in  the  produce  and  commission  business,  which  extended  over  a  wide 
extent  of  country. 

Mr.  Haley  happened  to  be  in  Memphis  when  Fort  Sumter  was  fired 
on,  from  whence  he  hastened  to  St.  Louis  to  meet  his  partner,  arriving 
there  the  night  of  the  riot.  They  immediately  dissolved  partnership, 
settled  their  business,  and  Mr.  Haley  came  home.  The  day  after  the 
battle  of  Bull  Run  he  went  to  Augusta  and  tendered  his  services  to 
his  country.  In  conjunction  with  John  B.  Hubbard,  son  of  ex-Gov- 
ernor Hubbard,  he  was  active  in  raising  the  1st  Maine  Battery  of 
light  artillery,  which  was  mustered  into  service  in  December,  with 
Edward  W.  Thompson  captain,  John  B.  Hubbard  1st  lieutenant,  and 
Eben  D.  Haley  2d  lieutenant,  with  151  men,  five  officers  and  six  pieces 
of  artillery.  The  first  active  work  of  the  battery  was  under  General 
Butler  at  New  Orleans,  where  they  did  patrol  service  from  Alarch  till 
September,  1862.  The  1st  Maine  then  joined  General  Weitzel's  brig- 
ade, and  was  in  several  sharp  fights,  one  of  which  was  an  attack  on 
the  gunboat  Cotton,  where,  by  the  bursting  of  a  shell.  Lieutenant 
Haley  was  severely  injured.     The  battery  was  made  very  efficient, 


and  at  the  siege  of  Fort  Hudson  it  had  occasion  to  show  its  metal.  It 
was  the  first  to  open  fire  on  the  right  of  the  line,  Maj'  27,  1863.  Lieu- 
tenant Haley  was  in  command,  and  held  his  advanced  position  during 
the  siege  with  heavy  losses  of  men  and  horses.  The  battery  was  next 
at  Donaldsonville,  where  the  fire  became  so  hot  that  Lieutenant  Haley 
had  at  one  time  but  one  man  left  out  of  thirteen,  and  himself  helped  to 
load  and  fire  the  guns.  For  this  heroic  conduct  he  was  complimented 
by  General  Weitzel,  also  for  difficult  services  rendered  at  the  fight  of 
May  27. 

The  battery  went  on  the  second  Red  River  expedition,  but  Lieu- 
tenant Haley  was  not  with  it  again  till  after  it  had  been  ordered  to 
the  Shenandoah,  where  he  was  promoted  to  its  captaincy.  Here  he 
was  in  the  famous  Cedar  Creek  fight,  October  19,  1864,  in  which  the 
confederates  were  victors  in  the  morning,  and  the  Union  forces,  after 
being  rallied  by  General  Sheridan,  were  victors  in  the  afternoon.  Cap- 
tain Haley  was  in  command  of  his  battery  from  shortly  after  three  in 
the  morning  till  about  six,  when  he  received  a  bullet  in  his  left  thigh 
that  he  carries  yet.  After  lying  on  the  field  till  three  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon,  he  was  taken  to  a  room  in  a  house  in  the  corner  of  which 
Colonel,  afterward  President,  Hayes  was  lying  on  a  wood  box,  suffer-' 
ing  from  a  wound.  During  the  grand  review  in  Shenandoah  valley 
General  Hancock  complimented  the  1st  Maine  on  its  fine  appearance 
and  splendid  records.  When  General  Sheridan  was  in  Maine  he  said 
to  Governor  Cony  at  Augusta,  in  the  presence  of  General  Chamberlin, 
that  he  remembered  with  pride  the  services  of  the  1st  Maine  Battery 
under  its  gallant  commander.  Captain  Haley. 

In  September,  1865,  two  months  after  being  mustered  out  of  the 
service,  Captain  Haley  formed  a  partnership  with  Alonzo  P.  Parsons 
and  bought  the  dry  goods  business  of  N.  K.  Chadwick  in  Gardiner — 
the  same  store  he  had  entered  as  a  clerk  in  1852.  In  1870  he  took  the 
business  alone,  and  in  1878  he  sold  it  to  his  brother,  George  T.  Haley. 
The  same  year,  in  company  with  Peter  Grant  and  Daniel  Glidden,  he 
put  up  on  Stevens'  wharf  2,500  tons  of  ice — his  first  move  in  the  busi- 
ness that  has  since  taken  his  entire  attention.  In  1873  he  put  up  ice 
with  Johnson  Brothers  and  Captain  John  Landerkin  at  South  Gardiner. 
In  1876  he  bought  his  partners'  interest  and  joined  with  the  Great 
Falls  Ice  Company,  of  Washington,  he  owning  a  half  interest.  He 
also  located  for  them  their  houses  at  Green's  ledges,  two  miles  from 
Gardiner.  For  some  years  he  had  attended  to  the  local  business  on 
the  Kennebec  of  the  Independent  Ice  Company  of  Washington.  In 
1879  John  Van  Raiswick,  president  of  the  Great  Falls  Company,  J.  H. 
Johnson  of  Washington,  C.  B.  Church,  and  the  Independent  Ice  Com- 
pany, joined  with  Captain  Haley  and  formed  the  Maine  Ice  Company. 
The  growing  necessity  for  a  water  shipment,  where  vessels  could  load 
from  the  ice  houses  at  any  time  of  the  year,  demanded  immediate  at- 


tention.  Captain  Haley  had  long  foreseen  this  want,  and  to  meet  it 
had  matured  a  design  which  he  carried  at  once  to  a  triumphant  com- 

It  was  no  less  a  plan  than  to  cut  off  an  arm  of  the  sea  with  a  dam, 
and  then  compel  the  salt  water  to  leave  the  cove  and  return  to  the  sea. 
By  act  of  the  legislature  of  1879  permission  was  given  to  build  a  dam 
across  Campbell's  cove  in  Booth  Bay  harbor.  To  make  this  separat- 
ing wall  impervious  to  water,  he  built  two  complete  dams  of  timber 
cribs  filled  with  stone,  one  sloping  toward  the  ocean,  the  other  toward 
the  cove.  The  faces  of  each  were  made  of  spruce  plank  fitted  water 
tight,  with  their  ends  driven  to  the  i-ock  bottom.  When  this  was 
done  these  dams  presented  two  parallel  partition  walls  of  plank  eleven 
feet  apart,  and  from  ten  to  thirty  feet  high,  according  to  the  depth  of 
water.  Into  this  sort  of  water  tight  compartment  gravel  was  dumped 
till  the  water  was  all  forced  out,  making  a  perfect  road  bed,  for  the 
use  of  which  the  town  has  paid  §200  each  year  for  ten  years.  We  have 
now  arrived  at  the  point  where  Captain  Haley's  genius  beguiled  the 
law  of  gravitation  into  the  pleasing  task  of  compelling  the  salt  water 
in  the  cove  to  return  to  its  old  home. 

Near  the  point  of  low  tide  he  had  put  a  spout  twenty-eight  inches 
square  through  both  dams  and  the  road  way,  with  an  elbow  on  the 
cove  side,  can-ying  that  end  to  the  bottom  of  the  cove  pond.  By  the 
mere  device  of  opening  a  gate  in  the  spout  at  low  tide  the  water  from 
the  pond  sought  its  level  on  the  sea  side  of  the  dam,  and  it  could  enter 
the  pipe  only  at  its  opening  at  the  bottom  of  the  deepest  water.  The 
result  surprised  the  captain  himself,  for  in  fifty-four  days  the  pipe  was 
discharging  only  fresh  water,  with  which  the  streams  from  the  land 
had  entirely  replaced  the  ocean  brine.  For  original  conception  and 
effectual  accomplishment  of  a  work  of  such  intrinsic  value,  hitherto 
unattempted.  Captain  Haley  has  exhibited  the  same  kind  of  masterful 
ability  by  which  Captain  Eads,  in  the  construction  of  the.  wonderful 
jetties  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  river,  removed  a  constant  inter- 
ruption to  navigation.  Ice  was  cut  in  Campbell's  cove  in  the  winter 
of  1881-2  and  every  winter  since,  the  quality  being  next  to  river  ice. 
In  1886  Captain  Haley  and  the  Independent  Ice  Company  became  the 
exclusive  owners  of  the  Maine  Ice  Company.  In  1885  he  sold  his  half 
interest  in  the  South  Gardiner  ice  houses  to  the  Great  Falls  Company 
and  erected  new  ones  there,  known  as  the  Haley  houses,  of  which  he 
is  sole  owner.  He  has  been  for  years  extending  the  area  of  the  ice 
trade.  In  1883  he  established  a  retail  trade  in  Richmond,  Va.,  still 
very  prosperous.  In  1892  Morse  &  Co.,  of  New  York,  joined  him  in 
the  purchase  of  large  interests  in  the  retail  ice  trade  of  New  York 
city  and  of  storage  capacity  on  the  Hudson  river,  and  in  the  erection 
of  more  .storage  room  in  Pittston,  so  that  they  are  now  able  to  supply 
any  shortage  of  ice  in  any  of  the  great  ice  markets. 


Captain  Haley  has  always  been  an  active  republican  in  politics,  go. 
ing  twice  as  a  delegate  to  presidential  conventions.  He  is  one  of  the 
directors  of  the  Gardiner  National  Bank  and  of  the  Kennebec  Steam 
Towage  Company.  In  1870  he  married  Sophie  J.,  daughter  of  Daniel 
Johnson,  of  South  Gardiner.  The  names  of  their  four  children  are: 
Marion  W.,  Ethel  A.,  Eben  R.  and  John  H.  This  family  group  make 
an  unusually  happy  home,  the  hospitalities  of  which  are  enjoyed  by 
a  large  circle  of  friends. 

Granite. — Just  when  or  how  the  utilization  of  the  granite  ledges  in 
the  county  was  begun  cannot  be  definitely  ascertained,  for  it  is  a  sin- 
gular fact  that  there  is  no  industry  of  any  importance  that  has  re- 
ceived so  little  attention  from  historical  and  statistical  experts  as  the 
granite  industry.  It  is  quite  certain,  however,  that  it  was  not  until 
the  beginning  of  the  present  century  that  an  attempt  was  made  to 
quarry  the  mineral  that  was  afterward  destined  to  figure  so  promi- 
ently  in  the  industrial  resources  of  the  county.  When,  in  1797,  the 
Kennebec  bridge  was  built,  stones  split  from  boulders  were  used  for 
the  piers  and  abutments;  and  when,  in  1801.  Captain  William  Robin- 
son, of  Augusta,  erected  his  house,  he  procured  the  underpinning  in 
Massachusetts  at  great  expense. 

The  first  recorded  attempt  to  quarry  granite  in  the  county  was  that 
made  in  1808  at  the  Rowell  ledge,  in  Augusta.  The  venture  met  with 
indifferent  success.  Some  of  the  top  strata  were  broken  off  with 
"  rising  wedges  "  driven  under  the  edge  of  the  sheet  until  it  parted; 
but  this  was  a  slow  and  laborious  process.  The  first  successful  effort 
to  open  and  work  a  ledge  in  the  township  was  made  by  Jonathan 
Matthews,  on  the  Thwing  ledge,  in  1825,  when  he  laid  the  cellar  walls 
of  Arch  Row;  but  he  also  worked  with  rising  wedges.  Powder  was 
not  used  for  blasting  upon  ledges  until  the  erection  of  the  state  house 
was  begun,  in  1829,  and  then,  at  first,  with  but  one  hole,  by  which 
large  irregular  masses  were  blown  out.  Afterward  two  holes,  a  short 
distance  apart,  were  charged,  and  fired  simultaneously,  thus  opening 
long,  straight  seams,  sometimes  to  the  depth  of  six  feet. 

Since  the  introduction  of  dynamite  as  a  partitive  agent  in  quarry- 
ing, better  results  have  been  obtained,  with  less  exposure  of  the  men 
to  accident.  With  this  exception,  however,  but  little  improvement 
has  been  made  upon  the  early  methods  of  obtaining  granite.  Ma- 
chinery has  been  tried  in  all  forms,  but,  aside  from  the  steam  drill,  a 
valuable  time  and  labor  saving  invention,  nothing  has  been  found 
that  will  adequately  perform  the  work  now  done  by  hand.  It  is  true 
that,  used  as  a  lathe,  machinery  works  somewhat  satisfactorily  in  turn- 
ing out  columns,  but  even  this  does  not  finish  the  surface,  except 
when  it  is  to  be  polished.  In  this  connection  it  may  be  noted  that  the 
first  derrick  used  at  any  stone  works  m  Augusta  was  erected  east  of 
Church  hill  at  a  quarry  then  operated  by  William  B.  Pierce. 


In  1836  three  granite  companies  were  incorporated  at  Augusta. 
One,  called  the  Augusta  &  New  York  Granite  Company,  worked  the 
Hamlen  ledge,  situated  about  two  miles  from  the  river  b}'  way  of 
Western  avenue;  another,  named  the  Augusta  &  Philadelphia  Granite 
Company,  owned  the  Ballard  ledge,  a  mile  and  a  half  from  Kennebec 
bridge  by  way  of  Northern  avenue,  and  of  which  the  Rowell  and 
Thwing  ledges  are  a  continuation;  and  the  third,  known  as  the  Au- 
gusta Blue  Ledge  Company,  purchased  Hall's  ledge,  two  and  a  half 
miles  from  the  bridge,  over  the  North  Belfast  road. 

In  1871  the  Hallowell  Granite  Company  was  organized,  with  its 
chief  stockholder,  Governor  Joseph  Bodwell,  as  president.  The  busi- 
ness gradually  assumed  huge  proportions,  and  in  1885  the  Hallowell 
Granite  Works,  another  stock  company,  was  formed,  its  executive 
being  also  Governor  Bodwell.  It  is  not  known  how  long  before  these 
periods  granite  was  taken  from  the  ledges  owned  by  the  companies 
mentioned,  but  it  is  said  that  the  New  Orleans  custom  house  was 
built,  seventy  years  ago,  of  stone  quarried  from  the  ledge  now  oper- 
ated by  the  Hallowell  Granite  Works.  The  extensive  quarries  of  the 
latter  company  are  two  and  a  half  miles  from  the  city  of  Hallowell, 
near  the  Manchester  line.  The  granite  is  white,  free  working  and 
soft,  and  can  be  almost  as  delicately  chiselled  as  marble.  It  is  said 
to  be  the  finest  grade  of  white  granite  in  the  state.  Aside  from  their 
extensive  building  operations,  the  Hallowell  Granite  Works  is  the 
largest  producer  of  monumental,  statuary  and  ornamental  work  in 
Maine.  In  almost  every  city  of  the  country  can  be  seen  the  handi- 
work of  its  artisans.  The  New  York  state  capitol  at  Albany;  Equit- 
able Life  Insurance  Building,  New  York;  the  monument  at  Plymouth, 
Mass.;  soldiers'  monument,  Boston  Common;  memorial  monuments  at 
Getty.sburg;  and  the  Augusta  soldiers'  monument,  etc.,  are  from  their 
works.  The  works  employ,  in  its  numerous  departments,  from  300  to 
400  men;  the  annual  shipment  of  stone  averages  100,000  cubic  feet, 
and  the  gross  product  annually  averages  over  $250,000. 

Intellectually,  the  granite  cutters  of  Kennebec  county  are  on  a 
level  with  any  other  class  of  mechanics.  Instead  of  the  saloon,  they 
patronize  the  public  library,  and  they  take  an  active  interest  in  state 
and  national  affairs.  The  foreign  element  among  the  granite  cutters 
consists  chiefly  of  vScotch,  Italian  and  English.  Ninety  per  cent,  of 
the  other  labor  is  American  born. 

In  1884  Joseph  Archie  opened  a  granite  quarry  near  the  Hallowell 
works,  but  just  over  the  Manchester  line.  He  took  a  partner  for  a 
brief  period,  the  firm  being  known  as  the  Central  Granite  Company. 
In  1891  Mr.  Archie  bought  out  his  partner,  and  since  that  time  has 
successfully  continued  the  business  alone,  employing  forty  men.  The 
stone  produced  is  very  fine,  and  is  mostly  used  for  statuary  and  monu- 
mental work.     The  granite  is  furnished   to  dealers  on  order,  and  is 


shipped  to  St.  Louis,  Omaha  and  many  other  distant  points.  The  ex- 
tension of  the  .state  house  at  Augusta,  in  1891-2,  was  built  of  stone  from 
this  quarry. 

Ample  supplies  of  granite  for  building  purposes  occur  in  many  of 
the  towns.  Ledges  have  been  worked  in  Fayette  and  Wayne  for 
■other  purpo-ses.  S.  B.  Norris  operated  a  quarry  in  Wayne  twenty 
years  ago,  which  had  been  formerly  worked  for  building  material, 
and  from  which  J.  Frank  Gorden  is  now  obtaining  monument  ma- 

The  name  of  Governor  Joseph  Robinson  Bod  well  is  indissolubly 
linked  with  the  history  of  Kennebec  county  as  that  of  the  "  granite 
man  " — the  man  who  had  larger  individual  interests  in  granite  quar- 
ries than  any  other  man  in  the  L'''nited  States,  and  whose  foresight, 
energy  and  shrewd  business  instinct  were  the  means  of  building  up 
the  granite  business  at  Hallowell.  He  was  born  at  Methuen,  Mass., 
in  1818 — the  tenth  in  a  family  of  eleven  children.  He  was  a  lineal 
descendant  of  Henry  Bodwell,  his  first  known  American  ancestor, 
who  bore  a  brave  and  con.spicuous  part  in  the  war  with  the  Indian 
chief,  King  Philip.  The  governor's  father,  Joseph  Bodwell,  was 
among  the  most  worthy  and  respected  citizens  in  his  community,  and 
his  mother,  Mary  (How)  Bodwell,  came  of  the  best  New  England 
stock,  and  was  a  superior  and  cultured  woman.  His  father  having, 
through  unavoidable  misfortune,  lost  his  property,  Joseph  R.,  to  re- 
lieve the  family  of  some  of  its  burden,  was  sent  when  eight  years  old 
to  live  with  his  brother-in-law,  Patrick  Fleming.  When  he  had  at- 
tained his  sixteenth  year  his  brother-in-law  died  and  Joseph  R.  was  to 
a  certain  degree  thrown  upon  his  own  resources. 

The  school  of  manual  labor  (farming)  in  which  he  had  pas.sed  the 
formative  years  of  his  life  was  precisely  the  one  best  calculated  to 
qualify  him  for  the  peculiar  successes  in  business  he  afterward 
achieved.  In  1835  he  began  to  learn  the  shoemaker's  trade,  and  for 
three  years  followed  this  calling,  attending  school  during  the  day  and 
spending  the  evening  and  early  morning  in  the  making  of  shoes.  In 
1838  he  purchased  jointly  with  his  father  a  farm  in  West  Methuen, 
and  aided  in  its  cultivation  until  the  death  of  the  elder  Bodwell,  in 

In  October  of  this  year  he  married  his  first  wife,  Eunice  Fox,  of 
Dracut,  Mass.  She  died  December  14,  1857,  leaving  one  daughter, 
Persis  Mary,  born  August  26,  1849.  On  July  25,  1859,  Governor  Bod- 
well married  Hannah  C,  sister  of  Eunice,  the  fruit  of  this  union  being 
Joseph  Fox  Bodwell,  born  July  11,  1862. 

While  cultivating  his  farm  in  West  Methuen,  Governor  Bodwell 
took  the  first  steps  in  that  special  career  in  which  he  afterward  be- 
came so  proficient,  for  while  hauling  granite  from  Pelham,  N.  H.,  to 
Lawrence,  Mass.,  while  the   Lawrence   mills  were  in  course  of  con 


struction,  he  became  acquainted  with  all  the  processes  involved  in- 
quarrying  and  working  granite.  In  1852,  in  company  with  Hon. 
Moses  Webster,  Governor  Bodwell  came  to  Maine  and  began  to  work 
the  granite  quarries  on  Fox  island,  at  the  mouth  of  Penobscot  bay. 
He  began  operations  with  one  yoke  of  oxen,  which  he  drove  himself 
and  shod  with  his  own  hands.  From  this  humble  beginning  sprang: 
results  of  such  magnitude  that  a  company  was  formed,  known  as  the 
Bodwell  Granite  Company,  with  the  hardy  pioneer  as  its  president. 
In  1866  Governor  Bodwell  removed  his  family  from  Methuen  to  Hal- 
lowell,  and  from  that  period  to  his  death,  December  15, 1887,  the  main 
record  of  his  business  career  was  the  history  of  the  Hallowell  Granite 

He  never  altogether  lost  his  early  love  for  agricultural  pursuits, 
and  soon  after  he  came  to  Hallowell  he  purchased  in  the  neighbor- 
hood two  farms,  which  he  successfully  cultivated,  one  of  them,  indeed, 
becoming  one  of  the  best  stock  farms  in  New  England.  He  also  car- 
ried on  lumber  operations  at  the  head  of  the  Kennebec,  was  president 
of  the  Bodwell  Water  Power  Company,  at  Oldtown,  Me.,  and  was  a 
stockholder  in  several  important  railroad  enterprises. 

Governor  Bodwell  was  not  a  politician  in  the  ordinary  meaning  of 
the  term,  but  he  always  took  a  deep  interest  in  public  affairs.  He 
never  sought  official  distinction,  but  office  was  sometimes  thrust  upon 
him.  Twice  he  represented  his  adopted  city  in  the  lower  branch  of 
the  legislature;  for  two  terms  he  served  as  mayor  of  Hallowell,  and 
after  twice  refusing  the  governorship  of  Maine  he  was  prevailed  upon 
in  1886  to  take  the  nomination,  and  was  elected  by  a  very  large  ma- 
jority. His  administration,  which  he  did  not  live  to  complete,  was 
honest  and  efficient. 

Governor  Bodwell,  however,  was  best  known  as  a  business  man  of 
great  force  of  character,  unquestioned  integrity  and  untiring  industry^ 
He  was  possessed  of  fine  social  gifts,  and  endeared  himself  to  all  wha 
had  dealings  with  him.  He  was  a  philanthropist  in  the  true  sense  of 
the  word.  His  heart  went  out  toward  his  fellow-men,  and  melted  at 
the  sight  of  suffering.  He  was  always  giving  something  for  the 
needy,  his  Christianity  knew  no  creed,  he  was  every  inch  a  man.  The 
highest  tribute  to  his  worth  was  the  grief  at  his  death,  of  the  men 
who  knew  him  best — the  men  in  his  employ,  who  so  often  profited  by 
his  kindness,  and  whose  fortunes  he  was  always  ready  and  often  eager 
to  advance. 


Bv  Samuel  L.  Bo.\rdm.\x. 

Pre-historic  Agriculture. — Primitive  Farming. — Natural  Advantages.— Soil. — 
General  Farm  Methods.— Historic  Agriculture.— Early  Leaders.— Associa- 
tions.—Farm  Machinery.— Agricultural  Schools.— Cattle  Breeding.— Short- 
horns. — Heref  ords.  —Jerseys.  —Dairying.  —Sheep.  —Horses.  —Stock  Farms. 
—Driving  Associations.— Race  Tracks.— Trotters. — Orchards.— Retrospect. 

THE  agricultural  hi,story  of  the  county  of  Kennebec  is  one  of  inci- 
dent, importance  and  influence.  Of  incident,  because  of  that 
romance  which  attaches  to  the  occupation  of  a  new  country  by 
sturdy  pioneers  who  hew  out  farms  and  build  homes  in  the  primitive 
wilderness;  importance,  when  viewed  in  the  light  of  modern  achieve- 
ments and  the  position  of  its  agriculture  to  day  in  one  of  the  best  ag- 
ricultural states  in  the  Union;  and  influence,  when  is  taken  into  ac- 
count the  part  which  the  historic  agriculture  of  Kennebec  has  had  in 
the  larger  history  of  the  agricultural  development  and  progress  of  the 

There  has  been  a  pre-historic  agriculture  in  the  county  as  there  has 
been  a  pre-historic  age  in  htiman  achievement  of  all  kinds — a  time 
before  events  of  marked  importance  had  been  established,  and  before 
anything  of  interest  or  significance  had  taken  place  in  its  agricultural 
development.  This  was  when  farms  were  being  made  from  the  for- 
ests, the  first  rude  homes  established  in  the  openings  upon  the  hills, 
when  wild  animals  roamed  in  their  native  woods,  when  fish  of  the 
lakes  and  rivers  contributed  to  support,  when  saw  mills  were  being 
established,  and  the  occupations  of  the  people  had  reference  mainly 
to  the  support  of  existence.  It  was  a  time  of  self-dependence:  when 
the  farmers  were  obliged  to  look  to  their  farms  and  the  labor  of  their 
hands  for  everything  that  contributed  to  material  welfare.  The  land 
supplied  everything,  and  the  farm  was  a  small  empire.  Little  was 
had  by  the  rural  people  that  the  farm  did  not  furnish;  oxen  for  work, 
cows  for  the  dairy,  sheep  for  clothing.  The  first  settlers  needed  a 
hardy  race  of  cattle  to  endure  the  rugged  winters:  used  to  work,  for 
the  labor  of  clearing  land  was  heavy;  and  that  would  also  give  a  fair 
amount  of  milk.     The  maple  furnished  molasses  and  sugar.     Butter 


and  cheese  for  the  family  were  produced  at  the  farm.  The  wool 
which  the  sheep  furnished  for  clothing  was  supplemented  by  the  tow 
and  linen  from  the  cultivated  flax — and  the  domestic  manufacture  of 
cloth  was  an  art  understood  in  every  farm  Beef,  pork,  lambs, 
and  hens  were  kept  as  the  standard  supplies  of  the  family  for  the  long, 
cold  winters. 

As  the  farms  became  more  improved  the  orchard  formed  a  part 
of  all  the  hill  farms  and  its  fruit  contributed  to  the  luxury  of  living: 
while  the  cider  mill  was  soon  established  in  every  neighborhood. 
The  large,  framed  house,  of  which  there  are  many  fine  examples  yet 
standing,  .superseded  the  log  dwelling,  and  the  domestic  life  of  the 
early  farmers,  although  books  were  few  and  there  were  no  news- 
papers, was  full  of  a  quiet  contentment,  a  high  self-independence, 
little  idleness  and  a  large  amount  of  dornestic  thrift. 

As  the  years  sped  on  changes  came.  Carding  mills  and  power 
looms  took  the  place  of  hand  carding  and  home  weaving.  More  sup- 
plies were  purchased  for  the  farms  as  the  market  became  better  fur- 
nished. Improved  tools  and  implements  made  finer  and  more  pro- 
ductive culture  possible.  Farm  stock  was  improved.  The  conven- 
iences and  even  luxuries  of  living  reached  out  to  all  farm  homes  of 
any  pretension.  The  mowing  machine  upon  the  farm,  the  sewing 
machine  and  organ  in  the  house,  the  diffusion  of  special  intelligence 
for  farmers  through  the  agricultural  press,  wrought  a  complete  revo- 
lution. Roads  were  improved;  the  impetus  of  visiting  and  receiving 
visits  from  distant  points  had  its  influence  upon  the  farm  life.  Edu- 
cation was  esteemed  a  thing  of  chief  importance.  The  culture  of  the 
farm,  the  embellishment  of  the  farm  home,  the  higher  social  position 
of  the  farmer's  family,  marked  a  new  era.  Old  things  had  passed 
away;  all  things  had  become  new.  This  picture  of  the  transitions  of 
the  agricultural  life  from  the  earliest  period  of  settlement  to  the  pres- 
ent, is  a  mere  outline,  the  shadings  and  details  of  which  must  be  filled 
in  as  the  more  historic  structure  is  completed. 

Too  far  from  the  sea  to  have  its  vegetation  retarded  by  the  saline 
winds  and  fogs  of  an  ocean  atmosphere,  and  sufficiently  distant  from 
the  mountain  ranges  to  prevent  suffering  from  their  cold  summits, 
this  county,  most  favorably  situated  in  an  agricultural  point  of  view, 
is  one  of  the  best  watered  sections  of  Maine.  Its  beautiful  and  diver- 
sified water  surfaces  assist  in  furnishing  moisture  to  the  soil  and 
purity  to  the  atmosphere,  while  they  contribute  in  no  small  degree  to 
the  wealth  of  the  county  by  adding  to  the  charm  and  beauty  of  the 
landscape — the  latter  a  consideration  of  no  small  weight  with  those 
who  are  attached  to  the  country  and  have  a  love  for  the  beauties  of 

The'soils  of  the  county  present  a  considerable  diversity  of  char- 
acteristics.    In  the  main  they  may  be  regarded  as  of  granitic  origin, 


Strong  rather  than  deep,  productive,  retentive  of  fertilizing  elements, 
in  many  sections  ledgy,  in  some  very  rocky,  in  a  few  light  or  porous. 
The  county  as  a  whole  is  a  rich  grazing  section,  excellent  for  the  pro- 
duction of  grass,  the  hill  farms  among  the  best  orchard  lands  in  the 
state,  the  lands  in  the  river  valleys  and  in  the  lower  portions  between 
the  hills  and  ridges,  splendid  for  cultivation. 

The  towns  of  Rome,  Vienna,  Fayette  and  Mt.  Vernon  are  broken, 
their  strong,  rocky  soils  comprising  excellent  grazing  lands.  In 
Winslow  the  lands  near  the  Kennebec  and  Sebasticook  are  of  fine, 
deep,  rich,  productive  loam.  Eastward,  part  of  the  town  is  ledgy. 
Wayne,  West  Gardiner  and  Litchfield  have  tracts  of  light  plains,  the 
former  having  hundreds  of  acres  of  wind-shifted  surface.  There  are, 
however,  some  fine  farms,  and  agricirlture  is  constantly  improving. 
Clinton,  Benton,  Albion,  Windsor  and  Pittston  are  excellent  grazing 
towns.  China  and  Vassalboro,  east  of  the  Kennebec,  and  vSidney, 
Manchester,  Winthrop,  Readfield  and  Monmouth,  west  of  the  Kenne- 
bec, are  without  question  the  garden  towns  of  the  county.  The 
county  has  less  waste,  unproductive  and  unimproved  land  than  any 
other  section  of  equal  extent  in  the  state.  Upon  almost  every  farm 
of  the  usual  extent  of  150  to  200  acres  there  is  much  diversity  of  soil. 
Orcharding  has  reached  a  high  degree  of  perfection  and  is  conducted 
on  a  good  business  system.  The  pastures  are  unstirpassed  in  Maine; 
herbage  is  choice,  abundant  and  nutritious,  and  cool  springs  and  pure 
brooks  conduce  to  the  healthfulness  of  farm  animals.  The  county  is 
abundantly  wooded  with  large  tracts  of  old  forest  growth,  while  in 
localities  where  the  original  growth  has  long  since  been  cut  off,  young 
trees  have  taken  their  place  and  have  become  the  most  valuable  land 
in  the  county.  Nearly  every  farm  has  its  quota  of  wood  land,  trees 
crown  many  of  our  highest  hills,  fringe  the  river  banks  and  clothe 
the  rough  and  waste  places  of  the  farm,  affording  a  beautiful  object 
in  the  landscape,  furnishing  .shelter  and  protection  from  cold  winds 
to  stock,  growing  crops  and  homesteads,  adding  wealth  to  the  county, 
materially  lessening  the  rigors  of  winter  and  contributing  to  the  uni- 
formity and  healthfulness  of  the  climate. 

While  in  general  the  agricultural  methods  of  the  county  may  be 
regarded  as  a  mixed  sy.stem  of  husbandry,  they  are  less  so  at  the 
present  time  than  formerly.  In  the  earlier  days  each  farmer  raised 
some  of  all  the  farm  crops  and  kept  all  kinds  of  stock,  as  each  made  it 
a  point  to  be  independent  of  every  other.  Now  the  tendency  is 
toward  the  more  perfect  growing  of  crops  best  adapted  fur  particular 
locations,  or  the  raising  of  certain  special  lines  of  stock.  Farmers  who 
have  large  orchards,  or  make  dairying  a  specialty,  or  having  a  good 
grass  farm  sell  hay  and  purchase  commercial  fertilizers,  or  breed  a 
particular  kind  of  cattle,  or  fine  colts  of  a  fashionable  family— give 
special  effort  and  attention  to  these  branches.     The  orchard  farmer 


lets  another  make  his  butter,  and  the  dairyman  purchases  his  apples 
and  often  his  hay  of  his  neighbor.  In  many  locations  raising  "  truck 
crops"  for  our  growing  cities  is  becoming  a  specialty,  changing  the 
character  of  much  of  the  farming.  A  farmer  obtains  more  ready  cash 
now  for  a  few  acres  of  early  potatoes  put  into  our  manufacturing 
towns  on  the  first  of  July  than  he  obtained  twenty  years  ago  from  the 
marketed  crops  of  his  entire  farm.  Thus  the  manufacturing  towns 
and  cities  have  done  much  to  develop  the  present  farm  methods  of 
the  county  and  bring  about  those  specialties  in  farming  which  have 
everywhere  and  always  been  the  source  of  the  highest  profits  and 
most  successful  conditions. 

In  no  section  of  Maine,  and  in  but  few  portions  of  the  Eastern 
states,  has  agriculture  reached  a  higher  general  condition  than  in 
Kennebec  county.  The  farm  houses  are  commodious,  often  large, 
frequently  elegant;  while  the  barns  are  well  and  properly  built,  in 
many  cases  clapboarded  and  painted.  The  best  and  most  approved 
implements  and  machines  are  employed;  in  every  town  are  model 
farms  of  the  highest  rank,  while  neatness  about  the  farm  houses,  the 
presence  of  flowers,  shade  trees  and  cultural  beadty  characterize  the 
rural  districts.  There  is  a  larger  proportion  of  thoroughbred  and 
Jiigh  grade  stock  on  our  farms  than  in  any  other  county  in  Maine, 
while  in  the  best  bred  horses  Kennebec  county  leads  all  New  Eng- 

Historic  agriculture  in  Maine  had  its  commencement  in  the  county 
of  Kennebec.  The  records  of  all  first  things  pertaining  to  its  im- 
proved agriculture,  the  importation  of  thoroughbred  stock,  improve- 
ment of  seeds  and  fruits,  organization  of  agricultural  societies,  diffu- 
sion of  information  by  means  of  books  and  journals,  invention  and 
manufacture  of  improved  farm  tools  and  implements,  plans  for  the 
industrial  and  agricultural  education  of  the  people — all  had  their 
origin  in  this  county.  The  early  farmers  of  Kennebec — themselves 
from  the  best  families  of  the  Old  Colony — were  men  of  intelligence, 
anxious  for  improvement.  The  soil  and  natural  advantages  of  the 
county  were  of  the  best,  and  the  settlers  took  up  their  farms  that  they 
might  make  homes  for  themselves.  They  came  into  the  new  terri- 
tory of  the  District  of  Maine  for  this  purpose;  they  came  to  stay; 
hence  whatever  promised  development  of  agriculture  was  eagerly 
sought.  But  in  agriculture  as  in  everything  else  it  was  the  few  lead- 
ers who,  carrying  forward  plans  for  improvement,  stimulated  others 
to  higher  endeavors  and  organized  forces  for  the  development  of  the 
county's  resources. 

Early  Leadek.s. — Foremost  among  those  to  whom  the  agriculture 
of  Kennebec  county  owes  so  much  for  its  early  improvement  were 
Benjamin  Vaughan,  M.D.,  LL.D.;  his  brother,  Charles  Vaughan;  Dr. 
.  Ezekiel  Holmes,  Sanford  Howard,  and  the  brothers  Samuel  and  Eli- 


jah  Wood.  Doctor  Vaughan  was  born  in  England  April  30,  1751, 
studied  at  Cambridge  and  received  his  medical  degree  at  Edinburgh. 
During  the  American  revolution  he  was  a  member  of  parliament,  but 
on  account  of  his  friendship  for  the  American  colonies  he  left  his 
■country  and  resided  in  France.  In  1796  he  settled  in  Hallowell  upon 
a  family  property  derived  from  his  maternal  grandfather,  Benjamin 
Hallowell.  His  brother,  Charles  Vaughan,  followed  him  to  America 
in  a  few  years  and  also  settled  upon  the  same  tract  of  land,  which  ex- 
tended along  the  river  one  mile  and  westward  to  Cobbosseecontee 
■lake — a  distance  of  five  miles.  This  land  they  improved  and  kept  in 
a  high  state  of  cultivation,  employing  a  large  number  of  workmen 
upon  it  throughout  the  year.  They  had  extensive  gardens,  estab- 
lished nurseries,  planted  orchards,  imported  stock,  seeds,  plants,  cut- 
tings and  implements  from  England,  and  carried  on  model  farming 
on  a  large  scale.  They  built  miles  of  faced  and  bank  wall  upon  their 
farms,  laid  out  and  built  roads  for  the  public  use,  and  while  they  sold 
trees  and  plants  from  their  nurseries,  often  to  the  value  of  a  thousand 
dollars  in  a  single  year,  they  also  freely  gave  to  all  who  were  unable 
to  buy;  sent  stock,  plants  and  seeds  to  leading  farmers  in  the  several 
new  towns  for  them  to  propagate  or  test,  and  carried  on  correspond- 
-ence  with  prominent  farmers.  The  apple  was  not  then  so  highly 
esteemed  for  fruit  as  it  is  now,  but  cider  was  made  in  large  quanti- 
ties. The  Vaughans  built  the  largest  and  most  perfect  cider  mill  and 
press  in  New  England,  employing  a  skilled  mechanic  from  England 
to  set  up  the  machinery.  In  their  gardens  and  orchards  were  apples, 
pears,  peaches,  cherries,  and  many  kinds  of  nut-bearing  trees.  Doctor 
Vaughan  passed  much  of  his  time  in  studies  and  investigations,  while 
his  brother  Charles  had  the  more  immediate  care  of  their  large  farms, 
which,  later,  were  managed  by  Colonel  William  O.  Vaughan,  the  doc- 
tor's eldest  son.  Doctor  Vaughan  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
members  of  the  Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Agriculture,  es- 
tablished in  1792— the  second  society  of  its  kind  formed  in  the  United 
States.  He  wrote  extensively  and  learnedly  upon  all  agricultural  sub- 
jects, many  of  his  treatises  being  published  in  the  transactions  of  this 
society,  usually  with  the  signature,  "  A  Kennebec  Farmer." 

Charles  Vaughan  was  born  in  London  June  30,  1759.  He  was  one 
of  the  original  corporators  and  for  several  years  a  trustee  of  the 
Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Agriculture.  He  was  more 
practical,  .so  to  speak,  than  his  distinguished  brother,  taking  the 
immediate  care  of  their  large  estates  and  the  carrying  out  of  their 
experiments  and  farming  operations.  These  were  very  extensive, 
were  performed  at  great  cost  of  care  and  money,  and  had  for  their 
object  the  improvement  of  the  agriculture  of  the  state  as  much  as 
they  did  the  business  of  their  owners.  No  breed  of  stock  or  variety 
of  fruit,  vegetable  or  seed  was  disseminated  until   it   had    been  care- 


fully  tested  and  found  to  be  valuable  and  well  adapted  to  this  country. 
Benjamin  Vaughan  died  in  Hallowell  December  8,  1885,  and  Charles, 
on  May  15,  1839. 

Succeeding  the  Vaughans,  the  name  of  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes,  of 
Winthrop,  must  ever  occupy  a  high  position.  He  was  born  in  Kings- 
ton,,  in  1801,  graduated  from  Brown  University  in  1821,  and 
from  the  Maine  Medical  School  in  1824.  His  health  being  inadequate 
to  the  hard  service  of  a  country  physician's  life,  he  became  a  teacher 
for  the  next  five  years  in  the  Gardiner  Lyceum.  In  1828  he  edited  for 
a  single  year  the  Neiv  England  Farmers  and  Mechanics  Journal.  He 
was  professor  of  natural  science  in  Waterville  College  from  1838  to 
1837.  From  its  establishment,  in  1833,  Doctor  Holmes  ably  edited  ilie 
Maine  Fanner  until  his  death — a  period  of  thirty-two  years.  Before 
1840  he  advocated  the  establishment  of  a  board  of  agriculture,  which 
was  finally  done  in  1852,  he  being  its  first  .secretary  for  three  years. 
A  State  Agricultural  Society  was  also  incorporated  by  the  legislature 
in  1855,  largely  through  the  efforts  of  Doctor  Holmes,  who  drafted  its 
constitution  and  was  its  secretary  until  his  death.  In  1838  he  made  a 
survey  of  Aroostook  county  for  the  state  board  of  internal  improve- 
ment; and  in  1861-2  was  chief  and  naturalist  of  the  scientific  survey 
of  Maine,  authorized  by  the  legislature.  These  leading  dates  in  the 
active  and  useful  life  of  Doctor  Holmes  give  but  a  very  imperfect  idea 
of  the  great  work  he  accomplished  for  the  agriculture  of  Maine — the 
influence  of  which  is  still  potent  and  fruitful.  As  editor  of  the  Maine 
Farmer  for  more  than  thirty  years,  the  work  of  Doctor  Holmes  was  such 
that  had  he  done  nothing  more  for  Maine  agriculture  his  memory  would 
forever  be  held  in  grateful  remembrance.  Doctor  Holmes  was  the 
person  in  Maine  to  introduce  Shorthorns  into  the  state:  the  first 
Southdown  and  Cotswold  sheep,  and  the  first  of  the  Jersey  breed  of 
cattle.  The  last  public  act  of  his  life  was  that  of  securing  from  the 
legislature  in  February,  1865 — but  a  week  before  his  death — an  ac 
which  established  the  State  College  of  Agriculture  and  the  Mechanic 
Arts.  The  Holmes'  Cabinet  of  Natural  History  in  that  college  but 
inadequately  expresses  the  debt  of  gratitude  which  it  owes  to  its  illus- 
trious benefactor. 

Samuel  and  Elijah  Wood,  sons  of  Henry  Wood,  of  Middleboro, 
Mass.,  were  among  the  first  settlers  of  Winthrop— vSamuel  settling  in 
1784,  and  Elijah  a  few  years  afterward.  They  were  among  the  founders 
and  incorporators  of  the  Winthrop  Agricultural  Society — Samuel  being 
elected  its  first  president.  Fie  was  among  the  first  contributors  to  the 
Maine  Farmer,  and  his  articles — always  practical,  suggestive  and  use- 
ful— were  continued  for  many  years.  When  he  first  came  to  Win- 
throp Elijah  Wood  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  nails,  but  afterward 
was  largely  and  profitably  engaged  in  farming.  He  was  "chairman 
and  principal  agent  "  of  a  committee  chosen  in  1831-2  by  the  Win- 

A(^.RICULTURE    AND    LIVE    STOCK.  193 

throp  Agricultural  Society  to  petition  the  legislature  for  funds  in  car- 
rying on  its  work.  He  established  himself  in  Augusta  during  that 
winter  and  entered  upon  the  work  of  his  mission  among  the  legisla- 
tors with  a  zeal  becoming  the  importance  of  the  end  sought.  The  re- 
sult was  the  passage  of  an  act,  one  provision  of  which  was  "the 
payment  by  the  treasurer  of  state  to  the  treasurer  of  any  agricultural 
or  horticultural  society,  whenever  the  treasurer  shall  apply  for  the 
same,  a  sum  equal  to  that  which  said  society  may  have  raised  and 
actually  received  by  subscription  or  otherwise  within  the  next  preced- 
ing year" — which,  with  slight  modification,  is  the  substance  of  the 
present  statute  under  which  all  the  agricultural  societies  in  Maine  are 
beneficiaries  of  the  state. 

Sanford  Howard  came  to  Hallowell  as  superintendent  of  the 
Vaughan  farms  in  1830.  He  was  born  in  Easton,  Mass.,  in  1805,  and, 
having  been  acquainted  in  Massachusetts  with  Colonel  Samuel  Jaques 
and  the  Hon.  John  Welles — two  of  the  most  noted  breeders  of  their 
times — he  brought  with  him  several  individuals  of  the  Shorthorn  breed 
of  cattle  from  their  herds.  Having  seen,  in  Massachusetts,  the  benefits 
of  agricultural  societies  to  a  farming  community,  Mr.  Howard  became 
anxious  that  Kennebec  county  should  enjoy  like  advantages;  and  he 
at  once  joined  efforts  with  other  progressive  farmers  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society,  and  after  removing  from 
the  county  in  1837  had  an  honorable  and  useful  career  until  his  death, 
in  1871.  For  the  good  he  exerted  upon  the  agriculture  of  Kennebec 
county  by  his  residence  and  work  here  for  a  period  of  seven  years,  he 
will  ever  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  noble  worthies  in  our  earlier  agri- 
cultural period. 

Dr.  Sylvester  Gardiner  has  not  been  mentioned  before  because  his 
distinguished  efforts  in  the  settlement  and  development  of  the  Ken- 
nebec valley  embraced  other  interests  than  that  of  agriculture,  which 
in  a  new  country  must  always  be  given  attention,  like  the  building  of 
mills  and  bridges,  the  making  of  roads  and  the  establishment  of 
trading  houses.  He  was  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Kennebec  Pur- 
chase, and  was  largely  instrumental  in  shaping  its  policy  and  promot- 
ing its  prosperity.  Obtaining  thus  large  tracts  of  land  in  Gardiner, 
Pittston,  Winslow,  Pownalborough  and  other  places,  he  built  houses, 
cleared  farms,  erected  dams  and  mills,  introduced  settlers  and  often  ad- 
vanced them  means  for  stocking  their  farms  and  becoming  established. 
In  these  ways  he  greatly  aided  the  early  farmers  and  general  agri- 
culture of  the  county,  and  deserves  to  be  regarded  as  one  of  its  most 
eminent  benefactors. 

Other  prominent  names  are  connected  with  the  early  agricultural 
annals  of  the  county.  One  of  the  most  distinguished  is  that  of  Henry 
Dearborn,  who  was  born  in  North  Hampton,  N.  H.,  February  23, 1751, 


and  died  at  Roxbury,  Mass.,  June  6,  1829.  General  Dearborn  was  a 
representative  to  the  Third  and  Fourth  congresses  in  1801-1808,  major 
general  of  Maine  in  1795,  and  secretary  of  war  under  President  Jef- 
ferson, 1801-1809.  He  had  extensive  farms  in  Monmouth,  where  he 
lived  between  1784  and  1797,  and  was  deeply  interested  in  the  im- 
provement of  agriculture.  After  he  removed  to  Roxbury,  Mass.,  in 
1824,  he  continued  to  make  annual  visits  to  his  farm  in  this  county  as 
long  as  health  permitted.  R.  H.  Greene,  of  Winslow;  Jesse  Robin- 
son, of  Waterville;  Payne  Wingate,  of  Hallowell;  Robert  Page,  of 
Readfield;  Rev.  W.  A.  P.  Dillingham,  of  Sidney;  Nathan  Foster,  of 
Gardiner;  Joseph  A.  Metcalf,  of  Monmouth,  and  Steward  Foster,  Ne- 
hemia  Pierce,  Peleg  Benson,  David  Foster,  Samuel  Benjamin,  Colum- 
bus Fairbanks,  Samuel  P.  Benson  and  John  May,  of  Winthrop,  are 
names  that  deserve  honorable  mention  in  the  agricultural  annals  of 
Kennebec  county  for  their  eminent  services  in  the  earlier  years  of  its 

Associations.— One  of  the  first  agencies  for  carrying  on  the  work 
of  agricultural  improvement  which  the  educated  and  progressive 
farmers  of  this  county  made  use  of,  was  that  of  association  and  organi- 
zation. The  few  leading  minds  who  were  foremost  in  this  work  de- 
sired to  extend  it,  that  the  benefits  resulting  from  investigation,  study 
and  experiments  might  be  shared  by  others.  To  accomplish  this  it 
was  necessary  to  organize  and  cooperate.  The  Pennsylvania  Society 
for  Promoting  Agriculture  was  the  first  agricultural  society  estab- 
lished in  the  United  States;  while  the  first  in  New  England  and  the 
second  in  all  North  America,  was  the  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society, 
established  through  the  efforts  of  the  Messrs.  Vaughan  and  other  pro- 
gressive farmers  in  1787,  five  years  previous  to  the  incorporation  of 
the  Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Agriculture.  The  objects 
of  this  society  were  "  mutual  improvement  in  agricultural  knowledge, 
and  mutual  aid,  by  the  importation  of  trees,  seeds,  tools,  books,  etc." 
It  was  incorporated  in  1807,  and  although  it  held  no  exhibitions,  it  had 
frequent  meetings  for  the  reading  of  papers  contributed  by  members, 
and  for  consultation  and  discussion.  This  society  subsequently  dis- 
banded, as  on  February  21,  1818,  the  Maine  Agricultural  Society  was 
incorporated.  In  1820  and  1821  the  society  held  cattle  shows  at  Hal- 
lowell—the  former  the  first  cattle  show  ever  held  in  the  county  or 
state.  This  society  must  also  have  disbanded,  as  on  February  28, 1829, 
the  Winthrop  Agricultural  Society  was  incorporated,  which  was  reor- 
ganized so  as  to  embrace  the  whole  county,  April  23, 1832,  from  which 
the  present  Kennebec  County  Agricultural  Society  dates  its  legal 'ex- 

These  early  societies  at  once  put  themselves  into  correspondence 
with  similar  organizations  in  other  states,  offered  prizes  for  crops,  as- 
signed "  tasks  "  to  its  members,  and  in  a  variety  of  ways  worked  "  to 


improve  the  art  of  husbandry  and  to  elevate  the  calling  of  the  hus- 
bandman." Some  idea  of  what  was  accomplished  may  be  obtained  by 
a  few  extracts  from  their  records  and  votes:  In  1818 — "  that  the  trus- 
tees inquire  into  the  utility  of  Hotchkins'  threshing;  machine  and  pur- 
chase one  for  the  use  of  the  society  if  they  think  expedient;  1819— 
that  members  make  a  written  statement  at  the  annual  meetings  re- 
specting- the  manner  of  managing  their  favorite  source  of  profit  and 
the  net  gain  received  from  it;  that  a  committee  ascertain  the  number 
of  barrels  of  whole  and  watered  cider  made  m  Winthrop  the  present 
year  (the  first  recorded  instance  of  the  collection  of  agricultural  sta- 
tistics); 1821 — that  premiums  be  given  to  the  farmer  raising  the  most 
and  best  quality  of  •  high  red-top  '  grass  seed;  1822— that  $30  be  sent 
to  Malaga  or  Gibraltar  in  Spain,  to  purchase  the  best  quality  of 
bearded  summer  wheat  for  .seed,  one  peck  only  to  be  allowed  each 
member;  that  the  society  subscribe  for  two  copies  of  the  'publick 
paper,"  published  in  Boston,  called  the  Nau  England  Farmer;  that  the 
necessary  expense  be  incurred  of  a  committee  in  procuring  informa- 
tion on  the  relative  advantage  of  Maine  compared  with  other  states 
and  countries  in  raising  fine  wool;  1825 — that  the  secretary  obtain  in- 
formation respecting  the  quality  and  usefulness  of  a  kind  of  sheep 
■called  '  Smith  Island  Sheep,'  and  if  deemed  expedient  that  the  society 
purchase  a  pair;  that  .some  person  make  experiments  on  raising  hemp 
•on  a  small  scale  at  the  expense  of  the  society;  1830 — that  the  society 
obtain  one  barrel  of  winter  wheat  for  seed,  from  Virginia;  that  a  pre- 
mium be  offered  for  the  farmer  raising  the  best  and  largest  crop  of 
•corn,  wheat  or  potatoes  at  the  smallest  expense;  1832— that  a  com- 
mittee collect  information  upon  the  diseases  of  sheep  in  this  climate, 
with  the  preventive  and  cure,  the  best  breeds  of  sheep  and  the  mode 
•of  improving  them,  with  such  other  matter  as  would  be  useful  in  a 
treatise  on  sheep  generally;  1834— that  a  committee  report  upon  the 
merits  of  the  Pitts'  horse  power,  just  invented;  that  a  premium  be 
offered  to  the  farmer  who  may  bring  into  the  county  twenty  of  the 
best  Merino  sheep;  that  ten  volumes  of  the  Maine  Farmer  be  offered 
in  premiums;  that  this  society  decidedly  disapprove  the  sale  of  ardent 
spirits  on  the  grounds  on  the  days  of  their  cattle  show;  1835 — that 
■copies  of  Davy's  Agricultural  Chemistry  and  Farmer's  Register  be 
procured  for  the  use  of  the  society;  1837— that  the  secretary  obtain 
information  relative  to  the  Gordon  drill  plow." 

When  it  is  remembered  that  at  the  early  period  at  which  many  of 
these  votes  were  passed  the  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society  was  the 
only  one  of  its  kind  in  Maine,  and  that  there  were  but  very  few  in  the 
United  States,  it  shows  the  far-seeing  character  and  progressive  spirit 
•of  its  members  in  a  most  favorable  and  worthy  light.  Its  modern 
history  is  as  interesting  and  full  of  commendable  deeds  as  the  earlier 
period.  The  society  has  encouraged  by  liberal  premiums  the  best 
kind  of  farming  and  the  judicious  improvement  of  the  live  stock  of 
the  county.  Early  devoted  to  the  large  beef  breeds  of  cattle,  it  was 
persistent  in  its  opposition  to  the  Jerseys  when  first  introduced,  and 
for  some  years  refused  to  place  the  breed  in  its  premium  schedule. 
At  its  fair  in  1863  the  report  of   the   committee   on    this   breed  said: 


"  Your  committee  deem  it  a  source  of  gratification  to  find  the  exhibi- 
tion of  Jerseys  the  present  year  made  up  of  more  individual  speci- 
mens of  high  excellence  than  of  any  other  kind  of  farm  stock  upon 
the  ground."  Having  held  cattle  shows  in  different  towns  in  the 
county,  frequently  to  much  inconvenience  on  account  of  the  want  of 
proper  buildings,  the  society  leased  grounds  at  Readfield  Corner  in 
1856,  where  its  fairs  have  ever  since  been  held.  It  has  good  buildings, 
including  a  new  grand  stand,  a  half  mile  track,  and  maintains  the 
best  county  agricultural  fairs  of  any  society  in  Maine.  It  .still  keeps 
up  the  old  custom  of  having  an  annual  address  delivered  at  each  fair 
and  has  numbered  among  its  orators  some  of  the  most  distinguished 
men  in  the  state. 

The  North  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society  was  incorporated  July 
31,  1847,  and  its  first  exhibition  was  held  in  Waterville  in  October  of 
that  year,  its  limits  extending  into  Somerset  and  Waldo  counties.  The 
society  purchased  fair  grounds  in  1854,  located  about  a  mile  below 
the  city  of  Waterville,  upon  which  it  built  a  good  half  mile  track. 
Between  1855  and  1875  the  fairs  of  this  society  were  largely  attended 
and  among  the  best  of  their  class  in  the  state.  Some  of  the  best  cat- 
tle and  horses  in  Maine  have  been  owned  within  its  limits,  and  at 
many  of  its  exhibitions  the  stock  upon  its  show  ground  has  ranked 
among  the  best  in  New  England,  notably  the  J'erseys  shown  by  the 
late  Dr.  N.  R.  Boutelle,  of  Waterville,  the  Holsteins.  by  Thomas  S. 
Lang,  the  Shorthorns  of  the  late  Warren  Percival  and  Levi  A.  Dow, 
and  the  Herefords  of  Burleigh  &  Shores.  Among  other  noted  breed- 
ers and  farmers  who  have  contributed  largely  to  the  success  of  the 
fairs  of  this  society  have  been:  John  D.  Lang,  Moses  Taber,  Hall  C. 
Burleigh,  H.  G.  Abbott,  W.  H.  Pearson,  Moses  A.  Getchell  and  J.  S. 
Hawes,  of  Vassalboro;  George  E.  Shores,  H.  Percival,  R.  R.  Drum- 
mond,  Joseph  Percival,  Samuel  Doolittle,  Henry  Taylor,  N.  R.  Bou- 
telle, Ephraim  Maxham  and  J.  F.  Hallett,  Waterville;  Rev.  W.  A.  P. 
Dillingham,  Sidney;  A.  J.  Libby  and  W.  P.  Blake,  Oakland;  B.  C. 
Paine,  Clark  Drummond  and  Ira  E.  Getchell,  Winslow;  G.  G.  Hans- 
comb,  Albion;  and  Joseph  Taylor,  Belgrade.  Annual  exhibitions  are 
still  held  by  the  society. 

On  March  26,  1853,  an  act  of  incorporation  was  granted  the  South 
Kennebec  Agricultural  Society,  with  headquarters  at  Gardiner,  the 
late  Nathan  Foster  being  its  first  president.  Fairs  were  held  by  this 
society  for  seven  years,  when  its  charter  was  surrendered,  and  on 
March  17,  1860,  an  act  of  incorporation  was  given  the  Kennebec  Union 
Agricultural  and  Horticultural  Society,  which  embraced  the  same  ter- 
ritory as  that  of  the  former  society.  Having  held  its  fairs  at  Oakland 
Park,  Gardiner,  and  Meadow  Park,  West  Gardiner,  with  varying  suc- 
cess till  the  year  1877,  its  active  career  as  a  society  ceased.  '  In  its 
earlier  years  among  its  most  staunch  supporters  and  largest  exhibi- 


tors  were:  Daniel  Lancaster,  William  S.  Grant  and  Alden  Rice,  Farm- 
ingdale;  J.  M.  Carpenter,  Pittston;  S.  G.  Otis  and  Samuel  Currier, 
Hallowell;  Joseph  Wharff,  Litchfield;  and  Nathan  Foster,  R.  H.  Gar- 
diner and  Henry  Butman,  Gardiner. 

The  Eastern  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society  was  incorporated 
March  24  and  organized  April  4,  1868.  The  society  at  once  purchased 
a  lot  of  sixteen  acres  of  land  in  China,  upon  which  a  half  mile  track 
was  built,  and  its  first  exhibition  was  held  October  20-22  of  that  year. 
In  1869  the  society  built  an  exhibition  hall,  40  by  60  feet,  upon  its 
park:  one  exhibitor  showed  twenty  head  of  cattle,  there  were  forty 
horses  on  the  grounds,  and  an  address  was  delivered  by  Thomas  S. 
Lang.  In  1873  the  secretary  reported  a  great  improvement  in  the 
stock  and  general  farming  in  the  towns  of  China,  Windsor,  Vassal- 
boro  and  Albion,  through  the  influence  of  its  fairs.  The  society  held 
seven  fairs,  the  last  in  1874,  when  in  consequence  of  insufficient  re- 
ceipts, due  to  unfavorable  weather  at  the  date  of  its  fairs,  the  pre- 
miums could  not  be  paid  in  full,  and  unpaid  expenses  accumulating, 
it  was  deemed  prudent  to  close  up  its  affairs.  The  final  meeting  was 
held  December  27,  1877,  and  the  real  estate  and  other  property  of  the 
society  were  sold.  Its  largest  exhibitors  were:  W^arren  Percival,  J.  S. 
Hawes  and  Thomas  S.  Lang,  Vassalboro;  C.  B.  Wellington,  Albion; 
Horace  Colburn,  Windsor,  and  J.  R.  Grossman  and  Alfred  H.  Jones, 
China.  Its  successive  presidents  were  Isaac  Hamilton,  Ambrose  H. 
Abbott  and  H.  B.  Williams. 

The  South  Kennebec  Agricultural  Association,  consisting  of  the 
towns  of  Chelsea,  Windsor,  Pittston  and  Whitefield,  was  organized 
March  24,  1888.  In  June  of  that  year,  having  leased  land  for  exhibi- 
tion grounds  and  raised  money  for  the  purpose  by  subscription,  it 
built  a  half  mile  track  at  South  Windsor  Corner.  Its  first  fair  was 
held  October  3-4,  1888.  Officers  and  friends  of  this  society  secured 
the  incorporation  of  the  South  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society  by  the 
legislature  February  15,  1889,  and  the  society  was  organized  April 
20,  1889,  George  Brown  being  the  first  president.  Its  limits,  as  de- 
fined by  the  act  of  incorporation,  were:  "  The  southern  part  of  Ken- 
nebec county  and  the  towns  of  Whitefield,  Jefferson  and  Somerville 
in  Lincoln  county."  On  the  day  of  the  organization  of  this  society 
the  local,  unincorporated  society  transferred  to  the  new  society  all  its 
leases  and  property.  An  exhibition  hall  was  built  upon  the  grounds 
in  the  summer  of  1889,  and  its  annual  fairs  have  been  successful  in 
the  highest  degree. 

Other  societies  which  have  been  more  than  local  in  their  influence 
and  usefulness  are  the  Kennebec  Farmers'  and  Stockbreeders'  Asso- 
ciation, which  has  held  fairs  at  Meadow  Park,  West  Gardiner,  organ- 
ized in  1889;  and  the  Pittston  Agricultural  and  Trotting  Park  Associa- 
tion, which  was  also  organized  in  1889.     The  former  holds  its  fairs  at 


Meadow  Park  (MerriU's),  and  the  latter  owns  a  park  of  17i  acres  at 
East  Pittston,  in  the  beautiful  valley  of  Eastern  river.  Upon  both  are 
good  half  mile  tracks.  The  exhibitions  of  these  societies  have  been 
well  supported. 

The  Pittston  and  Chelsea  Farmers'  Union  was  organized  Decem- 
ber 2,  1882,  and  held  annual  fairs  at  Chelsea  Grange  Hall  till  merged 
into  the  South  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society,  March  2,  1889.  It  also 
held  meetings  for  the  discussion  of  farm  subjects. 

In  many  towns  local  agricultural  societies  holding  town  fairs  have 
existed  for  many  years.  One  of  the  oldest  of  these  town  societies  is 
that  at  Litchfield,  which  was  organized  in  1859,  and  held  its  first  fair 
in  that  year.  About  1870  Harvey  Springer  built  a  half  mile  track  on 
his  land  at  Litchfield  Plains,  and  offered  the  use  of  track  and  adjoin- 
ing grounds  for  fair  purposes  to  the  society,  free,  on  condition  that 
they  erect  an  exhibition  hall  on  the  grounds  for  fair  purposes.  By 
special  act  of  the  legislature  the  town  appropriated  $500  for  this  pur- 
pose, and  fairs  have  been  held  there  uninterruptedly  from  1859  to 
1890,  inclusive.  For  a  few  years  after  occupying  the  new  grounds 
there  were  races  in  connection  with  the  fairs,  but  for  several  years 
past  there  has  been  no  trotting  at  the  exhibition.  The  Litchfield  town 
fairs  have  been  among  the  most  celebrated  local  fairs  in  the  state. 
One  of  the  next  oldest  local  organizations  is  the  Monmouth  Farmers' 
and  Mechahics'  Club,  organized  in  the  winter  of  1871-2,  which  has 
held  annual  fairs  that  have  been  among  the  best  in  the  state.  Other 
towns  that  have  maintained  annual  fairs  are:  Sidney,  Belgrade,  Pitts- 
ton, Chelsea,  Albion,  China  and  Vassalboro.  The  following  named 
Granges  have  also  held  excellent  Grange  fairs:  Capital,  Augusta; 
Cushnoc,  Riverside;  Oak  Grove,  Vassalboro.  All  these  societies  have 
exerted  an  important  influence  upon  the  improvement  and  develop- 
ment of  the  agricultural  operations  and  practices  of  the  Kennebec 

The  State  Agricultural  Society,  incorporated  in  1855,  was  in  reality 
a  product  of  Kennebec  county,  and  held  fairs  at  Gardiner  in  1855,  and 
in  Augusta  in  1858,  1859  and  1872.  The  state  board  of  agriculture, 
organized  in  1852,  has  always  held  its  annual  meetings  at  Augusta; 
and  in  recent  years  farmers'  institutes  have  been  held  at  leading  points 
in  the  county  two  or  three  times  each  year.  From  the  meetings  of  the 
Maine  Pomological  and  Horticultural  Society,  organized  in  1847,  the 
farmers  and  orchardists  of  Kennebec  county  derived  great  benefit;  as 
well  as  from  the  meetings  for  discussion  and  annual  exhibitions  of  the 
State  Pomological  Society,  organized  at  Winthrop,  in  1873.  The  Maine 
Dairymen's  Association,  organized  in  Augusta  in  1874,  had  for  its 
earliest  and  most  earnest  advocates  the  leading  dairymen  in  the 
county,  and  its  headquarters  were  here  for  many  years.     Farmers  of 


Kennebec  county  have  had  a  great  share  in  the  organization  and 
management  of  these  bodies. 

In  1869  the  state  board  of  agriculture  recommended  to  the  county 
societies  that  a  portion  of  the  state  bounty  be  expended  in  the  work 
of  forming  farmers'  clubs  in  the  several  towns  within  their  jurisdic- 
tion. Under  this  recommendation  many  such  clubs  were  organized 
in  the  rural  communities  throughout  the  county,  which  held  meetings 
for  discussion,  local  fairs  and  farmers'  festivals.  They  were  produc- 
tive of  great  good,  but  have  given  place  to  the  Granges  of  Patrons  of 
Husbandry.  This  order  was  introduced  into  the  county  in  1874,  Mon- 
mouth Grange,  the  thirty-ninth  Grange  formed  in  the  state,  having 
been  organized  October  3,  1874,  with  eighteen  charter  members,  as 
the  first  Grange  instituted  in  the  county;  Mark  Getchell,  master;  M.  H. 
Butler,  secretary.  This  Grange  now  has  a  membership  of  fifty.  There 
are  now  twenty  Granges  in  the  county,  with  a  total  membership  in 
1891  of  1,492.  Eight  of  these  Granges  own  their  own  halls.  The 
Pomona  Grange  of  Kennebec  County  was  organized  at  Winthrop, 
January,  1879,  and  holds  monthly  meetings  at  the  halls  of  the  different 
subordinate  Granges  in  the  county.  This  order,  admitting  women  to 
all  the  privileges  of  membership,  has  been  productive  of  a  good  work 
in  elevating  the  social  position  of  the  farmer's  family,  and  carrying 
to  a  higher  standard  the  practical,  educational  and  business  methods 
of  the  farmers  themselves. 

Farm  Machinery. — The  spirit  of  inquiry,  investigation  and  desire 
for  improvement  manifested  by  the  early  farmers  of  the  county  in 
those  lines  of  farm  work  relating  to  stock,  grains,  fruits  and  better 
methods  of  husbandry,  led  equally  to  early  efforts  for  obtaining  better 
tools  and  machines  with  which  to  perform  the  work  of  the  farm  in  a 
more  rapid  and  less  laborious  manner. 

Threshing  grain  by  the  hand  flail  being  one  of  the  hardest  parts 
of  farm  work,  the  threshing  machine  was  one  of  the  first  things  to 
be  studied  out.  Mr.  Jacob  Pope,  of  Hallowell.  was  the  first  person  to 
introduce  such  a  machine  to  the  notice  of  farmers,  his  efforts  in  the 
way  of  invention  having  been  commenced  in  1826.  The  Pope  ma- 
chine went  by  hand,  and  by  turning  a  crank  a  series  of  mallets  or 
swingles  came  over  upon  a  table  on  which  the  heads  of  the  grain  had 
been  placed  by  the  man  tending  it,  and  thus  the  grain  was  pounded 
out.  It  threshed  the  grain  well,  but  it  was  found  to  be  harder  work 
to  turn  the  crank  than  to  swing  the  flail.  Mr.  Balon,  of  Livermore, 
soon  after  the  Pope  machine  was  made,  got  up  an  improvement  upon 
it,  which  consisted  of  a  cylinder,  operated  by  horse  power,  which  was 
attached  to  an  old  cider  mill  sweep,  the  gearing  being  very  simple 
and  the  horse  going  round  in  a  circle.  This  was  abandoned,  and 
Samuel  Lane,  of  Leeds,  probably  acting  upon  Mr.  Balon's  idea,  set 
about  making  an  endless  chain  one-horse  power  with  a  cylinder  hav- 


ing  high  gearing.  This  was  regarded  as  verv  successful  when  com- 
pleted, in  1833.  The  Lane  machine  had  no  sooner  become  successful 
than  the  brothers,  Hiram  and  John  A.  Pitts,  of  Winthrop,  conceived 
the  idea  of  making  a  wider  endless  chain  of  wood  and  mounting  two 
horses  upon  it,  thus  doubling  the  power  and  the  speed.  At  the  same 
time  that  the  Messrs.  Pitts  were  at  work  upon  their  machine,  Mr. 
Luther  Whitman,  of  Winthrop,  was  also  experimenting  in  the  same 
direction.  Each  of  these  parties  got  several  patents,  and  much  litiga- 
tion followed  as  to  the  priority  of  their  inventions.  Mr.Whitman  com- 
menced working  upon  his  idea  of  a  thresher  in  1832,  and  completed  it 
in  1834,  essentially  similar  to  the  Pitts  machine.  The  brothers  Pitts  and 
Mr.  Whitman  also  worked  upon  the  idea  of  combining  the  horse  power 
thresher  with  the  separator  and  winnower,  and  both  accomplished  the 
results  sought.  While  it  has  been  generally  conceded  that  the  Pitts 
combined  machine  was  the  original  machine,  it  has  also  been  admitted 
that  Mr.  Whitman  was  the  first  to  use  the  uninterrupted  rod  as  in  use 
at  the  present  day,  with  slight  changes,  and  Mr.  Whitman  also  in- 
vented in  1838  the  reversible  tooth  for  threshing  machines,  the  same 
tooth  that  is  in  use  to  this  day.  It  is  also  claimed  that  the  first  per- 
fect thresher,  with  a  straw-carrier  attachment  and  winnowing  machine 
combined  ever  made  in  the  world,  was  made  by  Luther  Whitman,  at 
Winthrop,  in  the  year  1834.  Mr.  Whitman  was  born  in  Bridgewater, 
Mass.,  in  1802,  and  after  his  success  in  inventing  the  threshing  ma- 
chine established  a  factory  for  their  construction  at  Winthrop,  where 
he  was  in  business  till  his  death,  January  26,  1881.  The  horse  power 
thresher  and  separator  of  to-day  is  virtually  the  Pitts- Whitman  ma- 
chine, and  from  Kennebec  county  it  has  gone  into  almost  every  state 
in  the  Union. 

In  1827  Mr.  Moses  B.  Bliss,  of  Pittston,  invented  a  "  movable  hay 
press,"  and  in  1828  Mr.  Samuel  Lane,  of  Hallowell,  invented  a  corn- 
sheller,  which  consisted  of  a  cog  or  spur-wheeled  cylinder,  from 
which  all  the  standard  hand-power  corn-shellers  now  in  use  have 

Previous  to  1840  the  hand  tools  of  the  farm,  of  iron  or  steel,  like 
forks,  scythes,  sickles,  axes  and  hoes,  were  made  by  hand  by  the  vil- 
lage blacksmith,  but  were  heavy,  bungling  affairs.  In  1841  Mr.  Jacob 
Pope,  of  Hallowell,  commenced  the  manufacture  of  the  first  polished 
spring  steel  hay  and  manure  forks  ever  made  in  Maine,  continuing 
the  down  to  about  1870,  his  goods  having  a  high  reputation. 
Elias  Plimpton  commenced  the  manufacture  of  hoes  by  machinery  at 
Litchfield  in  1820,  coming  from  Walpole,  Mass.,  being  the  first  person 
to  make  hoes  by  machinery  in  this  state.  In  1845  Plimpton  & 
Sons  began  the  manufacture  of  manure  and  hay  forks  in  connection 
with  hoes,  which  his  sons  still  continue.     The  manufacture  of  scythes 


by  machinery  was  first  commenced  in  this  county  at  North  Wayne, 
in  1840,  by  the  late  R.  B.  Dunn. 

Agricultural  Schools. — To  Kennebec  county  belongs  the  honor 
of  having-  established  the  first  institution  in  North  America  devoted 
to  technical  agricultural  and  industrial  education,  the  personal  honor 
of  which  is  due  to  the  first  Robert  Hallowell  Gardiner,  of  Gardiner. 
In  a  petition  to  the  legislature  of  Maine  in  1821,  asking  for  a  grant  of 
one  thousand  dollars  for  aid  in  establishing  an  institution  "  to  give 
mechanics  and  farmers  such  a  scientific  education  as  would  enable 
them  to  become  skilled  in  their  professions,"  this  distinguished  and 
far-seeing  philanthropist  said:  "  It  is  an  object  of  very  great  impor- 
tance to  any  state  *  *  *  that  its  artisans  should  possess  an  edu- 
cation adapted  to  make  them  skillful  and  able  to  improve  the  ad- 
vantages which  nature  has  .so  lavishly  bestowed  upon  them.  ■■  *  * 
The  recent  improvements  in  chemistry  which  give  the  knowledge  of 
the  nature  of  fertile  and  barren  soils  and  the  best  mode  of  improving 
them,  render  the  importance  of  a  scientific  education' to  her  farmers 
much  greater  than  at  any  other  period."  This,  copied  from  the  peti- 
tion written  by  Mr.  Gardiner,  shows  the  idea  which  he  had  of  the 
class  of  college  or  school  so  much  needed  in  his  time  for  giving  a 
"  liberal  "  education  to  farmers,  and  foreshadows  exactly  the  colleges 
of  agriculture  and  the  mechanic  arts  now  existing  in  all  the  states, 
under  the  endowment  of  the  Morrill  Land  Grant  bill  of  1862;  and  Mr. 
Gardiner  in  pleading  with  the  state  to  establish  such  a  school,  was 
actually  a  whole  generation  in  advance  of  his  time,  as  it  was  not  till 
more  than  forty  years  later  that  these  colleges  were  established  under 
the  patronage  of  the  general  government. 

Mr.  Gardiner  succeeded  in  obtaining  a  yearly  grant  of  $1,000  from 
the  state,  and  the  "  Gardiner  Lyceum  "  was  incorporated  in  1821.  A 
stone  building  for  its  use  was  erected  in  1822,  and  on  January  1, 182B, 
the  Lyceum  was  formally  opened  to  pupils.  Rev.  Benjamin  Hale, 
born  in  Newbury,  Mass.,  November  23,  1797,  and  once  a  tutor  in  Bow- 
doin  College,  being  president  of  the  Lyceum  from  1823  to  1827.  After 
leaving  Gardiner,  Mr.  Hale  was  professor  of  chemistry  in  Dartmouth 
College  from  1827  to  1835,  and  from  1836  to  1858  president  of  Geneva 
College,  New  York.  He  died  July  15,  1863.  The  course  of  study  at 
the  Lyceum  was  arranged  for  two  years,  and  there  were  twenty  stu- 
dents the  first  year.  The  courses  may  be  generally  described  as  a 
chemical,  and  a  mechanical  one.  The  former  comprised  lectures  on 
the  principles  of  chemical  science,  on  agricultural  chemistry,  on  dye- 
ing, bleaching,  pottery,  porcelain,  cements  and  tanning.  The  latter 
■course  embraced  lectures  on  mechanical  principles,  dynamics,  hydro- 
statics, hydraulics  and  carpentry.  Later  a  course  in  mineralogy  was 
included.  In  1824  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes  was  engaged  as  "  permanent 
professor  in  agriculture,"  and  in  connection  with  this  professorship 
the  trustees  undertook  the  management  of  a  practical  farm  in  connec- 


tion  with  the  Lyceum,  where  experiments  in  agriculture  were  tried. 
where  the  students  were  allowed  to  work  to  diminish  the  expense  of 
board,  and  "to  give  the  future  agriculturist  the  knowledge  of  those 
principles  of  science  upon  which  his  future  success  depends,  and  an 
opportunity  to  see  them  reduced  to  practice."  In  order  to  accommo- 
date those  students  whose  business  during  the  summer  months  made 
it  impossible  for  them  to  join  the  regular  cla.sses,  winter  classes  were 
established  in  surveying,  navigation,  chemistry,  carpentry  and  civil 
architecture.  These  "winter  classes"  corresponded  to  the  "short 
courses  "  in  special  branches  now  given  at  some  of  our  agricultural 

This  outline  shows  the  general  scope  and  character  of  the  institu- 
tion. After  Mr.  Hale's  resignation  of  the  office  of  president  the  Ly- 
ceum was  severally  in  charge  of  Edmund  L.  Gushing,  Dr.  Ezekiel 
Holmes,  Mr.  Whitman  and  Jason  Winnett,  as  presidents  or  principals. 
Its  classes  were  well  kept  up  for  many  years,  at  one  time  the  scholars 
numbering  fifty-three.  The  Lyceum  had  a  good  library  and  creditable 
collections,  and  the  students  were  encouraged  to  make  collections  of 
specimens  illustrating  the  geology  and  flora  of  the  section,  which  were 
deposited  in  the  museum.  Finally  the  .state  withdrew  its  yearly  ap- 
propriations, and  for  two  or  three  years  subsequently  it  was  main- 
tained almost  entirely  at  the  expense  of  Mr.  Gardiner  himself.  The 
property  of  the  Lyceum,  after  having  remained  unused  in  the  hands 
of  the  trustees  for  several  years,  was  sold  to  the  city  of  Gardiner  in 
1857,  and  the  building  occupied  as  a  high  school.  The  proceeds  were 
divided  pro  rata  among  the  original  stockholders,  and  the  first  agri- 
cultural and  industrial  college  in  the  United  States  ceased  to  exist. 

Cattle.— As  cattle  are  the  real  basis  of  successful  agriculture,  the 
farmers  of  the  province  of  Maine  had  their  cows  and  oxen  as  soon  as 
they  had  homes.  The  so-called  "  natives  "  or  "  old  red  cattle  of  New 
England  "—about  which  so  much  has  been  written  in  agricultural  lit- 
erature— were  a  mixture  of  the  Devons,  brought  over  by  the  Pilgrims 
of  Plymouth;  some  "black  cattle"  brought  by  trading  ship-masters 
from  the  West  Indies  or  the  Spanish  Main;  the  Danish  cattle  brought 
to  Piscataqua  by  Captain  John  Mason  in  1631,  "  for  the  purpose  of 
furnishing  milk  to  the  fishermen,"  and  the  importation  made  by  Dr. 
Benjamin  Vaughan  and  his  brother,  Charles,  of  Hallowell,  in  1791-2. 
This  importation  marks  the  commencement  of  improved  stock  breed- 
ing in  this  county,  and  consisted  of  two  bulls  and  two  cows,  which  ar- 
rived in  Hallowell  in  November,  1791.  These  cattle  were  selected 
with  great  care,  the  bulls — from  the  celebrated  Smithfield  market,  were 
of  the  Longhorn  or  Bakewell  breed;  the  cows  from  the  London  dairies,, 
which  were  supplied  mostly  from  animals  of  the  Holderness  or  York- 
shire breed.  The  instructions  given  their  London  agent  by  the 
Messrs.  Vaughan  are  interesting,  and  show  how  particular  they  were- 


to  obtain  animals  specially  adapted  to  a  new  country.  Points  were 
to  be  observed  which  would  fit  the  draft  stock  for  a  hilly  country,  and 
they  were  also  to  select  animals  well  fitted  for  the  dairy,  and  were  "  to- 
look  to  the  quality  rather  than  the  quantity  of  the  milk."  Great  stress 
was  laid  on  their  having  full  hindquarters  for  the  ascent  of  hills,  and 
full  forequarters  and  prominent  briskets  for  the  descent. 

How  well  the  breed  proved  for  draft  purposes  was  shown  at  the 
first  cattle  show  held  in  Hallowell  in  1821,  where  their  descendants 
were  on  exhibition.  A  yoke  of  oxen,  girting  an  inch  or  two  over 
seven  feet,  drew  with  ease  a  cart  loaded  with  stone  weighing  7,200 
pounds;  and  a  yoke  of  bulls,  girting  six  feet  and  two  inches,  drew  for 
ten  rods  "  with  perfect  ease  "  a  drag  loaded  with  stone  which  weighed 
3,800  pounds.  A  calf  of  one  of  these  cows  was  presented  to  Hon. 
Christopher  Gore,  of  Massachusetts,  and  became  the  progenitor  of  the 
celebrated  "Gore  breed  "  of  cattle  so  famous  for  years  in  that  state.. 
These  Longhorn  and  Holderness  cattle  of  the  Vaughan  importation 
were  very  long-lived,  and  their  descendants  were  hardy  and  vigorous. 
Many  of  the  cows  continued  to  breed  till  eighteen  years  old,  and  the 
oxen  proved  great  workers.  The  Vaughans  used  the  males  of  their 
herds  in  a  way  to  benefit  the  early  settlers  in  this  county  and  the  ad- 
jacent territory  as  much  as  possible.  Hence  they  were  not  only  kept 
on  their  extensive  farms  at  Hallowell,  but  were  sent  to  prominent 
farmers  in  other  Kennebec  county  towns,  in  the  Sandy  river  valley 
and  other  parts,  and  were  frequently  changed.  By  this  course  their 
progeny  soon  became  numerous.  The  Vaughans  continued  to  breed 
from  descendants  of  their  first  importation  until  about  1820. 

In  Coggeshall's  Americmi  Privateers  and  Letters  of  Marque  (page 
47),  it  is  said  that  the  brig  "Peter  Waldo,  irora.  Newcastle,  England, 
for  Halifax,  with  a  full  cargo  of  manufactures,  clearing  the 
captors  $100,000,  was  sent  into  Portland  in  August,  1812,  by  the  Teaser 
of  New  York."  In  this  vessel  was  a  Methodist  minister  and  his  fam- 
ily bringing  their  effects  to  the  British  Provinces,  and  they  had  among 
them  a  bull  and  cow  of  the  Holderness  breed.  As  all  the  goods  cap- 
tured were  sold,  these  cattle  were  among  them,  and  descendants  of 
them,  known  as  the  "  Prize  "  stock,  soon  found  their  way  to  Sidney 
and  Va.ssalboro.  The  late  John  D.  Lang,  of  Vassalboro,  some  years- 
since,  gave  the  writer  a  very  interesting  account  of  this  breed,  which, 
may  be  found  in  the  Agriculture  of  Maine  for  1874,  p.  247. 

Durhams  or  Shorthorns. — The  earlier  importations  of  cattle  into- 
this  country,  after  systematic  efforts  had  been  undertaken  in  their 
breeding  by  leading  farmers  of  Massachusetts,  were  of  the  Durham, 
afterward  more  popularly  called  the  Shorthorn  breed.  The  first  in- 
dividual of  this  breed  ever  brought  into  Kennebec  county  was  a  bull 
known  as  "  Young  Coelebs  "—said  to  have  been  a  half  blood— bred  by 
Colonel  Samuel  Jaques,  of  Charlestown,  Mass.,  and  brought  to  Hal- 


lowell  in  1825  by  General  Jesse  Robinson — a  gentleman  very  active 
in  the  promotion  of  Agriculture  and  the  improvement  of  stock  in  his 
day.  After  a  few  years  this  bull  was  sold  to  John  Kezar,  of  Win- 
throp,  and  acquired  much  celebrity  in  the  western  part  of  the  county 
as  the  "  Kezar  bull."  Splendid  stock  descended  from  him,  both  in 
oxen  and  cows,  but  as  he  was  pure  white  many  farmers  objected,  as 
white  has  never  been  a  popular  color  for  cattle.  In  1826  the  white  bull 
•"  Hercules,"  bred  by  Samuel  Lee,  of  Massachusetts,  was  brought  by 
General  Henry  Dearborn  to  Pittston,  where  he  was  kept  for  several 
years  and  afterward  was  taken  to  Winthrop.  This  same  year  a  bull 
called  "  Jupiter,"  also  bred  by  Colonel  Jaques,  was  brought  to  Hal- 
lowell  by  John  Davis.  He  was  kept  in  that  town,  also  in  Readfield, 
Winthrop  and  Wayne,  and  left  choice  stock  in  each,  the  good  influ- 
ence of  which  was  apparent  for  nearly  half  a  century. 

What  is  believed  to  have  been  the  first  thoroughbred  Durham 
brought  into  the  state  was  the  imported  bull  "  Denton,"  presented  by 
Stephen  Williams,  Esq.,  of  Northboro,  Alass.,  to  the  late  Dr.  Ezekiel 
Holmes,  then  of  Gardiner,  where  he  arrived  in  November,  1827.  The 
animals  introduced  before  "  Denton  "  were  half-bloods.  He  was  im- 
ported by  Mr.  Williams,  through  the  agency  of  his  brother,  then 
residing  in  London,  and  arrived  in  Boston  November  5,  1817.  Mr. 
Williams  kept  "  Denton  "  until  the  fall  of  1827,  when  he  was  pre- 
sented to  his  friend,  Doctor  Holmes,  of  Gardiner.  He  was  kept  in 
1828  in  Gardiner,  and  in  1829  was  carried  to  Doctor  Holmes'  farm  in 
Starks,  where  he  died  from  old  age  in  1830.  The  change  made  in  the 
character  of  the  neat  cattle  of  Kennebec  county  by  the  introduction  of 
this  animal  was  remarkable.  Writing  of  him  in  1855,  Doctor  Holmes 
said  he  might  justly  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  patriarchs  of  the  New 
England  Shorthorns,  and  the  chief  source  of  this  improved  blood 
found  in  so  large  a  proportion  in  the  early  herds  of  Kennebec  county, 
and,  in  fact,  of  the  whole  state — for  his  calves  were  widely  dissemi- 
nated throughout  Maine  and  have  done  a  great  deal  to  give  this 
county  the  high  reputation  it  has  had  for  its  choice  herds  of  Short- 

In  1828  Colonel  R.  H.  Greene,  of  Winslow,  introduced  into  that 
town  two  bulls  known  as  "  Tasso  "  and  "  Banquo,"  imported  from 
England  by  John  Hare  Powell,  of  Virginia.  These  finely  bred  ani- 
mals were  kept  in  Winslow  three  years,  and  subsequently  one  of 
them  in  Winthrop  one  year,  and  one  in  Augusta  one  year,  leaving 
fine  stock  in  each  town.  Colonel  Greene,  between  1828  and  1834,  also 
brought  several  animals  of  the  Shorthorn  breed  from  New  York,  some 
of  which  were  imported,  among  them  the  bull  "  Young  Fitz  Favorite," 
an  animal  of  mttch  good  reputation;  an  imported  animal  having  been 
brought  to  New  York  by  Robert  B.  Minturn  from  the  herd  of  Mr. 
Ashcroft,  one  of  the  leading  cattle  breeders  of  the  West  of  England; 


the  bull  "  Young  Comet."  by  the  celebrated  bull  "  Wye  Comet,"  and 
also  the  bull  "  Fairfield,"  purchased  of  E.  P.  Prentice,  of  Albany,  N.  Y. 
Robert  Cornforth  and  Thomas  Pierce,  of  Readfield — farmers  who  were 
foremost  in  Western  Kennebec  in  the  improvement  of  the  breeds  of 
cattle— each  introduced  Shorthorns  into  that  town  in  1829  and  1830. 
Mr.  Cornforth  introduced  the  bull  "  Turk."  and  Mr.  Pierce  kept  the 
bulls  "  Uranus '"  and  "  Gold-finder,"  both  by  "  Young  Denton."  Their 
history  is  recorded  in  glowing  language  in  our  early  agricultural  an- 
nals, and  they  deserve  mention  in  any  history  of  the  live  stock  industry 
of  Kennebec  county.  They  gave  an  impress  to  the  high  character  of 
the  early  herds  of  the  county,  traces  of  which  are  very  plainly  evi- 
dent down  to  the  present  day. 

"  Denton,"  "  Young  Coelebs,"  "  Fitz  Favorite,"  "  Banquo,"  "  Comet," 
"  Foljambe  "  and  "  Wye  Comet  "  were  all  recorded  in  the  early  vol- 
umes of  the  English  Shorthorn  Herd  Book,  establishing  beyond  all 
question  the  purity  of  the  thoroughblood  of  these  early  animals,  the 
progeny  of  which  formed  the  basis  of  the  neat  cattle  of  Kennebec 
county.  Moreover,  at  this  early  date  the  cattle  of  this  county  had  ac- 
quired so  high  a  reputation  that  animals  had  been  sent  to  Massachu- 
setts and  even  as  far  west  as  Ohio;  nearly  every  town  in  this  county  pos- 
sessed thoroughbred  animals,  and  they  had  also  been  widely  dissemi- 
nated in  Somerset,  Waldo,  Penobscot,  Franklin  and  York  counties. 

With  the  breeding  of  Shorthorns,  as  well  as  others,  there  was  a 
period  between  1835  and  1850  when  interest  seemed  to  lessen.  The 
earlier  breeders  had  died  or  given  up  active  efforts  through  advanc- 
ing age,  and  the  younger  farmers  had  not  then  felt  that  impetus  in 
the  business  which  was  developed  later.  The  character  of  the  stock 
had  been  kept  up  to  a  high  standard,  there  were  good  cross-breeds  all 
over  the  county,  and  it  was  not  till  deterioration  became  evident  in 
the  leading  herds  that  younger  farmers  took  up  the  responsibility  of 
obtaining  high  priced  registered  stock  from  abroad,  or  improving  the 
best  of  that  which  remained.  Prominent  farmers  who  gave  much 
effort  to  stock  improvement  between  1835  and  1853  were:  Oakes  How- 
ard, Winthrop;  R.  H.  Greene  and  Isaac  W.  Britton,  Winslow;  Sulli- 
van Kilbreth  and  Samuel  Currier,  Hallowell;  Allen  Lambard,  Au- 
gusta; Joseph  H.  Underwood,  Sewall  N.  Watson  and  Francis  Hub- 
bard, Fayette;  Josiah  N.  Fogg,  S.  H.  Richard.son  and  Colonel  D.  Craig, 
Readfield;  Amos  Rollins,  Belgrade;  John  F.  Hunnewell,  China;  Har- 
rison Jaquith,  Albion;  Josiah  Morrill  and  Isaiah  Marston,  Waterville, 
and  Luther  and  Bradford  Sawtell-,  Sidney. 

In  1859  Warren  Percival  of  Cross'  Hill,  Vassalboro,  commenced 
the  building  up  of  a  herd  of  thoroughbred  Shorthorns  by  purchasing 
animals  of  William  S.  Grant,  of  Farmingdale.  Subsequently  Mr.  Per- 
cival, at  different  dates,  purchased  animals  of  Paoli  Lathrop,  Augustus 
Whitman'and  other  breeders  in  Massachusetts,  George  Butts,  of  Man- 


lius,  N.  Y.,  and  others.  In  breeding  he  aimed  at  great  perfection  in 
symmetry,  hardy  constitution  'and  high  milking  qualities,  and  for 
many  years  was  the  foremost  breeder  of  this  class  of  stock  in  Maine. 
At  one  time  his  herd  consisted  of  125  animals,  although  sixty  head 
was  about  the  average  number  kept  while  he  was  engaged  in  his 
largest  farming  operations.  His  yearly  sales  extended  throughout 
New  England  and  the  Provinces.  His  first  appearance  in  the  Ameri- 
can Shortliorn  Herd  Book  as  a  registered  breeder,  was  in  volume  V,  for 
1860,  and  for  the  next  seventeen  volumes  Mr.  Percival's  name  appears 
among  those  of  the  great  American  breeders  of  this  class  of  stock, 
with  the  pedigrees  of  a  large  number  of  finely  bred  animals — in  vol- 
ume IX,  for  1870,  twenty-seven  being  recorded,  his  herd  then  being 
at  the  height  of  its  popularity.  Mr.  Percival  was  an  important  figure 
in  Maine  agriculture  for  many  years.  His  death  occurred  July  17, 
1877,  upon  the  homestead  where  he  was  born  March  27,  1819. 

John  D.  Lang,  of  Vassalboro,  was  one  of  the  earlier  breeders  of 
Shorthorns,  having  bred  from  the  old  stock.  But  in  1860,  in  connec- 
tion with  his  son,  Thomas  S.  Lang,  they  imported  animals  into  that 
town  from  the  herds  of  Paoli  Lathrop,  of  Massachusetts,  and  Samuel 
Thorne,  of  New  York,  and  bred  with  a  good  deal  of  spirit.  In  1864 
they  exhibited  a  herd  of  thirty-two  head  of  thoroughbred  Shorthorns 
at  the  fair  of  the  North  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society,  but  soon  after 
disposed  of  their  animals  to  give  attention  to  another  class  of  stock. 
Henry  Taylor,  a  Boston  business  man,  who  established  a  stock  farm 
in  Waterville  in  1866,  bred  Shorthorns  for  five  or  six  years,  bringing 
to  that  town  animals  from  the  celebrated  herd  of  R.  A.  Alexander,  of 
Lexington,  Ky.  His  operations  were  discontinued  about  1870.  Levi 
A.  Dow,  of  Waterville,  commenced  breeding  Shorthorns  in  1868,  his 
name  appearing  in  nearly  every  volume  of  the  American  Herd  Book 
as  a  leading  breeder  of  this  stock  from  that  year  to  the  year  1882. 
His  first  purchases  were  from  the  herds  of  Paoli  Lathrop  and  H.  G. 
White,  of  Massachusetts,  and  later  from  those  of  home  breeders. 
Samuel  G.  Otis,  of  Hallowell,  was  quite  extensively  engaged  in  breed- 
ing Shorthorns  between  the  years  1872  and  1881.  His  foundation  ani- 
mals were  obtained  of  Jonathan  Talcott,  Rome.  N.  Y.,  and  others  from 
Warren  Percival  and  breeders  in  Massachusetts.  At  one  time  Mr. 
Otis'  herd  numbered  fully  twenty  individuals.  The  great  herds  of 
this  breed  formerly  kept  in  the  county  have  been  greatly  reduced  or 
entirely  broken  up— the  Jerseys  having  superseded  them  as  dairy 
animals  and  the  Herefords  taken  their  places  for  work  and  beef. 

Herefords. — One  of  the  first  animals  of  this  breed  introduced  into 
Kennebec  county  was  the  bull  "Young  Sir  Isaac,"  brought  to  Hallo- 
well  in  1880  bv  Sanford  Howard,  superintendent  of  the  Vaughan 
farms.  He  was  by  imported  "  Admiral,"  sent  with  other  stock  as  a 
pre.sent  to  the  Massachusetts  Society  for  Promoting  Agriculture,  by 


Admiral  Sir  Isaac  Coffin,  of  the  British  Navy — his  dam  being  by  the 
Hereford  bull,  "Sir  Isaac."  also  presented  to  the  same  society  by  Ad- 
miral Coffin.  In  1844,  J.  Wingate  Haines  of  Hallowell,  brought  into 
that  town  the  bull  "  Albany,"  purchased  of  Erastus  Corning  and  Wil- 
liam H.  Sotham,  of  Albany,  N.  Y.,  from  their  noted  importation  of 
English  Herefords  brought  to  this  country  in  1841.  This  beautiful 
bull  laid  the  foundation  for  the  magnificent  working  oxen  for  which 
the  towns  of  Hallowell,  Winthrop,  Fayette  and  Wayne  were  formerly 

Joseph  H.  Underwood,  one  of  the  most  prominent  farmers  and 
breeders  this  county  has  ever  had,  was  born  in  Amherst,  N.  H.,  in 
1783,  and  when  he  became  of  age  settled  in  Fayette.  He  gave  early 
attention  to  the  improvement  of  neat  cattle,  and  obtained  descendants 
of  the  first  Herefords  brought  into  the  county,  but  about  1852  pur- 
chased of  Captain  E.  Pendleton,  an  old  shipmaster  of  Searsport,  a  bull 
and  cow  of  this  breed  brought  over  in  one  of  his  ships  from  England. 
In  1859  he  purchased  the  celebrated  bull  "  Cronkhill  2d,"  of  the 
Messrs.  Clarke,  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  and  in  1865  introduced  into  his 
herd  a  celebrated  bull,  "  Wellington  Hero,"  from  the  herd  of  Freder- 
ick William  Stone,  of  Guelph,  Ontario,  and  subsequently  other  ani- 
mals were  purchased  of  Mr.  Stone.  After  the  death  of  Mr.  Under- 
wood, November  8,  1867,  his  sons,  G.  &  G.  Underwood,  continued  to 
carry  on  the  farming  and  breeding  operations  of  their  father  jointly 
till  1875,  when  they  dis.solved.  During  these  years  the  herd  was  kept 
up  by  purchases  from  Mr.  vStone,  Hall  C.  Burleigh  of  Vassalboro,  H. 
A.  Holmes  of  Oxford,  and  Mr.  Gibb  of  Compton,  P.  Q.  When  they 
dissolved  Gilbert  Underwood  retained  the  herd  of  cattle,  and  now  has 
a  choice  family  of  thirty  fine  animals.  Another  son  of  J.  H.  Under- 
wood—Albert G.  Underwood  of  Fayette— has  a  herd  of  fourteen  thor- 
oughbred and  registered  animals.  The  Underwood  Herefords  are 
now  the  oldest  herds  of  this  breed  in  the  county. 

In  1869  G.  E.  Shores,  of  Waterville,  and  Hall  C.  Burleigh,  then  of 
Fairfield,  purchased  the  entire  herd  of  thoroughbred  Herefords  be- 
longing to  Hon.  M.  H.  Cochrane,  of  Hillhurst,  Compton,  P.  0.,  then 
and  for  a  long  time  previous  regarded  as  the  most  famous  herd  of 
Herefords  on  the  continent.  It  was  a  bold  purchase,  and  gave  the 
county  high  fame  as  the  home  of  the  best  Herefords  at  that  time  in 
the  United  States.  The  celebrated  individuals  of  this  purchase  were 
the  bull  "  Compton  Lad,"  and  the  Verbena  family  of  cows  and  heifers. 
After  three  years'  breeding  the  herd  bad  so  much  increased  that  a  di- 
vision was  made  and  for  years  formed  two  distinguished  herds  under 
the  separate  management  of  each  owner.  Mr.  Shores  sold  his  entire 
herd  to  William  P.  Blake  of  West  Waterville,  in  1875,  who  continued 
:to  breed  for  many  years,  finally  disposing  of  his  interest  to  his  son, 


Fred  E.  Blake,  of  Fairview  Farm,  Sidney,  who  now  has  a  small  herd 
of  this  breed. 

Important  as  have  been  the  importations  of  animals  of  this  breed 
into  the  county  in  the  past,  and  valuable  as  they  have  been  as  indi- 
viduals and  as  herds,  all  efforts  of  breeders  are  comparatively  limited 
beside  the  great  operations  in  cattle  importing  by  the  firm  of  Burleigh 
&  Bod  well,  the  members  of  which  were  Hall  C.  Burleigh  of  Vassalboro, 
and  Joseph  R.  Bodwell,  of  Hallowell.  This  partnership  was  formed 
in  1879,  and  was  dissolved  by  the  death  of  ex-Governor  Bodwell,  De- 
cember lii,  1887.  During  the  continuance  of  this  firm  Mr.  Burleigh 
made  five  visits  to  England  for  the  purpose  of  selecting  breeding 
animals,  bringing  home  large  consignments  each  time;  in  addition  to 
which  he  made  eight  different  importations  from  Great  Britain,  aside 
from  importations  made  from  Canada.  In  1879  seventy-seven  head 
were  imported:  in  1880-81.  eighty-five  head;  in  1882  two  consignments 
were  made,  one  of  eighty  and  one  of  fifty  head;  in  1883  Mr.  Burleigh 
chartered  the  steamship  Texas  and  brought  over  for  his  firm  the 
largest  lot  of  Hereford  .stock  ever  brought  to  this  country  by  one  firm, 
numbering  two  hundred  head,  and  in  1884  another  importation  of  sev- 
enty animals  was  made.  The  total  number  brought  to  Maine  by  this 
firm  was  over  800,  and  while  a  considerable  number  were  retained  in 
their  own  home  herds  at  Vassalboro  and  Hallowell,  and  some  in  other 
towns  in  the  county  and  state,  by  far  the  larger  part  were  shipped 
West  and  South. 

In  1881  Mr.  Burleigh  made  the  tour  of  the  grand  Western  circuit 
of  the  great  inter-state  fairs,  taking  with  him  a  herd  of  magnificent 
animals  from  his  Vassalboro  farm,  which  won  everywhere  m  all 
in  which  they  were  shown.  Again,  in  1883,  Mr.  Burleigh  exhibited 
at  the  great  fairs  at  Kansas  City,  Chicago  and  New  Orleans.  At  these 
fairs  Mr.  Burleigh  won  first  prizes  and  sweepstakes  on  animals  of  his 
own  breeding;  and  also  the  champion  gold  shield  for  the  best  animal 
of  any  sex,  breed  or  age,  exhibited  by  the  breeder,  on  the  heifer 
"  Burleigh's  Pride,"  a  cross-bred  Hereford  and  Polled  Angus,  two  years 
old,  weighing  1,820  pounds. 

The  exhibition  of  these  cattle  at  the  great  fairs  of  the  West  in 
1881  and  1883  brought  Maine  into  high  prominence  as  a  cattle  raising 
state,  and  gave  this  county  a  reputation  which  has  been  a  great  aid  to 
our  agriculture.  Mr.  Burleigh's  herd  is  still  kept  up  to  a  high  point, 
both  in  numbers  and  excellence,  and  in  1891  he  won  fifteen  first  prizes, 
eleven  second  prizes  and  one  third  prize  at  the  Maine  State  Fair.  His 
son,  Thomas  G.  Burleigh,  is  also  interested  in  breeding  on  his  own 
account.  About  1876  Mr.  J.  S.  Hawes,  of  South  Vassalboro,  started  in 
the  breeding  of  thoroughbred  and  grade  Herefords  and  built  up  a  large 
herd,  sending  a  considerable  number  of  breeding  animals  West.  His 
operations  were  continued  till  1879,  when  he  removed  to  Kansas,  tak- 


ing  many  of  his  best  animals  with  him,  where  he  engaged  in  ranche 
cattle  breeding  on  a  very  large  scale.  Other  leading  breeders  of  this 
class  of  stock  in  the  county  are:  M.  M.  Bailey,  Winthrop;  Edgar  E. 
Robinson,  Mt.  Vernon;  and  G.  W.  Billings,  E.  H.  Kent  and  the  Me.ssrs. 
Gile,  Fayette.  These  gentlemen  all  have  thoroughbred  and  registered 
animals,  while  high  grades  and  cross-breds  are  widely  disseminated, 
especially  in  towns  in  the  western  part  of  the  county. 

/erscjfs.— The  date  of  the  introduction  and  systematic  breeding  of 
this  breed  of  cattle  in  Kennebec  county,  marks  the  first  step  toward 
special  lines  of  farming  and  breeding,  upon  which  all  subsequent  im- 
provement has  been  based.  Previous  to  this  the  agriculture  of  the 
county  was  general.  Farmers  endeavored  to  make  their  farms  self- 
maintaining,  grew  those  crops  that  were  largely  needed  and  consumed 
upon  the  farm,  and  bred  cattle  adapted  to  general  purposes.  Work 
was  the  one  chief  object  m  keeping  cattle — hence  to  raise  good  work- 
ing oxen  was  the  first  requisite.  A  cow  that  brought  a  good  calf  and 
gave  sufficient  milk  for  family  use  was  the  one  that  was  kept.  There 
had  been  little  thought  up  to  this  date  of  breeding  a  special  cow 
adapted  to  dairy  production,  and  making  prime  butter  to  sell.  But 
with  the  introduction  of  the  Jersey  breed  of  cattle  a  complete  trans- 
formation in  Kennebec  agriculture  took  place.  It  was  the  beginning 
of  specialties  in  farming,  and  specialties  in  farming  mark  the  modern 
from  the  old  style  methods,  introduce  new  ideas,  create  diversity  and 
insure  larger  returns. 

This  date  was  the  year  1855.  In  that  year  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes 
brought  the  bull  "  Butter  Boy,"  and  in  1856  the  cow  "  Pansy  3d,"  into 
Winthrop.  Both  animals  were  purchased  of  Samuel  Henshaw,  of  Bos- 
ton— the  latter  imported  by  ^Ir.  Henshaw,  the  former  from  imported 
stock.  It  is  probable  that  two  or  three  years  earlier  than  this  William 
S.  Grant,  of  Farmingdale,  had  brought  to  that  town  the  bull  "Old 
Duke,"  also  obtained  from  Mr.  Henshaw,  but  this  animal  acquired 
nothing  like  the  reputation  accorded  to  those  brought  to  the  county 
by  Doctor  Holmes.  The  amount  of  ridicule  which  this  patient  phi- 
lanthropist endured  for  having  brought  these  animals  into  this  county 
and  for  championing  their  merits  through  the  columns  of  the  Maine 
Farmer,  was  something  enormous.  Believing  in  their  adaptability  to 
the  new  agriculture  of  the  county,  he  had  the  courage  to  bring  these 
small,  delicate  Jerseys  into  the  very  heart  of  that  county  which  for 
fifty  years  had  prided  itself  upon  its  magnificent  Durhams  and  Here- 
fords,  and  farmers  generally  looked  upon  him  as  the  visionary  advo- 
cate of  a  breed  of  cattle  unsuited  to  the  county  and  destined  to  ruin 
its  stock  interests.  But  despite  this  opposition  Doctor  Holmes  con- 
stantly urged  their  merits  and  value  to  our  farmers.  Their  recogni- 
tion, however,  was  very  slow,  and  it  was  several  years  after  their  first 


introduction  before  the  trustees  of  the  State  Agricultural  Societj' could 
be  induced  to  otfer  premiums  for  them,  as  it  did  for  other  breeds  of 
cattle.  When  this  action  had  been  taken  their  success  appeared  as- 
sured, and  they  became  rapidly  disseminated. 

The  fame  of  many  cows  among  the  "  foundation  "  animals  of  this 
breed  in  the  county  was  very  great,  among  them  being  the  celebrated 
cows  "Pansy  3d,"  "Jessie  Pansy,"  "Buttercup,"  owned  by  W.  H. 
Chisam  of  Augusta,  "  Lilly,"  "  Fancy  2d,"  "  Victoria  Pansy,"  owned 
by  the  late  C.  S.  Robbins  of  Winthrop,  "  Lucy,"  owned  by  P.  H.  Snell 
of  Winthrop,  and  many  others.  The  famous  cows  made  from  11  to 
17^  pounds  of  butter  per  week,  established  the  reputation  of  the  Jer- 
seys as  the  great  butter  yielding  breed,  opened  a  new'  era  for  the  agri- 
culture of  the  county  and  state,  and  made  their  owners  independent. 
The  celebrity  of  "  AA'inthrop  Jerseys  "  rapidly  increased,  and  the 
animals  became  widely  disseminated.  The  Jersey  breeders  of  Win- 
throp organized  the  Winthrop  Jersey  Cattle  Association,  March  7, 
1870,  and  the  breed  had  attained  such  large  numbers  in  Waterville 
that  a  Jensey  Stock  Club  was  formed  in  that  town  in  1868,  and  at  a 
town  show  of  this  class  exclusively,  held  that  year,  over  forty  splendid 
cows  were  shown.  In  fifteen  years  after  the  first  Jerseys  were  intro- 
duced they  had  spread  all  over  Maine,  large  numbers  had  been  sent  to 
Massachusetts,  Vermont  and  New  Hampshire,  and  in  1872  a  car  load 
of  fifteen  Winthrop  Jerseys  was  sent  to  Denver,  Colorado.  The  town 
association  of  Winthrop  breeders  became  the  Maine  vState  Jersey  Cat- 
tle Association,  and  was  incorporated  by  the  legislature  in  1875.  Its 
present  membership  is  believed  to  be  larger  than  that  of  any  other 
Jersey  cattle  association  in  the  country.  It  has  published  five  volumes 
of  its  Herd  i-W/-— 1876, 1880,  1883,  1886  and  1889.  These  volumes  re- 
cord a  total  of  724  bulls  and  2,008  cows  and  heifers.  Among  the  early 
herds  of  the  Winthrop  or  Maine  State  Jerseys  were  those  of  Lloyd  H. 
Snell,  E.  Holmes  &  Son,  N.  R.  Pike  &  Son,  and  P.  H.  Snell,  Winthrop; 
Samuel  Guild  and  W.  H.  Chisam,  Augusta;  and  William  Dyer  and  Jo- 
seph Percival,  Waterville. 

Mr.  Percival  introduced  the  first  Jerseys  into  Waterville  in  1863, 
and  for  many  years  his  herd  was  the  best  in  town  and  bred  with  great 
purity.  L.  H.  vSnell,  of  AVinthrop,  owned  at  one  time  a  famous  but  not 
large  herd  of  this  breed,  one  of  the  foundation  animals  being  the  cel- 
ebrated cow  "  Victoria  Pansy"  (No.  12,  Maine  Herd  Book),  which  was 
afterward  sold  to  Mr.  Cyrus  S.  Robbins,  of  Winthrop,  who  founded 
the  Robbinsdale  herd  in  1858,  which,  since  Mr.  Robbins' death.  May  14, 
1880,  has  been  maintained  by  his  widow,  and  is  now  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  herds  of  this  strain  of  Jerseys  in  Maine.  It  numbers  four- 
teen animals  and  has  been  a  high  prize  winning  herd  at  our  state 
fairs  for  many  years.  Silas  T.  Floyd,  of  Winthrop,  has  a  choice  herd 
of  ten  Maine  Jerseys,  having  a  private  butter  dairy  which  has  a  high 


reputation.  He  started  with  the  Holmes  stock,  and  his  herd  has  at 
different  times  embraced  some  of  the  best  animals  of  that  celebrated 
importation.  A.  C.  &  E.  P.  True,  Litchfield,  have  an  old  and  fine  herd, 
which  embraces  both  Maine  State  and  American  Cattle  Club  Jerseys. 
The  Trues  have  bred  with  care,  and  their  animals  have  won  high 
prizes  at  our  state  fairs.  Other  breeders  of  Maine  Jerseys  are:  Willis 
Cobb,  Samuel  Greeley,  F.  M.  Woodward  and  M.  B.  Hewett,  Winthrop; 
C.  B.  Preble,  Litchfield;  J.  Henry  Moore,  West  Winthrop,  and  E.  H. 
Leavitt,  East  Winthrop.  Dr.  J.  W.  North,  Nordheim  farm,  Augusta, 
formerly  was  largely  engaged  in  breeding  American  Cattle  Club 

While  the  Maine  registered  Jerseys  have  been  more  widely  dis- 
seminated throughout  the  county  than  those  of  the  American  Cattle 
Club  Registry,  valuable  and  extensive  herds  of  the  last  named  have 
been  kept  in  the  county.  In  1SG5  the  late  Dr.  N.  R.  Boutelle,  of 
Waterville,  commenced  to  breed  Jerseys  of  the  Holmes-Henshaw  im- 
portation, but  in  1867  changed  to  American  registered  animals.  His 
first  purchases  of  this  family  were  made  of  C.  Wellington,  Lexington, 
Mass.,  in  1867.  In  1869  he  purchased  breeding  animals  of  Colonel  G.  E. 
Waring,  jun.,  of  Newport,  R.  I.,  and  F.  E.  Bowditch,  of  Framingham, 
and  in  1870  made  a  choice  purchase  from  the  noted  herd  of  Thomas 
Motley,  of  Jamacia  Plains,  Mass.  In  1871  Doctor  Boutelle  purchased 
a  fine  band  of  six  breeding  animals  from  the  great  herd  of  S.  Sheldon 
Stevens,  of  Montreal.  From  the  foundation  thus  laid  Doctor  Boutelle 
bred  animals  of  great  value  and  beauty,  and  by  maintaining  the  in- 
troduction of  new  blood  in  later  years,  from  the  best  sources,  built  up 
the  finest  herd  of  American  registered  Jerseys  ever  owned  in  the  state 
for  their  time.  In  1872,  the  late  General  W.  S.  Tilton,  then  governor 
of  the  National  Soldiers'  Home,  started  a  herd  of  Jerseys  of  the  Ameri- 
can registry  by  the  purchase  of  foundation  animals  from  Benjamin  E. 
Bates  and  Thomas  Motley,  of  Massachusetts,  subsequently  purchasing 
a  reinforcement  of  new  blood  from  such  noted  herds  as  those  of  R.  L. 
Maitland  and  John  S.  Barstow,  of  New  York.  In  1874  and  1875  Gen- 
eral Tilton  imported  animals  direct  from  the  Isle  of  Jersey,  and  the 
Togus  herd  at  that  date  consisted  of  twenty  animals,  and  was  one  of 
the  finest  in  New  England. 

At  present  the  largest  breeder  of  American  Jerseys  in  the  county, 
as  well  as  the  state,  is  Chandler  F.  Cobb,  of  Mt.  Pleasant  Farm,  South 
Vassalboro,  whose  herd  consists  of  sixty  choice,  fashionably  bred  ani- 
mals. The  leading  animals  in  the  herd  are  "  Sir  Florian,"  11,578,  im- 
ported by  T.  S.  Cooper,  Chambersburg,  Penn..  and  "  Fancy's  Harry 
7th,"  24,386.  His  herd  embraces  noted  individuals  of  the  celebrated 
Regina,  Nobie  and  Pogis  families,  and  aside  from  his  own  breeding 
Mr.  Cobb  is  making  constant  additions  of  new  blood.  His  animals 
.are  among  the  great  prize  winners  of  Maine,  and   the  product  of  his 


celebrated  dairy  has  a  high  reputation.  His  stock  farm  is  the  old 
Hawes  property,  on  a  commanding-  elevation  in  one  of  the  most 
sightly  and  picturesque  spots  in  Kennebec  county. 

Other  breeds  of  cattle  have  at  different  dates  been  imported  into 
the  county.  The  Devons  were  first  brought  in  1859  by  Allen  Lam- 
bard,  of  Augusta,  by  the  purchase  of  four  individuals  from  the  herd 
of  Joseph  Burnett,  of  Southboro,  Mass.  In  1860  he  also  purchased 
from  the  herd  of  S.  C.  Wainwright,  of  Rhinebeck,  N.  Y.,  then  the 
most  famous  herd  of  this  breed  in  America,  a  pair  of  animals,  and  with 
this  foundation  built  up  a  large  and  fine  herd.  Sewell  B.  Page,  of 
Winthrop,  bred  the  Devons  extensively  between  1865  and  1880.  In 
1855  and  1866  John  D.  Lang,  of  Vassalboro,  Timothy  Boutelle  and 
Joseph  Percival,  of  Waterville,  and  Hiram  Pope,  of  West  Gardiner, 
each  brought  in  individuals  of  the  Ayrshire  breed  from  the  herd  of 
John  P.  Gushing,  Watertown,  Mass.  There  are  many  full  blood  and 
grade  Ayrshires  now  scattered  through  the  larger  dairy  herds  of  the 
county.  The  first  specimens  of  Dutch  cattle,  afterward  called  the 
Holstein,  and  now  known  as  the  Holstein-Friesian,  were  brought  into 
the  county  by  Thomas  S.  Lang,  of  Vassalboro,  in  1864,  being  imported 
animals  from  the  very  celebrated  herd  of  Winthrop  W.  Ghenery,  of 
Belmont,  Mass.  General  W.  S.  Tilton,  while  governor  of  the  National 
Soldiers'  Home,  Togus,  obtained  a  bull  of  this  breed  of  Mr.  Ghenery, 
and  in  1871  made  an  extensive  importation  himself  from  East  Fries- 
land.  During  General  Tilton's  governorship  of  the  Home  it  had  a 
very  extensive  herd  of  imported  and  thoroughbred  HoLsteins,  which 
herd  has  been  kept  up  to  the  present  time,  and  is  now  the  largest  and 
finest  of  this  breed  in  the  county.  Grades  are  to  be  found  in  many 
towns,  and  some  thoroughbred  animals  are  also  kept  by  a  few  of  the 
leading  farmers,  Reuben  Russell,  of  Readfield,  being  one  of  the  best 
known  breeders  of  this  class  of  stock  at  present. 

In  1880-81  ten  Polled  Aberdeen-Angus  cattle  were  imported  by 
Burleigh  &  Bodwell,  the  second  importation  of  this  breed  ever  made 
into  the  United  States.  In  1882,  and  again  in  1883-4,  other  importations 
were  made.  The  animals  were  mostly  sold  to  go  west  for  bi^eeding 
purposes.  In  1883  this  firm  imported  a  herd  of  thoroughbred  Sussex 
cattle,  the  second  largest  importation  of  this  breed  ever  made  into  the 
United  States,  and  another  lot  was  iinported  in  1886.  Mr.  Burleigh 
has  continued  to  breed  this  class  of  cattle  to  the  present  time;  and 
both  he  and  his  son,  Thomas  G.  Burleigh, have  herds  of  Sussex  cattle. 
They  have  also  been  disseminated  into  other  towns  in  the  county  to  a 
limited  extent. 

Dairying. — Naturally  following  the  change  in  the  cattle  husbandry 
of  the  county,  which  took  place  when  the  general  dissemination  of  the 
Jerseys  had  displaced  the  breeds  of  cattle  formerly  raised  for  working 
oxen  and  beef  animals,  and  the  increased  attention  paid  to  dairying, 


came  the  introduction  of  associated  effort  or  cooperation  in  dairy- 
practice.  It  did  not  come,  however,  until  a  period  of  twenty  years 
had  passed  since  the  introduction  of  the  Jerseys,  during  which  time 
those  keeping  large  herds  of  this  choice  breed  had  established  a  high 
reputation  for  private  dairy  butter,  which  commanded  the  best 
markets  and  the  fancy  prices.  But  handling  the  milk  of  large  herds 
of  cows  in  the  old  way  made  very  heavy  work  in  the  household,  and 
the  day  of  the  cheese  factory  was  hailed  with  joy,  as  emancipating  the 
women  of  the  farm  home  from  the  drudgery  of  the  milk  pan  and  churn. 
Farmers  were  slow  to  change,  however,  from  the  private  methods  to 
the  factory  system  of  handling  milk.  The  Winthrop  Dairy  Associa- 
tion was  not  organized  till  April,  1874,  and  the  China  Cheese  Factory 
Company  in  March,  1874,  these  being  the  first  associations  of  the  kind 
in  the  county.  In  1875  the  "Winthrop  factory  made  47,000  pounds  of 
cheese,  and  in  1878.  60,000  pounds.  In  1881  the  Winthrop  company 
put  in  butter  making  apparatusintotlieir  factory,  and  have  since  made 
both  butter  and  cheese,  although  there  have  been  some  years  when  it 
did  not  operate.  For  one  or  two  winters  the  cream  obtained  was  sent 
to  the  Forest  City  Creamery,  Portland.  W^hen  the  average  at  the 
cheese  factories  of  the  county  required  a  fraction  above  ten  pounds 
of  milk  for  a  pound  of  cheese,  the  Winthrop  factory  averaged  for  a 
season  of  one  hundred  days  a  pound  of  cheese  from  eight  pounds  and 
seven  ounces  of  milk.  In  the  seasons  of  1890  and  1891  many  farmers 
in  Winthrop,  Fayette  and  Mt.  A'ernon  sent  their  cream  to  the  cream- 
ery at  Livermore  Falls.  In  the  summer  of  1892  the  Aroostook  Con- 
densed Milk  Company  erected  a  very  elaborate  "plant  at  Winthrop. 

The  first  cheese  factory  in  Monmouth  was  established  in  1881  by 
the  Monmouth  Dairying  Association.  This  factory  was  burned  with 
all  the  machinery  in  February,  1889;  but  a  new  building  was  imme- 
diately erected  and  operated  in  June  following  by  the  Monmouth 
Dairying  Company,  which  manufactures  both  butter  and  cheese.  The 
average  make  for  the  season  of  1891  was  2,800  pounds  of  cheese,  and 
1,400  pounds  of  butter  per  week. 

The  Fayette  Cooperative  Creamery  was  organized  in  1889  and 
built  a  factory  at  North  Fayette.  During  the  season  of  1891  it  made 
an  average  of  1,000  pounds  of  butter  a  week.  Although  owned  by  a 
stock  company,  this  factory  is  leased  by  Mr.  J.  H.  True,  who  buys  the 
cream  of  farmers  and  m,anufactures  butter  on  his  own  account.  The 
product  has  a  high  reputation,  and  the  factory  has  given  its  patrons 
great  satisfaction. 

The  East  Pittston  Creamery  Association  was  formed  in  1890,  and 
a  factory  built  costing  $2,000,  now  leased  by  E.  E.  Hanley,  who  used 
the  cream  of  120  cows  in  1891,  making  600  pounds  of  butter  per  week. 
The  price  paid  farmers  for  the  year  was  7i  cents  per  inch  of  cream 
between  April  and  September,  and  Si  cents  per  inch  between  Septem- 


ber  and  April.  This  factory  is  well  fitted  for  handling  the  cream  of 
five  hundred  cows. 

A  creamery  association  was  organized  at  Waterville  in  November, 
1891,  for  the  purpose  of  making  creamery  butter,  the  enterprise  hav- 
ing been  started  largely  through  the  efforts  of  E.  L.  Bradford,  of 
Turner,  and  R.  W.  Dunn,  of  Waterville.  A  creamery  was  erected  at 
Vassalboro  in  1892  and  began  operations  in  June. 

Instead  of  five  there  should  be  in  the  county  a  score  of  successful 
creameries.  The  cows,  the  pasture,  the  skill,  the  capital  and  the 
markets  are  all  awaiting  the  complete  development  of  this  great  in- 

Sheep. — Kennebec  county  has  never  been  so  distinctively  devoted 
to  sheep  husbandry  as  the  counties  of  Somerset  and  Franklin.  Farm- 
ers have  always  made  cattle  and  horses  the  specialties  in  stock  lines 
rather  than  sheep,  while  the  number  of  cities  and  large  towns  in  the 
county,  with  their  vast  number  of  predatory  dogs,  has  rendered  it  a 
matter  of  great  risk  to  keep  large  flocks  of  sheep  unless  in  pastures 
very  near  the  homestead.  In  hillside  pastures  remote  from  the  dwell- 
ing, the  losses  to  flocks  from  roving  dogs  have  always  been  great  and 
have  actually  driven  many  farmers  out  of  the  business  of  sheep  hus- 
bandry. Yet  English  sheep  were  imported  into  the  county  as  early 
as  1828,  and  the  old  Kennebec  Agricultural  Society  early  gave  atten- 
tion to  the  importance  of  the  subject  and  urged  it  systematically  upon 
the  notice  of  farmers.  In  June,  1832,  the  society  voted  to  "  choose  a 
committee  to  collect  information  upon  the  diseases  to  which  sheep 
are  subject  in  this  climate,  with  the  prevention  and  cure;  the  best 
breeds  of  sheep  and  the  mode  of  improving  them,  with  such  matter  as 
would  be  useful  in  a  treatise  upon  sheep  generally,  should  the  society 
deem  it  expedient  to  publish  a  work  upon  this  subject."  The  result 
of  this  action  was  the  publication,  in  1835,  of  The  Northern  Shepherd, 
written  by  Dr.  E.  Holmes.  It  is  a  small  12mo.  volume  of  131  pages, 
printed  at  Winthrop,  by  William  Noyes,  and  is  the  first  distinctively 
agricultural  treatise  ever  published  in  Maine. 

Doctor  Holmes  had  introduced  individuals  of  the  Dishleys  or  Bake- 
well  breed  into  Winthrop  in  1828,  from  the  celebrated  flock  of  Ste- 
phen Williams,  of  Northboro,  Mass.,  who  had  himself  imported  them 
from  England.  In  1830  others  of  the  same  breed  were  brought  into 
Hallowell  by  Charles  Vaughan  and  Sanford  Howard,  and  also  in  1835 
by  Reuben  H.  Green,  of  Winslow.  Charles  Vaughan  brought  some 
pure  bred  Southdowns  into  Hallowejl  in  1834,  being  the  first  of  this 
breed  ever  introduced  into  the  state.  In  1844  Doctor  Holmes  brought 
into  Winthrop  a  Cotswold  buck — the  first  specimen  of  this  breed  ever 
brought  into  Maine.  About  1842  several  farmers  m  towns  in  the 
western  part  of  the  county  united  in  purchasing  in  Vermont  a  num- 
ber of  the  Vermont  Merinos  from  the  flock  of  the  eminent  breeder. 


S.  W.  Jewett,  crossing  them  upon  their  own  flocks  to  much  advantage. 
The  Langs,  of  Yassalboro.  were  early  and  continuous  importers  and 
improvers  of  sheep,  having  always  the  best  flocks  of  Southdowns  and 
Cotswolds.  In  1853  Moses  Taber,  of  Vassalboro,  obtained  individuals 
of  the  Spanish  Merino  breed  from  G.  S.  Marsh  and  Eben  Bridge,  of 
Pomfret,  Vt.,  eminent  breeders  in  that  state;  from  whom  Ephraim 
Maxham,  of  Waterville,  obtained  the  celebrated  buck  "  Green 
Mountain  Boy  "  the  same  year.  In  ISoS  Rev.  W.  A.  P.  Dillingham 
introduced  the  Oxford  Downs  and  Southdowns  upon  his  farm  in  Sid- 
ney; H.  C.  Burleigh  introduced  into  Waterville  fine  specimens  of 
Southdowns  the  same  year,  and  a  few  years  later  specimens  of  the 
same  breed  were  introduced  into  Wayne  by  W.  B.  Frost;  into  Au- 
gusta by  Allen  Lambard;  into  Readfield  by  Samuel  G.  Fogg,  and  into 
Vienna  by  Obadiah  Whittier.  At  about  the  same  date  the  Cotswolds 
were  introduced  in  Vassalboro  by  Hon.  Warren  Percival,  and  into 
Waterville  by  his  brother,  Joseph  Percival. 

One  of  the  finest,  if,  indeed,  it  may  not  rightfully  be  called  the 
very  finest,  flocks  of  Southdowns  ever  kept  in  the  county  was  that  of 
the  late  Dr.  N.  R.  Boutelle,  of  Waterville,  who  for  many  years  de- 
voted a  great  deal  of  attention  to  the  breeding  of  this  class  of  sheep. 
He  was  a  leading  exhibitor  and  high  prize  winner  at  state  and  New 
England  fairs  from  1865  to  the  time  of  his  death,  his  interest  in  the 
breeding  of  stock  never  having  left  him,  and  it  was  carried  on  with 
a  great  deal  of  intelligence  and  enthusiasm  throughout  all  these  years. 
Other  leading  farmers  who  have  made  a  specialty  of  sheep  husbandry 
have  been:  N.  R.  Gates  and  H.  G.  Abbott,  of  Vassalboro;  the  late  Ira 
D.  Sturgis,  of  Augusta;  C.  B.  Wellington  and  O.  O.  Crosby,  of  Albion, 
and  C.  K.  Sawtelle,  of  Sidney. 

Horses. — The  first  historic  mention  of  efforts  at  improving  the 
breeds  of  horses  of  Maine  was  m  March,  1819,  when  the  Kennebec 
Agricultural  Society  voted  to  raise  a  committee  to  confer  with  the 
trustees  of  the  Maine  Agricultural  Society  to  offer  a  liberal  premium 
for  bringing  "  a  good  stock  "  horse  into  the  county;  "for,"  says  the 
resolution,  "  it  is  with  deep  concern  we  can  but  notice  the  almost 
total  silence  and  neglect  in  relation  to  a  noble  race  of  animals— the 
horse."  From  that  day  Kennebec  county  has  been  the  home  of  some 
of  the  most  distinguished  performers  upon  the  American  turf,  and 
held  for  one  year  the  crown  of  the  world's  record  for  the  fastest  stallion 

The  foundation  of  the  magnificent  horses  of  Kennebec  county  rests 
in  the  blood  of  "  Imported  Messenger,"  of  whom  so  great  an  authority 
as  John  H.  Wallace  says:  "  He  founded  a  race  of  trotters  that  have  no 
superiors  in'the  Union;  a  race  that  all  the  world  recognizes  as  among 
the  fastest  and  best  that  this  country  has  ever  produced."  "  AVin- 
throp  "  or  "  Maine  ^Messenger  "  was  purchased  in  Paris,  Oneida  county 


N.  Y.,  and  brought  to  Winthrop  by  Alvin  Ilayward— probably  after 
the  premium  provided  for  in  1819.  The  testimony  is  clear  that  "  Win- 
throp Messenger  "  was  a  son  of  '•  Imported  Messenger,"  brought  from 
England  to  New  York  in  1791.  Those  who  saw  "  Winthrop  Messen- 
ger "  say  he  was  "  a  large,  white,  muscular  horse,  with  a  clumsy  head, 
but  well  proportioned  body  and  legs."  His  colts  were  superior  road- 
sters, very  many  of  them  exceedingly  fast  trotters,  posse.ssing  great 
endurance.  "  Winthrop  Messenger  "  was  kept  in  Kennebec  and  Som- 
erset counties,  and  died  at  Anson  in  1834.  Between  1820  and  1850  his 
descendants  became  famous  and  were  sought  after  from  all  parts  of 
the  country.  Farmers  sold  their  best  colts,  which  were  carried  to 
other  states,  where  they  were  trained  to  the  early  trotting  courses. 

Sanford  Howard,  who  was  better  informed  on  the  horses  of 
America  than  most  writers  of  his  time,  said  in  1852:  "  Maine  has,  un- 
til within  a  few  years,  furnished  nearly  all  the  trotting  stock  of  any 
note  in  the  country."  And  Maine,  for  thirty  years  preceding  that  date, 
meant  Kennebec  county,  so  far  as  its  horse  breeding  and  agricultural 
interests  were  in  question.  Among  the  famous  descendants  of  old 
"  Messenger  "  which  gave  renown  to  Maine  and  to  the  breed,  are 
many  whose  names  are  famous  in  the  annals  of  the  American  turf. 
The  famous  mare,  "  Fanny  Pullen,"  was  bred  by  Sullivan  Pullen,  Au- 
gusta, about  1825,  and  at  Harlem,  in  1835,  made  the  unparalleled  time 
of  2.33.  She  was  the  dam  of  the  incomparable  "  Trustee,"  the  first 
horse  in  America  to  trot  twenty  miles  inside  of  one  hour  (Long  Island, 
October  20,  1848). 

A  celebrated  horse,  "  Quicksilver,"  was  brought  to  Winthrop  in 
lS18^by  James  Pullen,  and  there  was  for  a  time  much  rivalry  between 
the  Messenger  and  Quicksilver  stock.  The  Quicksilvers  were  hand- 
some, good  moving,  spirited  horses,  but  lacked  endurance.  "  To 
Winthrop  Messenger,"  says  Thompson  in  his  History  of  Maine  Horses, 
"  Maine  is  more  largely  indebted  for  whatever  speed  she  may  possess 
than  to  any  other  source." 

The  Drew  family  was  founded  in  1842,  but  the  Drews  have  never 
been  so  prominent  in  Kennebec  county  as  have  other  families. 
"  General  McClellan,"  one  of  the  most  famous  stallions  of  this  family, 
was  owned  by  George  M.  Robinson,  of  Augusta,  between  1 861  and  1865. 
He  got  a  record  of  2.26,  was  sold  to  Boston  parties  and  finally  went  to 
California.  The  original  Eaton  horse,  founder  of  the  Eaton  stock, 
was  owned  by  William  Beale,  of  Winthrop,  from  1854  to  1859,  and  the 
breed  has  always  been  in  good  repute  throughout  Maine.  One  of  the 
most  celebrated  of  his  descendants  was  "  vShepherd  F.  Knapp,"  who 
was  taken  to  France,  where  he  trotted  famous  races  at  the  Bois  de 
Boulogne.  Another  celebrated  Eaton  horse  was  "Shepherd  Knapp, 
Jr.,"  purchased  m  1866  by  George  M.  Delaney,  of  Augusta,  for  $3,250, 


deemed  at  the  time  a  ver}^  high  price.  He  was  sold  afterward  to  go 
to  Boston,  where  he  made  his  best  record,  2.27|,  June  17,  1880. 

"  Winthrop  Morrill  "  (formerly  called  "Slasher"  and  "  Winthrop 
Boy"),  the  founder  of  the  celebrated  Morrill  family  of  horses,  was 
brought  to  Waterville  by  Asher  Savage  in  1862,  and  in  1863  bought 
by  Jackson  &  Rounds,  of  Winthrop.  In  1871  he  was  sold  and  taken 
to  Boston.  In  1866  Obadiah  Whittier,  of  Vienna,  brought  to  that  town 
the  stallion  "  Cadmus,"  bred  by  Daniel  McMillan,  of  Xenia,  Ohio.  He 
was  afterward  owned  by  Means  &  Butler,  of  Augusta.  The  thorough- 
bred stallion  "  Annfield "  was  brought  to  Vassalboro,  in  1868,  by 
Thomas  S.  Lang,  who  purchased  him  of  the  Nova  Scotia  government. 
Three  years  later  he  was  sold  and  taken  to  Oxford  county.  The  Fear- 
naughts  were  introduced  into  this  county  by  E.  L.  Norcross,  of  Man- 
chester, who  formed  a  partnership  with  B.  S.  Wright,  of  Boston,  and 
established  a  horse  breeding  farm  in  Manchester  in  1866.  Among  the 
noted  members  of  this  family  were  "  Carenaught,"  "Manchester," 
"Emery  Fearnaught,"  "Young  Fearnaught,"  and  "  Fearnaught,  Jr." 

In  1859  Thomas  S.  Lang,  of  Vassalboro,  began  a  breeding  stud 
which  soon  took  high  rank  among  the  most  noted  in  the  country. 
This  was  maintained  for  many  years  and  brought  Kennebec  county 
into  great  prominence.  The  first  purchase  by  Mr.  Lang  consisted  of 
the  stallions  "General  Knox,"  "Bucephalus,"  "Black  Hawk  Tele- 
graph," "  Grey  Fox  "  and  the  finely  bred  brood  mare  "  Priscilla." 
Within  a  year  or  two  after  this  first  purchase  Mr.  Lang  bought  the 
stallions  "Sharon,"  "Ned  Davis"  and  "Trenton."  Subsequently  he 
purchased  the  stallions  known  as  the  "  Palmer  Horse  "  and  "  Gideon," 
145,  by  Rysdyk's  Hambletonian,  10.  Mr.  Lang  sold  "  General  Knox" 
in  1871  for  $10,000.  He  was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  horses  ever 
owned  in  Maine,  and  has  done  more  toward  improving  our  stock  of 
horses,  bringing  the  state  into  prominence  as  a  horse  breeding  state 
and  causing  more  money  to  come  to  Maine  from  other  states  for  the 
purchase  of  fine  horses  than  any  other  single  horse  ever  owned  here. 
Mr.  Lang  deserves  remembrance  as  one  who  builded  better  than  he 
knew  when  his  breeding  operations  were  being  carried  on. 

Sunnyside  Farm,  Waterville,  home  of  the  stallion  "  Nelson,"  was 
established  by  Charles  Horace  Nelson,  in  1882.  Mr.  Nelson's  stud 
consists  of  eight  leading  horses,  including  "  Nelson,"  2.10;  "  Dictator 
Chief,"  2.2U:  "  Red  Hawk,"  8,508;  "Wilkes,"  8,571;  "  Jedwood,"  5,166; 
and  finely  bred  trotting  stock  to  the  number  of  seventy-five  individ- 
uals. The  stallion  "  NeLson  "  is  now  ten  years  old.  His  records  are; 
Two  3'ear  old,  2.50;  three  year  old,  2.26f ;  five  year  old,  2.21^;  Bangor, 
Maine,  September  10,  1890,  2.15^;  Kankakee,  111.,  September  27,  1890, 
2.12;  Kankakee,  111.,  September  29,  1890,  2.11i;  Terre  Haut,  Ind.,  Oc- 
tober 9,  1890,  2.11i;  Cambridge  City,  Ind.,  October  21,  1890,  2.10|. 
This  last,  the  champion  trotting  stallion  record  of  the  world,  he  held 


until  his  performance  at  Grand  Rapids,  Mich.,  September,  1891,  when 
he  lowered  his  record  to  2.10. 

In  1890  Mountain  Farm,  devoted  to  the  breeding  of  trotting  stock, 
was  established  at  Waterville  by  Appleton  Webb,  and  for  the  brief 
time  it  has  been  under  Mr.  Webb's  management  has  won  high  repu- 
tation. Mr.  Webb  has  now  about  thirty  fancy  bred  trotters,  the  lead- 
ing individuals  being  "  Pickering,"  by  Rysdyk's  Hambletonian; 
"Resolute"  (record  at  five  years,  2.26i);  "Mountaineer,"  "Judge 
Rolfe,"  and  "Appleton,"  by  "Nelson;"  and  mares  by  "Nelson," 
"  Young  Rolfe,"  "Rockefeller"  and  "Gideon." 

Many  single  individuals  of  great  speed  or  high  value  to  the  im- 
provement of  the  horse  stock  of  the  county  have  been  bred  or  owned 
at  different  periods  in  the  various  towns  in  the  county,  among  the 
most  prominent  of  which  have  been  the  following:  Emperor,  bred  by 
Lemuel  Pullen,AVaterville,  about  1827;  Young  Warrior,  bred  by  James 
Pullen,  Hallowell,  in  1828;  James  G.  Blaine,  bred  by  James  Blanch- 
ard,  Pittston,  in  1866;  Col.  Lakeman,  bred  by  George  M.  Robinson, 
Augusta,  in  1861;  Independence,  bred  by  Captain  Joshua  Wing,  Win- 
throp,  in  1832;  Pelham,  owned  by  B.  Esmond,  Gardiner,  in  1837;  Phil 
Sheridan,  bred  by  Daniel  Fawsett,  Windsor,  in  1860;  Whirlpool,  bred 
by  Moses  Stacy,  Benton,  in  1867;  Troublesome,  bred  by  William  Pen- 
niman,  Readfield,  in  18i")9;  Young  Ethan  Allen, bred  by  Eliab  L.  Eaton, 
Manchester,  in  1860;  Carlotta,  bred  by  W.  A.  P.  Dillingham,  Sidney, 
in  1857:  Sultan,  a  thoroughbred  stallion,  brought  to  Augusta  by  Gen- 
eral William  S.  Tilton,in  1875;  Lancaster,  brought  to  Augusta  in  1873, 
by  Allen  Lambard;  Black  Pilot,  owned  by  Major  John  T.  Richards,  of 
Gardiner,  in  1875;  Beacon,  owned  by  Wright  &  Norcross,  Manchester, 
in  1873;  Victor,  bred  by  Dr.  F.  A.  Roberts,  Vassalboro;  Zac  Tajdor, 
bred  by  Doctor  Saflford,  West  Gardiner,  in  1841;  Susie  Owen,  bred  by 
C.  H.  Nelson,  Waterville,  in  1877;  Pilot  Knox,  owned  by  John  H.  May, 
Augusta,  in  1883;  Independence,  bred  by  Frank  Taylor,  South  Vassal- 
boro, and  owned  by  W.  E.  Potter,  Augusta,  in  1871;  Constellation, 
brought  from  Lexington,  Ky,,  in  1878,  by  General  W.  S.  Tilton, 
Augusta;  Glenarm,  bred  by  General  W.  S.  Tilton,  Augusta;  Gilbreth 
Knox,  bred  by  Samuel  Guild,  Augusta,  in  1862;  Echo,  bred  by  Andrew 
H.  Rice,  Oakland,  about  1872:  Captain  Pulley,  2,985,  an  imported  Per- 
cheron,  brought  to  Waterville  in  1883,  by  Blaisdell  &  Folsom;  and 
Arrival,  2.24-J-,  brought  to  Gardiner  in  1889,  by  A.  J.  Libby. 

The  leading  horse  breeding  farms  now  in  the  county  besides  those 
already  mentioned  in  detail  are:  Highmoor  Farm,  Monmouth;  Enter- 
prise Farm,  Augusta;  Elmwood  Farm,  Augusta;  Randolph  Stock  Farm, 
Randolph;  Pine  Grove  Farm,  Hallowell;  and  Pine  Tree  Stock  Farm, 

Kennebec  Tzvo-T/nrty  List. — The  list  below  embraces  the  name, 
breeder's  name,  and  time  of  each  horse  bred  in  Kennebec  county  that 


had  a  record  of  2.30  or  better  to  the  close  of  the  season  of  1891. 
Horses  not  bred  here,  and  about  whose  pedigree  there  is  any  question, 
are  not  included: 


Arthur John  Judkins,  Waterville 2.28^ 

Arthur  T  Mr.  Palmer,  South  China 2.30 

Artist C.  H.   Nelson,  Waterville 2.29 

Aubine C.  H.  Nelson,  Waterville 2.19^ 

Baby  Boy Emmons  Williams,  Readfield 2.30 

Bay Chas.  B.   Oilman,  Waterville 2.27^ 

Ben   Morrill Harrison  Ames,  Winthrop 2.27 

Centurion F.  G.  Richards.  Gardiner 2.27^ 

Ed.  Getchell A.  J.  Crowell,  AVinthrop .2.27" 

Gilbreth  ;Knox Samuel  Guild,  Augusta 2.26f 

Glenarm W.  S.  Tilton ,  Togus,  Augusta 2.23* 

Glengarry Isaac  Downing,  East  Monmouth 2.27 

Honest  Harry Mr.  Wood,  Winthrop 2.22^ 

Hudson Elijah  Brimmer,  Clinton 2.29 

Independence Joshua  Wing,  Winthrop 2.28 

Independence   [Potter's]. Frank  Taylor,  South  Vassalboro  2.21^ 

lolanthe John  C.  Mullen,  North  A^assalboro 2.30 

James  G.  Blaine James   Blanchard,  Pittston 2.28f 

John  S.  Heald John  Libby,  Gardiner 2.27i 

J.  G.  Morrill John  F.  Young,  Winthrop 2.29 

Knox  Boy I.  J.  Carr,  Gardiner 2.23* 

Lady  Maud Thomas  S.  Lang,  Vassalboro 2.18^ 

Medora C.  H.  Nelson,  Waterville 2.20i 

Molly  Mitchell J.  S.  Cooper,  Pittston 2.26^ 

Nellie  M Foster  Brown,  Waterville 2.28i 

Nelson C.   H.  Nelson,  Waterville 2.10 

Pelham ■ B.  Esmond,  Gardiner 2.28 

Pemberton E.  L.  Norcross,  Manchester 2.29^ 

Sam  Curtis Newton  Packard,  Winthrop 2.28 

Startle A.  C.  Marston,  Waterville 2.26^ 

Susie  Owen... C.  H.  NeLson,  Waterville 2.26 

Tinnie  B John  Libby,  Gardiner 2.27i 

Tom  Rolfe Wright  &  Norcross,  Manchester 2.22i 

Victor F.  A.  Roberts,  Vassalboro 2.23 

The  great  interest  in  horse  breeding  in  this  county  has  led  to  the 
formation  of  several  local  trotting  associations  and  the  building  of 
many  private  and  society  tracks.  Agricultural  societies  in  Readfield, 
Waterville,  Windsor,  Pittston  and  West  Gardiner,  maintain  public 
tracks.  Tracks  were  built  at  Monmouth  in  1871;  at  Litchfield  in  1870; 
at  China  in  1868;  and  at  Gardiner,  Oakland  Park,  in  1855.  These 
tracks  have  since  been  abandoned.     The  track  at  Augusta,  now  under 


control  of  the  Capital  Driving  Park  Association,  dates  back  to  1858, 
and  has  been  maintained  to  the  present  time  with  but  few  intermis- 
sions, although  under  management  of  different  individuals  and  asso- 
ciations. Six  private  tracks  have  been  built  in  the  county  at  different 
times,  four  of  which  are  now  maintained,  viz.:  H.  C.  Nelson,  Water- 
ville;  Appleton  Webb,  Waterville;  A.  J.  Libby,  Farmingdale:  W.  H. 
Merrill,  Meadow  Park,  West  Gardiner.  The  abandoned  private  tracks 
are  those  built  by  the  late  George  M.  Robinson,  Augusta,  in  1872;  and 
by  the  late  Allen  Lambard,  Augusta,  about  1873. 

An  act,  framed  by  General  William  S.  Tilton,  and  approved  Feb- 
ruary 26,  1873,  "  for  the  better  preservation  of  horse  records,"  required 
the  registry  of  stallions  and  their  pedigrees  to  be  recorded  at  the 
registry  of  deeds,  and  a  certificate  of  such  registry  issued  to  the  owner 
of  the  horse  recorded. 

Orchards. — Kennebec  county— the  natural  home  of  the  apple  tree 
— is  pre-eminently  the  fruit-growing  section  of  Maine.  While  other 
counties  located  contiguously  have  similar  natural  advantages,  Kenne- 
bec exceeds  all  other  counties  in  the  state  in  the  number  and  size  of 
its  apple  orchards,  the  good  methods  given  to  the  business  of  growing 
and  handling  the  fruit  by  farmers  and  the  high  results  obtained.  The 
natural  drainage  is  excellent  on  most  farms,  or  at  least  on  those  por- 
tions set  with  orchards.  The  climate  produces  a  highly  colored,  good 
sized,  firm  fleshed  apple  that  will  bear  trans-Atlantic  shipment.* 

For  the  first  systematic  improvement  of  the  fruits  of  Kennebec 
county  we  must  go  back  to  1797,  when  Mr.  John  Hesketh  came  over 
to  this  country  as  the  head  gardener  of  the  Vaughan  farms  and  to 
have  charge  of  their  extensive  gardens,  nurseries  and  hot-houses.  To 
his  skill  more,  perhaps,  than  to  the  knowledge  of  Doctor  Vaughan 
himself,  are  the  farmers  of  Kennebec  county  indebted  for  the  choice 
varieties  of  fruits  that  were  disseminated  from  the  Vaughan  gardens, 
some  of  which  are  esteemed  varieties  in  cultivation  at  the  present 

The  fruit  propagated  at  the  Vaughan  farms  was  largely  dissemi- 
nated in  the  leading  agricultural  towns  in  the  county  at  that  time — 
Hallowell,  Winthrop,  Monmouth,  Readfield,  Pittston  and  Vassalboro. 
The  early  settlers  of  these  towns  brought  apple  seeds  with  them  from 
the  Old  Colony,  whence  they  came,  or  had  them  sent  after  they  had 
provided  a  place  to  plant  them.  Writing  in  1847,  Major  Elijah  Wood 
says  that  when  he  came  to  Winthrop  in  1788,  there  were  a  number  of 
farmers  who  had  "beginnings  of  orchards,"  and  upon  the  farm  of 
Squire  Bishop  was  an  orchard  in  a  "  bearing  state,"  the  trees  of  which 
came  from  apple  seed  obtained  from  "  Rehoboth,  Mass.,"  and  planted 
in  a  nursery  in  that  town.     Ichabod   How  brought  choice  seeds  from 

♦Notwithstanding  the  recent  ravages  of  the  new  orchard  pest,  trxpcta  potnon- 
alis,  new  orchards  are  continually  being  set. 


Ipswich,  Mass.,  planted  out  the  first  orchard  and  made  the  first  cider 
ever  made  in  Winthrop,  by  pounding  the  apples  and  pressing  them  in 
a  cheese  press.  The  grafting  in  Winthrop  was  done  by  Elijah 
Wood,  who  brought  the  Rhode  Island  Greening  and  High-top  Sweet- 
ing from  the  Old  Colony  and  grafted  them  into  trees  in  David  Foster's 
orchard  about  1792.  "  Winthrop  became  celebrated  for  its  cider  of 
good  quality,"  says  Major  Wood,  "  and  the  first  owners  of  orchards 
had  a  ready  sale  for  all  their  apples  at  about  67  cents  per  bushel." 
Isaac  Smith,  who  settled  in  Monmouth  in  1795,  coming  from  Middle- 
borough,  Mass.,  brought  with  him  seed  selected  from  the  hardiest  and 
best  fruit,  and  planted  a  nursery  in  that  town.  Among  the  varieties 
of  apples  known  to  have  been  introduced  from  England  by  the 
Vaughans  were  the  Ribston  Pippin  and  King  Sweeting;  while  Hallo- 
well  is  to-day  famous  for  its  magnificent  cherries,  the  direct  product 
of  those  imported  by  the  A^aughans,  and  so  famous  in  their  own  time. 
The  Pearmain  was  the  principal  winter  apple,  all  the  others  being 
manufactured  into  cider. 

The  late  Alfred  Smith,  of  Monmouth,  writing  in  1877.  said:  "  The 
pioneer  farmers  of  Winthrop  were  very  little  versed  in  the  art  of 
grafting  or  budding  trees,  and  it  was  thought  to  require  as  much  skill 
to  set  a  scion  and  have  it  grow  as  to  amputate  an  arm  or  leg."  The 
farmers  who  raised  large  quantities  of  apples  made  them  into  cider, 
which  was  a  universal  beverage,  "  put  in  "  with  a  winter's  supply  of 
necessaries  by  the  well-to-do  people,  as  much  as  was  pork  or  home 
made  butter  and  cheese.  Mr.  Smith  said  that  cider  sold  at  from  "  six 
to  eight  dollars  per  barrel,"  a  market  for  it  being  found  in  the  newer 
towns  in  Franklin  and  Somerset  counties.  When  cider  was  the  most 
profitable  product  of  the  orchard  there  was  no  inducement  to  "  en- 
graft "  orchards  or  seek  the  best  table  fruits — hence  it  is  not  strange 
that  the  first  farmers  reared  up  trees  without  a  thought  for  quality  or 
merit  of  fruit. 

The  state  owes  more  to  the  late  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes  for  his  efforts 
in  the  improvement  of  our  own  varieties  of  apples  than  to  any  other 
man  who  ever  lived  in  Maine.  In  1847  he  organized  the  Maine  Pomo- 
logical  Society,  which  did  the  first  work  in  classifying  our  Maine 
fruits,  properly  describing  them,  and  bringing  them  to  the  attention  of 
pomologists  in  other  states.  When  S.  W.  Cole  published  his  American 
Fruit  Book,  in  1849,  he  made  special  acknowledgments  to  Doctor 
Holmes  for  great  assistance,  and  catalogued  ten  varieties  of  apples 
that  originated  in  Maine,  five  of  which  were  Winthrop  seedlings. 
Later  lists  in  the  transactions  of  the  Maine  State  Pomological  Society 
embrace  eleven  apples  and  one  pear  which  originated  in  this  county. 
Winthrop  contributes  six  varieties,  viz.:  Fairbanks,  originated  on  the 
farm  of  Elijah  Fairbanks;  Winthrop  Greening,  originated  on  the  farm 
of  Ichabod   How,  introduced  by  Jacob  Nelson;  Winthrop  Pearmain 


and  Everlasting,  originated  by  Colonel  John  Fairbanks:  vStanle}''s 
Winter  Sweet,  originated  on  the  farm  of  J.  L.  Stanley,  and  Moses 
Wood,  originated  by  Moses  Wood.  Other  native  apples  of  this  county 
are:  Bailey's  Golden  Sweet,  originated  by  Paul  Bailey,  Sidney;  Litch- 
field Pippin,  originated  upon  the  farm  of  William  Hutchins,  Litch- 
field; Smith's  Favorite,  originated  by  Isaac  Smith,  Monmouth;  and 
Starkey,  originated  by  J.  W.  Starkey,  Vassalboro.  The  Nickerson 
pear  was  originated  by  Hiram  S.  Nickerson,  Readfield. 

Many  other  good  varieties  of  lesser  note  have  been  raised  by  Ken- 
nebec county  orchardists,  and  several  small  fruits  have  also  been 
originated  here,  among  them  the  0.sborn  strawberry,  a  seedling  much 
esteemed  in  the  Waterville  and  Augusta  markets,  brought  out  by  the 
late  Charles  Osborn,  of  Vassalboro.  The  growing  of  small  fruits  is  re- 
ceiving increased  attention,  especially  in  towns  which  command  the 
markets  of  the  cities  and  large  villages. 

There  are  several  localities  in  the  count}-  especiall}'  favorable  to 
the  cranberry  and  where  the  Cultivation  of  this  fruit  might  be  ex- 
tended to  a  profitable  degree.  Many  persons  grow  them  to  a  limited 
extent,  while  among  the  larger  growers  were  formerly  D.  E.  Manter, 
Sidney;  and  at  present  the  Ware  Brothers,  Pittston,  the  late  B.  F. 
Butler,  Mt.  Vernon,  and  Eben  Wellman,  Augusta.  The  small  cran- 
berry beds  of  the  late  Mr.  Fuller  are  kept  in  excellent  condition  b}^ 
members  of  his  family  and  yield  very  fine  fruit.  The  Ware  Brothers 
raised  about  250  bushels  in  1891.  Mr.  Wellman  has  the  most  exten- 
sive cranberry  beds  in  the  county  and  gives  almost  his  entire  time  to 
the  crop,  having  commenced  their  culture  in  a  small  way  in  1878,  but 
devoting  increased  attention  to  their  systematic  culture  during  the 
past  seven  years.  His  cranberry  farm  is  located  in  the  eastern  part 
of  Augusta  and  the  beds  embrace  an  area  of  seven  acres,  all  cut  into  a 
uniform  size  of  two  rods  in  width  by  forty  rods  in  length — the  soil 
being  a  deep,  rich,  vegetable  mold  or  muck.  Between  and  around 
each  and  all  the  beds  a  canal  is  cut,  into  which  water  is  conducted 
from  a  reservoir  of  six  acres  in  extent,  the  canals  being  arranged  with 
a  series  of  gates  so  that  the  water  can  be  let  in  over  one  or  all  of  the 
beds  as  is  desired.  By  leaving  the  gates  open  at  night  the  beds  are 
all  covered  with  water  before  morning  of  sufficient  depth  to  protect 
the  berries  from  frost  in  the  fall  of  the  year,  while  in  the  spring  the 
same  method  is  employed  to  prevent  the  attacks  of  injurious  insects. 
Mr.  Wellman 's  crop  in  1891  was  170  barrels,  the  variety  grown  being 
the  Cherry,  and  they  have  a  high  reputation  in  the  leading  markets. 

Among  the  largest  orchards  and  most  intelligent,  progressive  fruit 
growers  in  the  county  are:  W.  P.  Atherton,  Hallowell,  2,000  trees;  J. 
Pope  &  Son,  Manchester,  1,500  trees;  D.  M.  Marston,  Monmouth,  1,200 
trees;  Rev.  J.  R.  Day,  Monmouth,  2,600  trees;  George  W.  Waugh, 
Monmouth,  1,200  trees;  Miss  L.  L.  Taylor,  Belgrade;  C.  M.  Weston, 


Belgrade,  2,000  apple  trees,  400  pear  trees:  George  A.  Longfellow. 
Winthrop;  Oakes  Howard,  Winthrop:  J.  M.  Pike,  Wayne,  3,000  trees 
J.  C.  Sanford,  Readfield;  J.  H.  Smiley,  Vassalboro;  the  Cook  Brothers 
Vassalboro,  3,000  trees;  J.  Wesley  Taylor,  Winslow;  George  W.  Fogg 
Monmouth,  1,000  trees;  J.  Colby  Dudley,  Readfield;  J.  O.  Butman 
Readfield;  George  H.  Pope,  East  Vassalboro:  The  Oaklands  Orchard 
heirs  of  Robert  Hallowell  Gardiner  estate,  Gardiner;  and  Albert  R 
Ward,  China,  700  trees. 

The  estimate  of  apple  buyers  and  shippers  is  that  upon  an  average 
90,000  barrels  of  choice  commercial  apples  are  annually  shipped  from 
the  towns  in  Kennebec  county  to  the  great  markets,  one-fourth  of 
which  are  sent  abroad. 

An  effort  was  made  by  the  State  Pomological  Society  in  1876  to 
collect  information  regarding  the  nurseries  of  the  county  and  the 
number  of  trees  in  stock,  with  a  view  to  keeping  at  home  much  of  the 
money  paid  out  to  foreign  nurserymen  and  at  the  same  time  obtain- 
ing a  tree  better  adapted  to  this  soil  and  climate.  There  were  found 
six  nursery  firms  then  in  the  county,  with  the  following  number  of 
trees  in  stock:  A.  Smith  &  Son,  Monmouth,  3,000;  H.  B.  Williams, 
South  China,  3,000;  N.  R.  Pike,  Winthrop,  10,000;  Charles  I.  Perley, 
Vassalboro,  20,000;  J.  A.  Varney  &  Son,  North  Vassalboro,  40,000: 
Bowman  Brothers,  Sidney,  75,000;  a  total  of  151,000  trees. 

Other  intelligent,  active  and  progressive  pomologists  of  the  county, 
held  in  grateful  veneration  for  their  services  to  this  branch  of  our 
rural  economy,  are:  Joseph  Taylor,  of  Belgrade,  a  leading  orchardist 
and  large  exhibitor  of  fruits  at  state  fairs,  who  died  in  July,  1882, 
aged  78  years;  Alfred  Smith,  of  Monmouth,  who  died  February  19, 
1885,  aged  77  years,  a  large  orchardist  and  well  known  writer  on 
pomological  subjects  for  the  agricultural  press;  and  Hon.  Robert  Hal- 
lowell Gardiner,  owner  of  the  celebrated  estate  "  The  Oaklands,"  and 
of  its  famous  orchard  of  Bellflowers,  in  Gardiner,  a  life  member  and 
for  four  years  president  of  the  State  Pomological  Society,  who  died 
September  12,  1886,  aged  77  years. 

Conclusion.— This  glimpse  of  what  the  farmers  of  Kennebec 
county  have  accomplished  during  the  past  century  in  the  special 
lines  for  "  the  improvement  of  agriculture  and  bettering  the  condi- 
tion of  the  husbandman,"  presupposes  that  in  other  directions  equal 
intelligence  and  progressive  views  have  been  employed  and  as  high 
results  obtained. 

All  the  cereals,  fruits  and  vegetables  known  to  the  agriculture  of 
this  latitude  are  here  rai.sed  to  perfection.  Hay,  the  great  staple  crop, 
yields  upon  our  farms  more  than  the  average  ton  to  the  acre  which 
the  agricultural  department  credits  the  state  with  producing.  In 
early  times  the  county  raised  its  own  wheat,  and  even  exported  it; 
and  now  wherever  wheat  is  sown  it  produces  an  average  yield  higher 


than  that  of  the  wheat  growing  states  of  the  West.  Indian  corn  is 
the  glory  of  the  farm  as  a  cereal.  One  hundred  bushels  of  shelled 
corn  to  the  acre  have  been  many  times  raised  as  a  premium  crop, 
while  the  average  is  but  little  above  one  hundred  bushels  of  ears  to 
the  acre. 

Sweet  corn  has  for  many  years  been  a  specialty.  Packing  factories 
have  been  established  at  Winthrop,  Wayne,  Fayette,  Monmouth,  Vas- 
salboro,  Belgrade,  Oakland,  West  Gardiner  and  Hallowell.  The  crop 
yields  about  $50  per  acre,  leaving  the  stalks  for  winter  fodder.  The 
use  of  ensilaged  corn  fodder  is  successfully  employed,  especially  by 
milk  producing  farmers,  who,  living  in  the  vicinity  of  our  cities,  are 
known  to  be  among  the  best  and  most  prosperous  farmers  in  the 
county,  paying  great  attention  to  their  herds  and  keeping  their  farms 
in  the  most  fertile  condition.  In  fact,  in  all  lines  of  rural  economy 
the  farmers  of  Kennebec  county  have  made  husbandry  a  business  and 
a  study,  the  successful  results  of  which  are  apparent  all  over  our  beau- 
tiful hills  and  through  our  lovely  valleys,  in  every  town  and  district, 
where  comfortable  homes  and  well  tilled  farms  speak  of  industry, 
economy  and  independence. 



Early  Methods  of   Travel.— Stage  Routes.— Water   Routes   and  Steamboats.— 
Captain  Jason  Collins. — Railroads. 

IN  THE  present  day  of  rapid  steam  and  electric  transportation  by 
land  and  water,  when  the  people  and  products  of  towns  and  cities 
removed  from  one  another  by  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  state 
are  transferred  in  the  course  of  a  single  day,  it  is  hard  to  adequately 
appreciate  the  almost  insuperable  obstacles  that  lay  in  the  way  of 
intercourse  between  the  early  settlements.  The  river  was  of  course 
the  main  thoroughfare,  whenever  practicable,  and  in  the  warmer 
months  was  traversed  by  bateaux,  shallops  and  other  primitive  craft, 
while  in  the  winter  rude  sledges  were  employed  in  conveying  stores 
and  family  goods  upon  its  frozen  surface.  The  means  of  communica- 
tion with  the  county  from  the  earlier  settlements  to  the  westward 
were  many-fold  more  difficult,  and  days  and  weeks  were  consumed  in 
toilsomely  driving  ox-teams,  loaded  with  the  lares  and  penates  of  the 
household,  through  a  wilderness  to  which  the  early  guides  were  the 
blazed  and  spotted  trees,  commemorative  of  a  still  earlier  migration  of 
hardy  pioneers. 

In  1754  the  first  military  road  in  the  state  was  made  between  Forts 
Western  and  Halifax.  This  was  done  by  order  of  Governor  Shirley, 
who  at  the  same  time  made  arrangements  for  the  transmission  of  ex- 
presses by  whale  boats  from  Fort  Halifax  to  Portland  in  twenty  hours, 
returning  in  twenty-four.  The  military  road  being  impassable  in 
winter,  owing  to  the  depth  of  snow,  barrels  of  provisions  and  other 
stores  were  carried  from  the  lower  to  the  upper  fort  on  hand  sleds. 
This  occasioned  Captain  Hunter  to  say  to  the  governor  that  he  had 
been  obliged  to  give  the  men  who  had  hauled  the  sleds  large  quanti- 
ties of  rum,  without  which  it  would  have  been  impossible  to  have 
done  anything.  Thus  it  seems  that  in  those  days,  long  before  the  use 
of  steam  power,  rictn  power  was  used — the  active  spirit  of  progress. 

The  rude  vehicles  used  at  that  time  made  transportation  doubly 
slow  and  tedious.     Augusta  was  the  center  of  cart  lines  to  the  towns 
up  the  river,  and  the  roads,  even  in  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth 


century,  were  little  better  than  rough  clearings  through  the  forests. 
Over  these  primitive  "  thoroughfares  "  Major  Thomas  Beck  ran  a 
truck  team  for  goods  to  Bath,  during  the  winter;  and  as  late  as  about 
the  winter  of  1836,  Samuel  C.  Grant,  who  owned  the  cotton  (now  a 
woolen)  mill  at  Gardiner,  sent  his  son,  William  S.,  to  Wiscasset  with 
a  rude  sled,  on  which  was  a  bale  of  cloth  to  be  shipped  to  Boston. 

Prior  to  1790  the  only  mode  of  individual  travel  was  by  foot  or  on 
horseback.  The  first  wheel  carriage  was  a  venerable  chaise,  already 
outlawed  by  fashion  in  Boston.  It  was  brought  to  Gardiner  about 
1790,  by  Mr.  Hallowell,  and  was  called  by  its  owner  "  the  parish 
chaise,"  for  the  appropriate  reason  that  the  entire  parish  borrowed  it. 
When  General  Dearborn  returned  from  congress  the  first  time,  he 
brought  a  Philadelphia  wagon,  which  was  the  wonder  of  the  inhabit- 
ants, though  there  was  not  more  than  a  mile  of  road  on  which  it 
could  be  run. 

As  may  be  readily  imagined,  the  transmission  of  the  mails  in  the 
early  days  was  conducted  in  the  most  primitive  manner.  About  1790 
the  first  mail  was  carried  on  horseback  to  Gardiner,  from  Portland, 
through  Monmouth  and  Winthrop,  and  it  is  chronicled  that  "  the  road 
was  very  much  improved  about  this  time."  The  next  mail  was  car- 
ried in  1794,  from  Portland,  via  Wiscasset  to  Augusta.  In  1795  Ben- 
jamin Allen,  the  first  postmaster  of  Winthrop,  and  Matthew  Blossom, 
of  Monmouth,  took  the  contract  to  carry  the  mail  once  a  week  on 
horseback  between  those  places.  In  1803  Jacob  Loud,  the  second  post- 
master at  Pittston,  carried  the  mail  from  Wiscasset  to  Gardiner  on 
horseback  and  from  Gardiner  to  Augusta  in  a  canoe.  Early  in  the 
present  century,  however,  the  stage,  usually  carrying  the  mail,  began 
to  make  its  appearance  in  the  county.  The  first  stages  were  rude  and 
torturing  conveyances,  and  in  speed  and  comfort  bore  about  the  same 
relation  to  the  Concord  coach  of  later  days  that  that  vehicle  now  bears 
to  the  railway  passenger  coach. 

Stage  Routes.— The  first  stage  came  to  Augusta  in  1806,  and  the 
first  to  Gardiner  in  1811.  Both  started  from  Brunswick.  Colonel  T. 
S.  Estabrook,  of  the  latter  town,  ran  the  x\ugusta  stage,  making  bi- 
weekly trips.  From  thirteen  to  twenty-three  hours  were  required  for 
the  transit,  the  route  being  the  same  over  which  Colonel  Estabrook 
had  carried  the  mail  on  horseback,  in  1802,  for  the  first  time.  Peter 
Gilman,  who  still  carried  the  mail  from  Augusta  to  Norridgewock,  in- 
formed the  public,  in  June,  1806,  that  "  he  leaves  Norridgewock  with 
a  stage  on  Monday  and  Thursday  at  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  and 
arrives  at  Hallowell  the  evening  of  the  same  day  at  seven."  Truly  a 
wonderful  performance ! 

In  1807  John  and  Meshach  Blake  and  Levi  Moody  began  running 
the  first  line  of  stages  from  Hallowell  to  Portland,  via  Augusta,  Mon- 
mouth and  New  Gloucester.     They  left  Hallowell  at  4  a.  m.,  and  ar- 


rived  in  Portland  at  7  P.  M.  In  1810  the  western  stage  left  Augusta 
early  in  the  morning,  in  season  for  passengers  to  breakfast  at  Bruns- 
wick, dine  at  Freeport  and  reach  Portland  in  the  evening.  Leaving 
Portland  early  the  next  day,  breakfast  was  taken  at  Kennebunk,  din- 
ner at  Portsmouth  and  the  night  was  spent  at  Newburyport.  The 
following  morning  it  left  Newburyport  at  two  o'clock,  arrived  at 
Salem  about  daylight  and  reached  Boston  early  in  the  forenoon.  In 
1812  Peter  Gilman  contracted  to  carry  a  weekly  mail  from  Augusta  to 
Bangor,  via  Vassalboro  and  China,  at  which  places  fresh  relays  of 
from  four  to  six  horses  were  in  waiting.  Previous  to  this,  Colonel 
Moses  Burleigh,  grandfather  of  the  governor,  conveyed  the  first  car- 
riage mail  between  Augusta  and  Bangor.  In  1810  John  Homan,  Vas- 
salboro, carried  a  weekly  mail  on  horseback  from  Augusta  eastward, 
and  afterward,  in  1815,  drove  a  bi-weekly  stage  over  the  .same  route. 

In  1827  an  hourly  stage  between  Augusta  and  Gardiner  was  at- 
tempted by  Smith  L.  Gale,  of  the  former  town;  and  William  E.  Robin- 
son, of  Hallowell,  began  running  a  coach  once  in  two  hours  between 
that  town  and  Gardiner.  The  first  venture  was  not  a  success,  and  it 
was  not  until  1834  that  the  enterprise  became  permanent.  At  that 
time  David  Landers,  father  of  William  J.  Landers,  began  hourly  trips 
between  the  two  places,  and  continued  the  business  until  the  opening 
of  the  Maine  Central  railroad. 

About  1830  Solomon  Brown  was  an  old  mail  contractor  between 
Augusta  and  Freeport,  connecting  at  the  latter  place  with  Kennebec 
and  Portland  stages.  This  was  called  the  Union  Line.  It  was  sold  in 
1848,  to  Crowell  &  Baker.  From  1850  to  1854  Joshua  Strout  was  the 
stage  proprietor,  and  Thomas  Holmes  was  one  of  his  drivers.  The 
route  was  afterward  sold  to  Addison  Townsend,  and  lastly  to  Vas.sal 
D.  Pinkham,  the  latter  only  running  from  Augusta  to  Little  River. 

It  was  not  until  shortly  before  1840  that  mail  coaching  entered 
upon  its  palmiest  days,  and  four  and  six  horse  teams,  crowded  with 
passengers,  ran  daily  between  Portland  and  Augusta,  passing  through 
Litchfield  and  West  Gardiner. 

Of  more  importance  than  the  railroad  to  the  community  now  was 
the  old  stage  line  for  the  transmission^of  mail  and  passengers  between 
Augusta  and  Bangor.  It  was  the  direct  through  line.  Leaving  either 
town  at  7  a.  m.  each  day,  the  place  of  destination  was  reached  in  early 
evening.  The  old  thoroughbrace  coaches  were  first  in  use,  but  about 
1849  the  Concord  coaches  were  adopted.  A  change  of  horses  was  made 
at  Vassalboro  after  a  short,  sharp  drive  from  Augusta,  then  again  at 
China,  then  Unity,  and  every  few  miles  until  Bangor  was  reached. 
The  same  horses  were  changed  and  driven  back  by  the  .same  driver 
the  next  day  on  his  return  trip.  Seventeen  horses  were  kept  at  Vas- 
salboro, and  this  was  an  average  number  for  each  station.  The  pres- 
ent large  barn  of^the  Vassalboro  Hotelfwas  then  the  stage  barn.   Shaw 


&  Billings,  of  Bangor,  were  the  proprietors.  They  perfected  the  busi- 
ness, and  the  older  residents  well  remember  the  richly  caparisoned 
coaches  and  the  two  or  three  spans  of  well  matched  horses  to  each 

The  drivers  were  men  of  note  in  those  days,  and  he  who  could 
dexterously  handle  six  horses  and  safely  make  the  schedule  time, 
was  a  greater  personage  than  the  proprietor  and,  in  his  own  opinion 
at  least,  held  a  superior  position  to  that  of  the  chief  magistrate.  Many 
will  remember  John  Deering  and  his  two  brothers,  Jabe  Sawings, 
Libby,  Bennett,  Hale  Freeman,  Crowell,  Isaac  Holmes  of  Augusta, 
David  Crockett,  and  Benjamin  Mitchell,  the  crack  of  whose  whips  was 
familiar  all  along  the  line,  as  the  rocking,  heavily-laden  coaches  wound 
their  way  through  shady  vale  and  over  lofty  hill. 

Water  Routes  and  Steamboats. — During  the  development  of 
the  facilities  for  transportation  by  land,  a  like  progress  was  being  made 
on  the  river.  Waterways,  the  world  over,  were  the  first  thorough- 
fares, and  rivers  are  the  oldest  highways.  The  Kennebec  afforded  the 
Indians  an  open  passage  from  the  Sebasticock  to  the  sea,  before 
Columbus  was  born  or  Caesar  had  crossed  the  Rubicon.  Equally  ser- 
viceable was  the  river  to  the  pioneer — its  shining  way  with  undeviat- 
ing  flow,  his  one  sure  path,  by  sunless  day  or  starless  night.  Its 
buoyant  bosom  was  his  highway  of  exploration,  and  from  its  friendly 
banks  diverged  the  tree-blazed  roads  that  led  to  his  clearing  and  his 
home.  At  once  a  producer  and  a  consumer,  the  river  was  his  natural 
avenue  of  commerce,  and  the  vehicles  and  methods  that  were  first  in 
use  are  matters  of  curious  interest.  The  settlers  had  little  time  or 
skill  to  construct  bark  canoes  such  as  the  Indians  made,  and  when 
made  they  were  too  frail  for  lasting  service,  so  the  "  dug  out  "  was  the 
primitive  boat,  and  after  saw  mills  were  running  flat  bottomed  boats 
of  various  kinds  came  into  universal  use.  Of  these,  the  bateau,  a  long, 
narrow  boat,  is  the  principal  survivor,  being  still  the  log  driver's 

But  there  was  one  kind  of  river  craft — indispensable  in  its  day, 
that  has  become  extinct,  known  as  the  "  long  boat  " — built  from  60  to 
95  feet  in  length,  IS  to  20  feet  wide,  especially  designed  for  transport- 
ing heavy  freight,  but  fitted  also  with  comfortable  cabins  for  passen- 
gers, including  lodging  and  meals.  Each  boat  had  two  masts  that 
could  be  lowered  going  under  bridges,  with  square  sails,  main  and 
wing,  above  which  was  the  top-gallant-royal  sail.  The  peculiarity  of 
these  boats  was,  that  they  went  down  the  river  with  the  current,  but 
could  return  only  with  a  good  southerly  wind,  for  which  they  must 
wait — sometimes  indefinitely. 

Some  of  these  carried  over  one  hundred  tons.  Mathews  &  Oilman 
built  the  Eagle  at  Waterville,  in  1826,  and  loaded  her  with  wheat  in 
charge  of  Walter  Getchell  as  supercargo,  who  sold  it  at  the  various 


landings  "  down  river  "  for  from  sixty  to  eighty  cents  per  bushel,  dis- 
posing of  the  last  at  Bath,  where  he  took  on  a  return  cargo  of  one  hun- 
dred hogsheads  of  salt. 

These  boats  could  and  did  go  through  the  rapids  at  Augusta  before 
the  dam  was  built  there,  and  with  a  good  wind  they  had  no  trouble  in 
returning  to  Waterville  with  full  loads.  Occasionally,  however,  they 
met  with  mishaps,  and  sometimes  they  were  wrecked.  This  was  the 
fate  of  the  Eagle.  On  a  return  trip,  with  a  full  load  of  merchan- 
dise and  a  light  wind,  oxen  were  employed,  as  was  often  the  case,  to 
pull  her  up  the  Old  Coon  rapids.  By  some  cessation  of  the  towage, 
the  current  swung  the  boat  athwart  a  rock  with  such  force  that  it 
broke  completely  in  two,  dumping  its  cargo  of  molasses,  sugar,  rum, 
hardware  and  dry  goods  into  the  river,  whence  the  damaged  packages 
were  recovered  when  quiet  water  was  reached;  but  the  poor  Eagle  was 
a  dead  bird.  A  like  misfortune  befel  the  Kite,  built  by  William  and 
Walter  Getchell.  With  a  load  of  700  bushels  of  potatoes  she  was 
twisted  and  dashed  broad.side  against  a  pier  of  the  Augusta  bridge- 
boat  and  potatoes  a  total  loss. 

As  early  as  1796  George  Crosby,  of  Hallowell,  ran  the  Keiinebec 
Packet,  Captain  Samuel  Patterson,  master,  between  that  place  and  Bos- 
ton; and  before  that  time,  but  in  the  same  year.  Captain  Patterson  re- 
ported the  fourth  trip  of  the. sloop  Courier,  the  settlement  of  accounts 
naming  as  owners  George  Crosby,  John  Sheppard,  David  Cutler,  John 
Molloy ,  Edmund  Freeman  and  Chandler  Robbins.  Other  packets  that 
were  irregularly  run,  later  on,  from  Augusta  and  Hallowell,  were  the 
Catharine,  owned  by  Thomas  Norris,  which  was  dismasted  in  1814  on 
a  trip  to  Boston,  and  the  Kennebec  Trader,  commanded  by  Captain  Carr, 
who  lost  his  mate,  Elisha  Nye,  overboard  in  the  same  storm.  The 
channel  not  being  deep  enough  for  these  vessels  to  reach  Waterville, 
the  "  long  boats  "'  previously  mentioned  were  employed  at  Augusta  to 
convey  consignments  from  them  to  points  above. 

In  1824  the  Traders'  Line,  plying  between  Augusta  and  Boston, 
was  established.  It  comprised  the  schooners  Actress,  Captain  G.  O. 
West;  Sidney,  Captain  G.  A.  Dickman;  and  Emerald,  Captain  P.  B. 
Lewis.  It  is  said  that  their  accommodations  secured  "  comfort  and 
convenience  to  passengers."  The  first  regular  line  of  passenger 
packets,  with  the  time  advertised,  between  Hallowell  and  Boston,  was 
started  about  1831.  One  of  the  captains  was  Andrew  Brown.  In  1845 
two  lines  of  packets  were  started  froin  Hallowell  to  Boston,  and  were 
to  leave  from  Augusta  when  the  river  channel  had  been  deepened. 
Flagg's  Line  was  composed  of  the  schooners  Gazelle,  Captain  Elisha 
Springer;  the  Van  Buren,  Captain  T.  R.  Pool;  Advent,  Captain  Soule; 
and  Jane,  Captain  T.  S.  Ingraham.  The  Union  Line  contained  the 
schooners  Somerset,  Captain  Hinckley;  the  M'aterville,  Captain  W.  H. 
Heath;  Harriet  Ann,  Captain  William  Reed,  jun.,  and  Consul,  Captain 


A.  L.  Gove.  Other  old  captains  on  the  Kennebec  in  those  days  were: 
Major  Thomas  Beck,  Charles  H.  Beck,  Jo.  Beck,  George  W.  Perry, 
Tillinghast  Springer  (son  of  Job  and  brother  of  Elisha),  Jacob  Britt, 
Joshua  Bowler,  Samuel  Gill,  jun.,  Gustavus  Dickman  and  Samuel  and 
Alfred  Beale. 

During  the  era  of  the  packet  boats  steam  was  of  course  being  grad- 
ually used  for  locomotion,  both  on  land  and  water;  and  long  before 
passenger  sailing  craft  ceased  running  on  the  river,  the  steamboat,  in 
a  crude  and  ungainly  form,  began  to  ruffle  the  surface  of  the  beautiful 
stream.  The  first  of  these  vessels  was  fitted  up  from  an  open  scow  at 
Alna,  by  its  owner,  Jonathan  Alorgan,  a  lawyer.  In  it  he  paid  Gardi- 
ner a  visit  in  1819,  tying  up  at  Gay's  wharf.  Captain  Morgan  came  by 
way  of  Wiscasset,  and  his  queer  craft  drew  crowds  wherever  it  made 
a  landing.  Another  steamer,  called  the  Experivicjit,  made  her  ap- 
pearance on  the  river  soon  after  Attorney  Morgan  had  produced  his 
pioneer  boat. 

The  year  1823  is  memorable  as  the  date  of  the  building  of  the 
steamer  Waterville  at  Bath,  by  Captain  Samuel  Porter,  and  the  open- 
ing of  the  first  steam  route  from  Bath  to  Augusta  the  same  season,  by 
this  boat,  under  command  of  Captain  E.  K.  Bryant.  Captain  Porter 
bought  in  New  York,  the  same  season,  the  steamer  Patent,  which  he 
put  on  the  route  from  Portland  to  Boston,  advertising  to  make  the  run 
in  \1\  hours.  The  next  year  (1824-)  the  Patent  ran  from  Boston  to 
Bath,  where  she  connected  with  the  Waterville  for  Augusta.  In  1826 
the  Patent,  Captain  Harry  Kimball,  opened  the  first  through  route 
from  Gardiner  to  Portland.  The  Waterville  was  laid  off  that  season, 
and  the  small  steamer,  Experiment,  ran  from  Bath  to  Augusta.  For 
the  next  three  years  the  Patent  held  and  made  popular  the  Gardiner 
and  Portland  route.  In  1830  the  Patent  did  not  run  above  Bath,  at 
which  place  she  connected  with  the  Waterville  for  Augusta;  and  in 
1831  no  steamer  ran  regularly  on  the  river  above  Bath. 

The  village  of  Gardiner  was  a  center  of  great  activity  in  1832.  A 
boat  that  became  noted,  the  stern-wheel  steamer  Tieonic,  was  built 
where  the  public  library  building  now  stands,  and  completed  in  May, 
for  a  Mr.  Blanchard,  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  at  a  cost  of  $8,000.  On  the 
first  day  of  June  she  made  the  historic  trip  to  Waterville,  whose  citi-" 
zens  received  her  with  manifestations  of  the  wildest  joy.  This  stanch 
little  steamer,  under  the  command,  successively,  of  Captains  J.  Flitner, 
S.  Smith  and  Nathan  Faunce,  ran  regularly  from  Gardiner  to  Water- 
ville until  interrupted  by  the  river  dam  at  Augusta  in  1835.  The  dam 
company  made  the  lock  so  short  that  the  Tieonic  could  not  pass.  After 
this  the  Tieonic  was  the  only  regular  boat,  for  a  time,  between  Gardi- 
ner and  Bath.  There  was,  however,  a  petite  little  steamer  called  the 
Tom    Thumb,  that  made   irregular   trips   on  the  river.     In    1835  the 


steamer  McDonougJi,  Captain  Nathaniel  Kimball,  was  put  on  the  route 
from  Hallowell  to  Portland,  but  was  taken  off  in  1836. 

In  the  spring  of  1836  a  stock  company  was  formed  in  Gardiner,  and 
bought  a  steamer  to  rim  between  Gardiner  and  Boston.  Nathaniel 
Kimball,  Parker  Sheldon  and  Henry  Bowman  were  chosen  directors 
and  at  once  purchased  the  steamer  Nczv  England,  a  fast  boat  built  for 
Long  Island  sound  travel,  and  opened  the  new  route  from  Gardiner  to 
Boston  about  the  first  of  June,  making  two  round  trips  per  week,  Cap- 
tain Nathaniel  Kimball  commander,  and  Captain  Solomon  Blanchard 
pilot — "  fare  $4  and  found."  The  Nciv  England  was  an  elegant  boat 
in  those  times,  170  feet  long  and  of  over  three  hundred  tons  burden. 
The  Teutonic  connected  with  her  at  Gardiner  for  upper  towns. 

In  1837  the  McDonongli,  Captain  Andrew  Brown,  was  again  run  on 
the  Kennebec,  from  Hallowell  to  Portland,  but  the  next  year  her 
place  was  taken  by  the  little  steamer  Clifton,  Captain  William  Bryan. 

The  Neiv  England  made  the  Gardiner  and  Boston  route  so  popular 
and  profitable  that  an  opposition  movement  had  culminated  in  the 
construction  of  the  Augusta.  It  was  built  by  Cornelius  Vanderbilt, 
and  was  advertised  as  about  ready  to  run  from  Hallowell  to  Boston 
when,  on  the  morning  of  June  1,  1838,  while  on  a  regular  trip,  the 
N CIV  England  QoWiA&d.  with  the  schooner  Curlciv,o'S.  Boon  island,  re- 
ceiving injuries  from  which  she  sunk,  having  barely  time  to  transfer 
her  passengers  to  the  schooner.  Parker  Sheldon  and  Captain  Kim- 
ball went  at  once  to  Norwich,  Conn.,  and  chartered  the  new  steamer 
Huntress,  and  put  her  in  the  place  of  the  wrecked  boat.  Competition 
on  the  Kennebec  route  now  became  active.  Cornelius  Vanderbilt,  of 
New  York,  put  on  the  W.  C.  Peck,  Captain  A.  Brown,  as  an  opposition 
boat,  running  from  Hallowell  to  Boston.  This  boat  not  proving  fast 
enough,  Captain  Brown  was  transferred  to  the  new  steamer  Augusta, 
which  was  substituted  in  her  place. 

But  the  Augusta  was  not  fast  enough  to  compete  with  the  Huntress, 
and  Commodore  Vanderbilt  sent  on  a  steamer  bearing  his  own  name, 
which  arrived  here  September  3d,  under  Captain  Brown.  Competition 
became  intense  and  a  trial  of  speed  was  inevitable.  The  Vanderbilt 
sent  a  challenge  one  day  at  Boston,  which  the  Huntress  accepted  and 
won  the  race,  arriving  at  Gardiner  the  next  morning  about  a  mile 
ahead,  after  a  most  exciting  night.  The  warmth  of  public  feeling 
over  such  contests  in  those  days  can  hardly  be  understood  in  our  rail- 
road era.  At  the  close  of  the  season  the  Huntress  was  re-chartered  for 
the  next  season.  Commodore  Vanderbilt,  beaten  at  racing,  changed 
the  game  and  won.  He  bought  the  Huntress,  subject  to  the  lease,  and 
notified  the  Kennebec  company  that  he  should  run  her,  paying  them, 
of  course,  what  damages  the  courts  should  award;  or  he  would  sell 
them  the  boat  for  $10,000  more  than  he  had  given  for  her  and  forever 


leave  the  route.  The  offer  was  accepted,  the  money  paid,  and  there 
was  no  more  opposition  for  several  years. 

In  1841  a  new  era  began  in  the  transportation  of  passengers  to  and 
from  Boston.  The  steamer  Jolin  W.  Richmond,  Captain  Kimball,  was 
placed  on  the  route  by  night  twice  a  week,  and  the  Huntress,  Captain 
Thomas  G.  Jewett,  was  on  the  route  by  day  twice  a  week.  The  steamer 
J\L  Y.  Beach  went  three  times  a  week  to  Portsmouth,  where  she  con- 
nected with  the  Eastern  railroad,  This  .schedule  was  continued 
through  the  season.  In  1842  the  Ricluitond  cut  down  the  fare  to  two 
dollars.  The  Huntress  then  combined  with  the  railroad  line,  via  Port- 
land, with  fare  one  dollar  to  Boston — the  lowest  yet  seen.  In  June, 
1842,  the  steamer  Telegrapli  was  put  on  as  an  opposition  boat,  with  fare 
one  dollar;  and  July  10th  the  steamer  Splendid  was  commissioned, 
with  the  cry  "  No  opposition,  fare  one  dollar,  or  as  low  as  any  other 
boat  on  the  route."  She  was  followed,  July  28th,  by  the  Riclnnond, 
advertising  "  fares  to  Boston,  until  further  notice,  twenty-five  cents." 
The  Richmond  was  burned  at  her  dock  in  Hallowell  Sunday  night, 
September  3d.  She  was  valued  at  $37,000  and  was  owned  by  Rufus 
K.  Page  and  Captain  Kimball,  who,  within  a  week,  replaced  her  with 
the  Penobscot,  a  larger  boat  than  any  that  had  preceded  her.  During 
the  season  of  1844  the  Penobscot  ran  on  the  all  water  route  from 
Hallowell  to  Boston;  the  Telegraph  first  and  then  the  Huntress  run- 
ning four  trips  per  week  from  Hallowell,  connecting  with  the  railroad 
at  Bath. 

In  the  spring  of  184,'5  the  People's  Line,  a  stock  company,  was  or- 
ganized, with  William  Bradstreet,  Samuel  Watts,  John  Jewett,  Green- 
lief  White,  E.  W.  Farley,  B.  C.  Bailey  and  Henry  Weeks,  directors. 
The  citizens  of  the  Kennebec  valley  bought  the  stock  readily,  and  the 
People's  Line  placed  the  new  steamer/^/;;/  Marshall,  Captain  Andrew 
Brown,  in  opposition  to  the  Penobscot.  After  June  the  elegant  Kenne- 
bec took  the  Marsiiall's  place,  and  a  small  steamer  was  run  in  connec- 
tion with  her  between  Hallowell  and  Waterville,  to  compete  with  the 
Water  Witch  and  Balloon,  which  ran  to  the  Marshall. 

The  season  of  1846  opened  briskly,  the  fare  to  Boston  being  only 
twenty-five  cents.  The  Kennebec  was  the  regular  line  steamer,  while 
the  People's  Line  put  on  the  John  Marshall,  Captain  Brown,  and  the 
Charter  Oak,  Captain  Davis  Blanchard.  The  steamers  Flushing  and 
Bellinghani  formed  a  line  between  Augusta  and  Bath,  a  boat  leaving 
each  of  these  places  every  morning.  Before  summer  came  the  two 
lines  were  consolidated,  the  John  Marshall  was  sold,  and  the  Kennebec 
and  Charter  Oak  ran  on  alternate  days  the  balance  of  the  season. 

In  the  spring  of  1848  the  Huntress  resumed  her  trips  from  Hallo- 
well to  Portland,  the  Charter  Oak  and  Kennebec  running  alternately 
to  Boston.  Several  small  steamers  ran  on  the  river  to  Waterville, 
often  racing  in  their  fierce  competition.     These  hazardous  practices 


•culminated  in  May  this  year,  by  the  Halifax  bursting  her  boiler  while 
passing  through  the  Augusta  lock,  and  killing  six  people. 

The  season  of  1849  was  marked  by  the  advent  of  the  new  steamer 
Ocean,  Captain  Sanford.  She  took  the  outside  route  to  Boston  and 
held  it  several  years.  July  4th  the  railroad  was  finished  to  Bath,  to 
which  city  the  Huntress  made  daily  trips  in  connection  with  the  cars. 
In  1851  the  steamer  T.  F.  Sccor  connected  with  the  railroad  at  Bath, 
and,  later,  at  Richmond.  During  the  spring  of  1854  Richard  Dono- 
van was  made  captain  of  the  Ocean,  and  commanded  her  till  November 
24th,  when  she  was  run  into  by  the  Cunard  steamer  Canada,  off  Deer 
island,  Boston  harbor,  and  burned  to  the  water's  edge. 

In  1855  and  1856  the  steamer  Governor,  Captain  James  Collins,  ran 
from  Hallowell  to  Boston,  and  the  T.  F.  Secor,  Captain  Donovan,  from 
Augusta  to  Portland,  tri-weekly.  The  new  steamer  Eastern  Queen, 
Captain  James  Collins,  was  put  on  in  the  spring  of  1857,  and  ran  that 
year  and  the  next.  She  was  partially  burned  at  Wiscasset,  in  March, 
1859,  and  the  State  of  Maine  filled  her  place  during  repairs.  In  1861 
the  steamer  Union  ran  daily  between  Augusta  and  Bath,  connecting 
with  the  T.  F.  Secor  for  Portland.  The  Union  was  afterward  sold  to 
the  government  and  was  taken  to  Fortress  Monroe,  where  she  was 
noted  for  her  speed. 

In  1865  parties  in  Bath  bought  the  steamer  Daniel  Webster,  Captain 
William  Roix,  and  placed  her  on  the  route  from  Gardiner  to  Boston, 
in  opposition  to  the  Eastern  Queen,  which,  since  the  death  of  Captain 
James  Collins  in  1861,  had  been  commanded  by  his  cousin.  Captain 
Jasofi  Collins.  This  last  named  steamer  ran  from  Hallowell  to  Boston 
from  1866  to  1870,  when  she  was  sold.  Previous  to  this,  in  1866,  the 
new  steamer  Star  of  the  East,  was  placed  on  the  Boston  route,  under 
the  command  of  Captain  Collins,  who  ran  her  until  the  spring  of  1889, 
when  he  was  transferred  to  the  palatial  new  steamer  Kennebec,  of  the 
same  line. 

Captain  Jason  Collins,  the  genial  and  popular  commander  of  this 
fine  vessel,  is  a  resident  of  Gardiner,  and  from  his  long  connection 
with  lines  of  travel  and  transportation,  must  have  a  place  in  this  chap- 
ter. He  was  born  at  Bowman's  Point,  and  is  the  only  surviving  son 
in  a  family  of  nine  children.  His  father,  James  Collins,  came  to  what 
is  now  Farmingdale  when  he  was  a  young  man,  married  Elizabeth 
Tyler,  and  passed  his  life  in  rural  pursuits.  Jason  grew  up  on  the 
home  farm  to  the  age  of  fourteen,  when  he  shipped  as  cook  with  his 
father's  brother,  Captain  John  Collins,  in  the  coasting  schooner,  Hope. 
The  next  year  he  again  went  to  sea  with  his  Uncle  John,  this  time  as 
a  sailor  before  the  mast,  in  the  Adventure,  bound  for  Mexico  and  sev- 
eral South  American  ports.  After  this  trip  he  was  on  the  brig  Corin- 
thian, with  Captain  Sampson,  in  the  coastwise  trade.     His  next  voyage 


was  to  Europe  in  the  ship  Powliattan,  commanded  by  Captain  Thomp- 

In  1836  our  young  sailor  became  a  fireman  on  the  steamer  Nnv 
England,  Captain  Nathaniel  Kirnball,  holding  that  position  until  the 
vessel  was  wrecked  off  Portsmouth,  June  1,  1838.  He  was  then  made 
assistant  engineer  of  VaelHiintress,  and  four  years  later  was  promoted 
to  the  responsible  position  of  chief  engineer  of  this,  the  fastest  steam- 
boat ever  on  the  Kennebec  river.  In  1850  he  went  to  California  as 
chief  engineer  of  the  steamship  Independence,  and  ran  on  a  Pacific  coast 
route  until  she  was  wrecked,  February  16,  1853,  on  Marietta  island, 
Lower  California.  Returning  home  he  was  first  engineer  on  Atlantic 
coast  .steamers  until  the  summer  of  1861,  when  he  succeeded  his  cousin. 
Captain  James  Collins,  in  command  of  the  coast  steamer,  Eastern 
Queen,  in  which  capacity  he  was  eight  months  with  Burnside's  expe- 
dition in  North  Carolina.  The  next  year  (1862)  he  commanded  the 
same  boat  at  New  Orleans,  under  General  Banks,  getting  thereby  a 
practical  knowledge  of  the  naval  operations  of  the  great  war.  Four 
years  later  he  was  assigned  to  the  splendid  steamer,  Star  of  the  East, 
of  1,400  tons  burden,  in  which  responsible  position  he  faithfully  .served 
his  company  and  the  public,  for  twenty-four  years. 

Upon  the  completion  of  the  Kennebec,  in  the  construction  of  which 
he  had  been  the  active  man  on  the  building  committee,  he  assumed 
the  duties  of  his  present  position.  The  details  of  making,  as  well  as 
of  running  a  boat  are  familiar  to  him,  having  superintended  the  build- 
ing of  several.  He  has  long  been  an  owner  in  the  Kennebec  Steam- 
boat Company,  and  is  one  of  its  directors. 

Jason  Collins  married  Louise,  daughter  of  Nathaniel  Kinneston,  of 
Farmingdale.  Their  children  have  been:  Anna  Augusta,  Louise 
Blanche,  who  died  at  the  age  of  nineteen;  Delia  H.,  Eugenia  and  Wal- 
lace J.,  who  was  educated  at  Bowdoin  College,  graduating  in  1883. 
Choosing  the  medical  profession,  he  entered  that  department  of  Bow- 
doin, receiving  his  degree  in  1886.  He  is  now  practicing  at  Monte- 
video, Minn. 

Captain  Collins  has  been  fond  of  mechanics  and  machinery  from 
his  boyhood,  and  wisely  chose  a  calling  in  which  his  talent  has  always 
had  stimulus  and  opportunity.  His  practical  ability  and  sound  judg- 
ment brought  him  to  the  presidency  of  the  Boothbay  Steamboat  Com- 
pany, also  to  a  directorship  in  the  Merchants'  Bank  of  Gardiner. 
Captain  Collins'  life  has  been  useful  as  well  as  active.  Few  men  have 
as  many  acquaintances  as  he,  and  fewer  still  as  many  friends. 

Besides  the  passenger  steamers  on  the  Kennebec,  there  were  also 
numerous  steam  tugboats  employed  in  towing  sailing  craft  up  and 
down  the  river,  but  only  brief  mention  can  be  made  of  two  of  the 
earliest  specimens  of  these  craft.  The  first  was  th.&  Jefferson,  built  to 
ply  on  Lake  Jefferson.     About  the  year  1838  Captain  Wyman  Morse 

iQUi^cnA^^Xytr^^y^^  toAd 


purchased  this  boat,  moved  her  overland  to  tide  water,  and  launched 
and  brought  her  up  the  Kennebec,  where  she  became  the  first  regular 
towboat  on  the  river,  and  the  nucleus  of  the  fleet  of  powerful  steamers 
owned  a  generation  later  by  the  Knickerbocker  Steam  Towage  Com- 
pany, in  which  his  son,  Captain  B.  W.  Morse,  was  a  large  owner  and 
also  the  business  manager.  This  company  owned  the  barge  Yosemite, 
that  was  so  well  known  as  a  pleasure  boat  on  the  river  in  the  seventies. 
The  other  of  the  pioneer  towboats  was  that  owned  by  Ebenezer 
Beard,  who  came  to  Pittston  in  1843,  and  contracted  with  Deacon  Fo- 
linsbee  to  build  him  a  sixty-four  ton  towboat.  When  completed,  he 
took  the  vessel  to  Kimball's  wharf,  where  he  placed  in  it  two  small 
steam  engines  attached  to  two  screw  propellers  of  an  improved  model, 
invented  by  himself.  This  craft,  the  first  screw  propeller  ever  seen 
on  the  county's  waters,  was  called  the  Experiment. 

Railroads.— Turning  from  the  use  of  steam  power  on  the  river  to 
its  employment  on  the  rail,  it  is  found  that  the  county  was  somewhat 
backward  in  sustaining  the  march  of  improvement  in  that  direction. 
In  1836  the  Kennebec  &  Portland  Railroad  Company  was  chartered, 
with  authority  to  construct  a  road  from  Portland  to  Augusta.  Noth- 
ing further  was  done,  however,  until  1845,  when  the  time  to  build  was 
extended  ten  years.  In  the  same  year  charters  were  given  to  the  An- 
droscoggin &  Kennebec  railroad,  which  was  to  enter  the  county  at 
Monmouth  and  pass  through  Winthrop,  Readfield  and  Belgrade,  to 
Waterville,  and  to  the  Penobscot  &  Kennebec  railroad,  which  was  to 
start  from  Augusta,  cross  the  river,  and  run  along  its  eastern  bank 
through  Vassalboro  and  Winslow.  meeting  the  Androscoggin  road  at 
Waterville,  and  running  thence  through  Benton  and  Clinton,  toward 
Bangor.  Among  the  early  promoters  of  this  extension  from  Augusta 
were  John  D.  Lang  and  Eben  Frye,  of  Vassalboro,  and  Joseph  Eaton, 
of  Winslow. 

On  July  4,  1849,  the  Androscoggin  &  Kennebec  railroad,  known  as 
the  "  back  route,"  entered  Winthrop,  and  on  October  8th  following, 
the  road  was  completed  to  Readfield.  During  this  month  a  daily  stage 
line  was  started  from  Augusta  to  connect,  as  now,  with  the  railroad  at 
Winthrop.  On  November  27th  the  railroad  was  opened  to  Waterville,. 
the  event  being  celebrated  by  a  grand  jubilee. 

During  this  time  the  Portland  &  Kennebec  railroad,  afterward 
tnown  as  the  "  main  line,"  was  slowly  progressing  along  the  west 
bank  of  the  river,  and  in  the  spring  of  1850  meetings  were  held  at 
Augusta,  and  at  other  towns,  to  assist  in  pushing  forward  the  read. 
At  length  the  first  train  entered  Gardiner,  November  10,  1851,  amid 
general  rejoicing.  On  the  15th  of  the  following  month  the  first  loco- 
motive entered  Augusta,  followed  on  the  29th  by  the  first  train  of  cars; 
and  on  the  morning  of  the  30th  the  first  train  of  cars  left  Augusta  for 


These  two  pioneer  roads,  and  the  Penobscot  &  Kennebec  extension 
from  Augusta  to  Waterville  and  eastward,  are  now  embraced  in  the 
Maine  Central  system.  From  Leeds  Junction,  which  lies  in  three 
counties,  another  branch  of  the  Maine  Central  runs  to  Farmington, 
touching  the  corner  of  Monmouth,  thence  following  the  western 
boundary  of  Wayne,  and  thence  running,  within  a  few  miles,  the  en- 
tire length  of  the  western  line  of  Fayette. 

The  Somerset  Railroad  Company  was  conceived,  planned  and  its 
construction  begun  by  Reuben  B.  Dunn  and  Joel  Gray.  It  was  their 
original  intention  that  this  road  should  be  a  branch  of  the  Maine  Cen- 
tral, of  which  Mr.  Dunn  was  then  president.  The  work  of  building 
the  roadbed  was  begun  in  1868,  but  in  less  than  three  years,  and  be- 
fore a  rail  had  been  laid,  the  control  of  the  Maine  Central  passed  into 
other  hands,  and  the  new  management  refused  to  countenance  the  en- 
terprise. At  this  crisis,  John  Ayer,  one  of  the  directors  of  the  strug- 
gling company,  took  the  lead  in  the  direction  of  its  affairs,  and  to  his 
■energy  and  financial  ability  the  existence  of  the  road  is  undoubtedly 
due.  Trains  began  running  to  Norridgewock  in  1873,  and  the  line, 
forty-one  miles  long,  was  subsequently  completed  to  Bingham.  The 
Toad  was  sold,  in  1883,  on  the  first  mortgage,  and  reorganized  as  the 
Somerset  railway.  Joel  Gray  was  the  first  president,  F.  W.  Hill,  of 
Exeter,  Me.,  the  second;  and  John  Ayer  has  been  president  since 
1872.  George  A.  Fletcher,  the  first  treasurer,  was  succeeded  in  1874 
by  Major  Abner  R.  Small.  The  superintendent  is  W.  M.  Ayer,  of 

The  Kennebec  Central  Railroad  Company  was  chartered  Septem- 
ber 12,  1889,  with  a  capital  stock  of  $15,000,  afterward  increased  to 
-$50,000.  It  is  five  miles  long,  running  from  Randolph  to  Togus,  has 
a  two-foot  gauge,  and  was  opened  for  business  August  1,  1890.  The 
first  eleven  months'  operation  showed  total  receipts,  $13,242;  expenses, 
$8,392.  This  money  was  earned  with  two  engines,  four  passenger, 
two  box  and  six  flat  cars — the  total  rolling  stock  of  the  road,  costing 
$18,200.  The  road  bed,  with  land  damages  and  terminal  facilities, 
■  cost  $12,000  per  mile — as  much  as  the  average  cost  of  a  good  many 
standard  gauge  roads.  The  nine  directors  are:  H.  W.  Jewett,  David 
Dennis,  Weston  Lewis,  E.  D.  Haley,  A.  C.  Stilphen,  J.  S.  Maxcy,  J. 
B.  Dingley  and  S.  N.  Maxcy,  of  Gardiner,  and  Franklin  Stevens,  of 
Randolph.  Weston  Lewis  is  president;  P.  H.  Winslow,  treasurer  and 
general  ticket  agent;  F.  A.  Lawton,  superintendent;  H.  S.  Webster, 
clerk,  and  A.  C.  Stilphen,  attorney  and  auditor. 

Electricity,  which  is  fast  superseding  horse  power  on  the  street 
railways  of  cities  and  suburban  towns,  has  as  yet  been  employed  in 
the  county  for  that  purpose  in  but  two  instances.  In  1890  the  Augusta, 
Hallowell  &  Gardiner  Electric  Street  Railroad  Company  was  incor- 
porated, with  a  capital,  authorized  by  charter,  of  $150,000.    The  length 


of  the  line  is  seven  iniles,  and  the  road  is  reported  to  be  earning  a 
substantial  income.  The  officers  are:  President,  J.  Manchester 
Haynes,  Augusta;  superintendent,  E.  K.  Day,  Hallowell;  treasurer, 
George  E.  Macomber,  Augusta;  clerk  of  corporation,  Henry  G.  Stap- 
les, Augusta. 

The  Waterville  and  Fairfield  Power  &  Light  Company, opened  in 
July,  1892,  the  electric  road  running  north  from  Waterville,  on  what 
had  been  operated  as  a  horse  car  line  since  1888. 


Bv  Mr.  Howard  Owen. 

-Newspapers  of  Hallowell  and  Augusta. — The  Press  of  Gardiner. — Waterville 
Press. — Newspapers  of  Oakland  and  Winthrop. — Journalistic  Ventures  at 
China,  Vassalboro  and  Clinton. 

AUGUSTA  has  long  been  the  center  of  the  newspaper  business  in 
the  county,  and  as  far  as  the  number  is  concerned,  the  news- 
papers started  here  have  been  legion.  We  shall  not  attempt  in 
this  chapter  to  mention  the  multitude  of  publications  of  world  wide 
circulation,  issuing  from  the  extensive  publishing  establishments  of 
The  Allen  Publishing  Company,  of  Vickery  &  Hill,  and  of  the  more 
recently  established  house  of  the  Gannett  &  Morse  concern.  These 
belong  more  especially  to  the  commercial  and  manufacturing  indus- 
tries of  the  city  and  will  have  attention  in  another  chapter  of  this 

Several  ephemeral  newspapers  have  been  started  here  of  the 
"  Jonah's  Gourd  "  variety,  such  as  the  Ajigtista  Courier,  the  Liberal  Re- 
publican, an  anti-temperance  periodical — not  living  long  enough  to  es- 
tablish for  themselves  a  place  in  history. 

The  first  newspaper  in  Kennebec  county  was  started  in  Hallowell 
— then  called  "  The  Hook  " — August  4,  1794,  nearly  a  century  ago. 
It  was  published  by  Howard  S.  Robinson  and  called  the  Eastern  Star. 
It  had  the  life  of  a  yearling,  and  was  succeeded  in  1795  by  The  Toesiji, 
published  by  Wait  &  Baker,  of  the  Falmouth  Gazette.  In  September, 
1796,  it  was  transferred  to  Benjamin  Poor.  This  paper  was  also  short- 
lived, being  discontinued  in  1797. 

The  American  Advocate,  a  democratic-republican  newspaper,  was 
begun  at  Hallowell  in  the  year  1810,  and  was  published  first  by  Na- 
thaniel Cheever,  father  of  the  late  Rev.  Dr.  George  B.  Cheever,  of 
New  York;  then  by  S.  K.  Gilman,  who  published  it  for  six  years  and 
sold  to  Calvin  Spaulding,  who  in  turn  disposed  of  the  establishment 
to  Sylvanus  W.  Robinson  and  Henry  K.  Baker,  the  latter  gentleman 
so  long  judge  of  probate  and  still  residing  in  Hallowell.  In  1835  the 
paper  was  united  with  the  Free  Press  and  called  the  Free  Press  and  Ad- 
vocate.    It  was  sold  to   the  Kennebec  Journal  in  1836.      The  Free  Press, 


published  by  Anson  G.  Herrick  and  edited  by  Richard  D.  Rice,  was  a 
violent  anti-Masonic  paper.  There  was  at  that  time  great  prejudice 
against  the  institution  of  Masonry,  and  during  its  brief  career  the 
paper  had  an  immense  circulation.  In  the  meantime  a  paper  called 
the  Banner  of  Light  was  published  for  a  year  or  two. 

The  Genius  of  Temperance,  a  paper  of  small  size,  devoted  to  the 
cause  of  temperance,  was  established  in  Hallowell  m  January,  1828; 
printed  semi-monthly  by  Glazier  &  Co.,  for  P.  Crandall,  editor  and 
proprietor.  It  continued  about  two  years,  and  then  died  for  want  of 

The  Liberty  Standard,  printed  at  the  Halhnvell  Gazette  office,  was 
commenced  about  1840  and  published  in  Hallowell  by  the  anti- 
slavery  martyr.  Rev.  J.  C.  Lovejoy.  It  was  devoted  to  the  cause  of 
negro  emancipation,  Mr.  Lovejoy,  the  editor,  wielding  a  very  vigor- 
ous and  aggressive  pen.  Rev.  Austin  Willey  afterward  conducted  the 
paper  with  great  ability.  Its  name  was  finally  changed  to  Free  Soil 
Republican,  the  free  soil  party  having  become  a  factor  in  politics.  It 
was  a  failure  as  a  business  enterprise,  and  died  after  a  precarious  ex- 
istence of  about  seven  years.     It  was  printed  by  Newman  &  Rowell. 

For  a  year  or  two  during  the  war  of  the  rebellion  a  paper  called 
the  Kennebec  Courier,  was  published  at  Hallowell,  by  T.  W.  Newman. 
It  was  afterward  removed  to  Bath,  where  it  sickened  and  died. 

A  paper  with  the  heavenly  title  of  the  Northern  Light,  was  pub- 
lished in  Hallowell  for  a  few  months,  by  J.  W.  May  and  A.  C.  Currier. 
The  Hallowell  Gazette,  federal  in   politics,  was  established  by  Eze- 
kiel  Goodale  and  James  Burton,  jun.,  in  January,  1814,  and  was  pub- 
lished until  1827. 

September  28,  1839,  the  Maine  Cultivator  and  Weekly  Gazette  was 
established  in  Hallowell,  by  T.  W.  Newman  and  R.  G.  Lincoln.  For 
two  years  its  editor  was  Rev.  William  A.  Drew,  afterward  of  the 
Gospel  Banner.  It  was  devoted  primarily  to  agriculture  and  the  me- 
chanic arts,  though  later  it  became  more  of  a  local  organ.  It  received 
a  fair  support  from  the  people  of  Hallowell  and  surrounding  towns. 
Newman  &  Lincoln  continued  the  publication  of  the  paper  until 
March,  1842;  T.  W.  Newman  from  that  date  until  September,  1843; 
T.  W.  &  G.  E.  Newman  to  September,  1845;  T.  W.  Newman  and  E. 
Rowell  from  September,  1845,  to  June,  1852;  E.  Rowell  and  H.  L. 
Wing  to  June,  1854;  E.  Rowell  to  November,  1859;  E.  Rowell  and 
Charles  E.  Nash  (later  of  the  Kennebec  Journal)  to  June,  1862;  E. 
Rowell  to  June,  1865;  Charles  E.  Nash  to  September,  1869,  and  Henry 
Chase  from  that  time  until  it  was  discontinued,  December  9,  1871.  In 
1850  the  headings  of  the  paper  were  transposed  to  Halloivell  Gazette 
and  Maine  Cultivator;  and  at  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  volume, 
in  September,  1853,  the  second  heading  was  dropped,  retaining  only 
the  Hallowell  Gazette.     Some  time  after  Mr.  Chase  became  publisher, 


the  character  of  the  paper  was  entirely  changed  from  a  local  to  a  story 
paper,  and  it  was  called  the  Saturday  Gazette.  Mr.  Chase  tried  to  imi- 
tate E.  C.  Allen,  but  failed.  Major  E.  Rowell,  so  long  identified  with 
the  paper,  continues  a  much  respected  citizen  of  Hallowell. 

The  Saturday  Gazette  died  on  the  hands  of  Mr.  Chase,  December  9, 
1871.  Hallowell  had  no  paper  from  that  time  until  December  22, 
1877,  when  the  present  Hallozvell  Register  was  established.  Its  proprie- 
tor and  editor,  W.  F.  Marston,  not  only  conducts  the  paper,  but  has  in 
connection  a  commercial  job  printing  office.  The  Register  is  a  spicy 
local  paper,  filling  well  its  rather  limited  field.  While  non-partisan, 
it  has  republican  leanings. 

The  first  paper  established  in  that  part  of  Hallowell  which  is  now 
Augusta,  was  the  Kennebec  Intelligencer,  published  by  Peter  Edes,  than 
whom  no  one  was  more  respected  by  the  members  of  the  craft.  It 
was  established  November  14,  1795,  and  was  a  little  affair,  the  dimen- 
sions being  only  eleven  by  sixteen  inches.  Political  action  at  that 
time  found  expression  through  the  federal  and  republican  parties,  the 
federalists  in  this  section  of  the  country  being  in  the  majority.  The 
Intelligencer  was  changed  to  the  Kennebec  Gazette  in  1800,  and  in  1810 
became  the  Herald  of  Liberty.  Under  this  name  it  was  published 
until  1815,  when  it  was  discontinued  on  the  removal  of  its  proprietor 
to  Bangor. 

A  non-partisan  paper,  "  far  removed  from  party  turmoil,"  the 
Augusta  Patriot,  was  started  March  7,  1817,  by  James  Burton,  jun., 
but  it  died  in  a  year  or  two  for  want  of  patronage. 

The  Kennebec  Joiirnal  grew  out  of  the  dominant  political  sentiment 
which  afterward  became  crystalized  in  what  was  known  as  the  whig 
party.  In  the  fall  of  1823,  two  young  men,  journeymen  printers,  came 
from  Washington,  D.  C,  and  started  the  paper.  Their  names  were 
Luther  Severance  and  Russell  Eaton.  The  Tufts  hand  press  on  which 
it  was  to  be  printed  was  set  up  at  what  was  called  the  Branch  brick 
block,  at  the  corner  of  Bridge  and  Water  streets,  where  the  first  num- 
ber of  the  Journal  was  struck  off,  January  8,  1823.  The  size  of  the 
subscription  list  at  that  time  did  not  seem  to  be  taken  at  all  into  ac- 
count by  the  publishers.  Indeed,  they  thought  they  were  doing  a  big 
business  if  their  list  of  subscribers  numbered  four  or  five  hundred. 
Advertising  was  also  at  a  discount;  and  we  have  known  a  publisher 
who  in  those  early  days  received  but  forty-two  cents  a  week  for  a  half 
column  "ad,"  taking  his  pay  "  in  country  produce  at  market  prices." 

So  the  Journal's  upward  progress  was  from  the  smallest  possible 
beginning.  Luther  Severance,  whose  name  is  to-day  a  tower  of 
strength  in  the  county,  stood  at  the  editorial  helm,  and  gained  a  great 
reputation  among  the  rank  and  file  of  the  party  for  the  clear  and  com- 
prehensive style  in  which  he  clothed  his  editorials.  Like  Horace 
Greeley,  he  was  able  to  go  to  the  case  and  put  into  type  an  elaborate. 


unwritten  editorial.  In  1829  Mr.  Severance  was  called  to  represent 
his  party  in  the  legislature,  in  1835-6  in  the  state  senate,  in  1839-40 
again  in  the  house,  and  in  1843  and  1845  in  the  national  house  of  rep- 
resentatives. Beginning  in  1850,  he  was  for  three  years  United  States 
commissioner  to  the  Sandwich  Islands.  But  his  labors  were  nearly 
ended.  Stricken  with  a  hopeless  cancerous  disease,  he  reached  his  home 
in  Augusta  on  the  12th  of  April,  1854,  and  died  on  the  2oth  of  Janu- 
ary, 1855,  at  the  age  of  fifty-seven  years.  During  his  last  sickness,  and 
as  a  means  of  diverting  his  attention  from  his  intense  physical  suffer- 
ing, Mr.  Severance,  under  the  heading  of  "Brief  Mention,"  weekly 
contributed  articles  full  of  wisdom  and  suggestive  thought  to  the 
columns  of  his  favorite  paper. 

In  the  early  .stages  of  the  JonriiaFs  career,  the  two  young  men 
struggled  on,  doing  most  of  their  own  work,  with  the  help  of  two 
apprentices.  Mr.  Eaton  had  special  charge  of  the  mechanical  and 
business  departments  of  the  paper,  and  here  were  laid  deep  and  broad 
those  principles  that  ripened  so  successfully  after  he  became 
connected  with  the  Farmer.  Full  of  years,  and  highly  respected  by 
his  fellow  citizens,  Mr.  Eaton  went  to  his  rest  some  two  years  since. 

In  June,  1833,  Mr.  Eaton  retired  from  the /i3«r«rf/,  leaving  Mr.  Sev- 
erance the  sole  proprietor  and  manager  until  the  beginning  of  1839, 
when  he  sold  half  the  concern  to  John  Dorr,  who  had  been  engaged 
at  Belfast  in  the  publication  of  the  Waldo  Patriot.  Mr.  Dorr  brought 
business  tact  and  shrewdness  to  the  performance  of  his  tasks,  and  the 
paper  entered  upon  the  high  road  to  success.  Mr.  Dorr  continued  as 
clerk  and  bookkeper  in  the  office  under  subsequent  administrations. 
In  1850  the /£72/r«fl/ passed  into  the  hands  of  William  H.  Wheeler  and 
William  H.  Simpson,  and  was  edited  by  Mr.  Wheeler,  who  afterward 
sold  his  half  to  his  partner,  Simpson,  and  removed  to  Bangor,  where 
he  engaged  with  John  H.  Lynde  in  the  publication  of  the  Wliig  and 
Courier.  Simpson  sold  the  paper  in  the  fall  of  1854,  to  James  G.  Blaine 
and  Joseph  Baker.  A  stock  company  was  formed,  new  material  pur- 
chased, and  the  paper  attained  to  a  new  prominence  under  the  able 
and  vigorous  management  of  Mr.  Blaine,  who  also  contributed  to  the 
editorial  department  of  the  paper  long  after  he  had  severed  his  busi- 
ness connection  with  it.  The  Maine  liquor  law  now  became  the  lead- 
ing issue  in  politics,  and  after  a  short  ownership  Mr.  Baker  sold  his 
interest  to  John  L.  Stevens,  who  became  one  of  the  most  profound 
political  thinkers  and  vigorous  writers  in  the  state.  Mr.  Stevens  is  at 
present  United  States  minister  to  the  Sandwich  Islands,  having  served 
in  similar  capacities  at  Montevideo  and  at  Stockholm. 

In  1857  Mr.  Blaine  was  succeeded  by  John   S.  Sayward,  who  came 
from  the  Bangor  Whig.     During  a  portion  of  the  war  of  the  rebellion 
a  daily  leaflet,  containing  the  telegraphic  news  from  Washington  and 


the  seat  of  operations,  was  issued  from  this  office;  and  this  was  the 
beginning  that  led  to  the  thought  of  establishing  a  permanent  daily, 
which  appeared  later.  In  May,  1868,  Owen  &  Nash  bought  Mr. 
Sayward's  interest,  and  the  January  following  the  other  half  interest 
in  the  paper  was  sold  to  Alden  vSprague,  of  \\iQ  Rockland  Free  Press. 
Howard  Owen  had  for  fifteen  years  served  in  various  capacities  in  the 
Journal  office,  and  Charles  E.  Nash  was  of  the  Hallowell  Gazette.  The 
new  firm  was  known  as  Sprague,  Owen  &  Nash,  Mr.  Sprague  being 
the  political  editor,  Mr.  Owen  the  local  editor,  and  Mr.  Nash  having 
charge  of  the  business  affairs.  Several  times  enlarged,  the  paper  was 
again  enlarged  by  the  new  firm,  and  \.\iQ  Daily  Kennebec  Journal  started 
on  the  first  of  January,  1870. 

In  August,  1879,  the  partnership  was  abolished  by  the  sale  of  Owen 
and  Nash's  half  to  Charles  A.  Sprague,  and  the  office  was  conducted 
under  the  firm  name  of  Sprague  &  Son.  They  attained  to  the  entire 
ownership  of  the  paper  by  the  purchase  of  all  the  floating  stock,  and 
sold  the  entire  concern  in  April,  1887,  to  C.  B.  Burleigh  and  Charles 
Flynt,  by  whom  the  paper  has  since  been  conducted.  The  new  firm 
enlarged  the  paper  and  greatly  improved  the  plant.  With  a  large  and 
able  corps  of  editors  and  correspondents,  with  excellent  arrangements 
for  obtaining  the  telegraphic  and  other  news,  the  Daily  Journal  has 
taken  its  place  among  the  leading  dailies  of  the  state,  while  the 
weekly,  enlarged  and  improved,  has  attained  a  large  state  circulation. 
The  adherents  of  the  once  despi.sed  faith  of  Universalism,  of  which 
Hosea  Ballou  was  the  pioneer  preacher  in  this  country,  felt  the  need 
of  an  official  organ  in  the  state,  where  afterward  they  gained  a  per- 
manent foothold.  Accordingly,  a  weekly  religious  newspaper,  called 
the  Gospel  Banner,  devoted  mainly  to  advocating  the  doctrine  of  the 
salvation  of  the  entire  human  race,  was  established  July  25,  1835,  with 
Rev.  William  A.  Drew,  editor  and  proprietor.  He  was  assisted  by  two 
associate  editors,  Rev.  Calvin  Gardiner  and  Rev.  George  Bates.  Arthur 
W.  Berry  became  in  some  way  interested  in  the  paper,  and  printed  it 
in  1839.  It,  however,  soon  returned  to  the  proprietorship  of  Mr.  Drew, 
who,  in  1843,  sold  it  to  Joseph  A.  Homan  (who  retired  from  active 
business  pursuits  several  years  since,  and  remains  one  of  the  respected 
and  honored  citizens  of  Augusta),  and  his  brother-in-law,  James  S. 
Manley,  long  since  deceased.  The  firm  of  Homan  &  Manley  pub- 
lished the  paper  until  January,  1859,  when  they  purchased  the  Maine 
Farmer,  and  sold  the  Banner  to  James  A.  Bicknell  and  Rev.  R.  A. 
Ballou.  Mr.  Drew,  after  long  and  able  service,  retired  from  the  editor- 
ship of  the  paper  in  October,  1854,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  J. 
W.  Hanson,  who  becam.e  editor  and  part  owner.  Mr.  Hanson,  in  1859, 
was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Ballou,  who  was  the  editor  of  the  paper  until  it 
was  sold,  in  1864,  to  Rev.  George  W.  Quinby,  whose  vigor  and  interest 
in  the  work  was  not  only  equal  to  the  editorial  tasks  imposed,  but  also 


to  the  exacting  business  demands.  He  was  not  only  an  editor,  but  an 
able  author  and  an  aggressive  preacher,  and  was  honored  by  Tuffts' 
College,  with  the  degree  of  D.D.  After  a  brief  sickness,  Doctor  Quin- 
by  died  in  Augusta  on  the  10th  of  January,  1884. 

The  Baiiin-r  was  purchased  on  the  14th  of  July,  1888,  by  Rev.  Isaac 
J.  Mead  and  George  W.  Vickery,  Mr.  Mead  having  charge  of  the  edi- 
torial columns,  and  Mr.  Vickery  of  the  business  department.  A  strong 
pressure  being  made  upon  his  time  elsewhere,  Mr.  Vickery  sold  his 
interest  February  14,  1889,  to  B.  A.  Mead,  and  the  paper  has  since  been 
published  by  The  B.  A.  Mead  Company.  It  was  changed  to  a  quarto, 
and  enlarged  October  9,  1890. 

The  Kennebec  Journal  being  at  that  time  the  undoubted  leader  of 
the  press  in  this  section,  an  effort  was  made  in  1827  to  establish  an 
opposition  paper  which  should  advocate  the  claims  of  General  Jackson 
for  the  presidency.  Accordingly,  the  Maine  Patriot  and  State  Gazette 
appeared  on  the  31st  of  October,  1827,  published  by  James  Dickman, 
and  under  the  editorship  of  Aurelius  V.  Chandler.  In  May,  1829,  the 
paper  was  sold  to  Harlow  Spaulding,  by  whom  it  was  published,  Mr. 
Chandler  continuing  the  editor.  Mr.  Chandler  went  South  to  recruit 
his  health,  and  died  at  Charleston,  S.  C,  December  31,  1830,  at  the 
age  of  twenty-three.  James  W.  Bradbury  took  his  place  in  the  edi- 
torial chair,  but  relinquished  it  July  1,  1831.  The  following  Decem- 
ber the  paper  was  absorbed  by  The  Age,  a  new  paper  of  similar  politi- 
cal proclivities,  and  the  Patriot  ceased  to  exist. 

After  the  removal  of  the  state  capital  to  Augusta,  The  Age  was  es- 
tablished, December  23,  1831,  by  Ira  Berry  &  Co.,  Frank  O.  J.  Smith, 
a  brilliant  lawyer  and  able  journalist  from  Portland,  being  its  editor. 
One  of  the  earlier  incidents  of  its  career  was  a  libel  suit  growing  out 
of  one  of  Mr.  Smith's  caustic  and  personal  items,  charging  a  promi- 
nent citizen  of  Belgrade  with  being  a  deserter  from  the  army  in  the 
war  of  1812,  and  that  he  was  tried,  convicted  and  sentenced  to  be  shot. 
The  publisher  of  The  Age  was  arrested  and  tried  on  a  criminal  libel. 
The  trial,  which  excited  the  most  intense  interest,  lasted  a  week.  The 
result  was  the  sustaining  the  paper  in  its  charges,  and  this  gave  the 
concern  a  great  boom  and  influence  among  its  political  adherents. 
The  paper  also  had  the  state  patronage.  Mr.  Smith  was  chosen  to  a 
seat  in  congress,  and  retired  from  the  paper  August  10,  1832,  when 
George  Robinson,  a  law  student,  became  the  editor,  and  continued  in 
that  capacity  several  years.  In  1834  Berry  &  Co.  sold  the  paper  to 
William  J.  Condon,  who  had  been  connected  with  the  Saeo  Democrat. 
He  continued  the  publication  of  the  paper  for  about  a  year,  when 
William  R.  Smith,  who  came  from  Wiscasset,  and  who  was  at  that 
timejworking  at  the  printer's  case  in  the  office,  bought  a  quarter  in- 
terest, forming  a  partnership  with  Robinson,  who  continued  to  edit 
the  paper.     Mr.  Smith  was  a  printer  almost  from  birth,  having  entered 


a  newspaper  office  as  an  apprentice  wlien  eight  years  old.  Mr.  Ira 
Berry,  formerly  of  The  Age,  died  in  Portland  in  September,  1891,  at 
the  great  age  of  ninety  years. 

Mr.  Robinson  died  in  February,  1840,  Smith  having  previously 
bought  another  quarter  interest  from  him.  During  this  period  was 
begun  at  The  Age  office  the  publication  of  a  tri-weekly,  during  the  ses- 
sions of  ihe  legislature,  reporting  the  proceedings,  and  afterward  giv- 
ing the  telegraphic  news.  Later,  the  Keimebec  Journal  eniereA  upon 
the  publication  of  a  tri-weekly,  on  alternate  days  with  The  Age,  the 
two  forming  a  daily  paper — the  first  time  the  citizens  of  Augusta  were 
favored  with  such  an  institution. 

At  the  death  of  Mr.  Robinson,  George  Melville  Weston',  son  of  the 
late  Chief  Justice  Nathan  Weston,  became  associated  with  Mr.  Smith, 
and  conducted  the  editorial  department  of  The  Age.  The  paper  was 
conducted  by  this  firm  until  August  5,  1844,  when  it  was  sold  to  Rich- 
ard D.  Rice,  a  printer  by  trade,  who  afterward  rose  to  the  exalted 
position  of  justice  on  the  supreme  bench.  Mr.  Rice  edited  the  paper, 
controlling  its  politics  in  the  interests  of  the  democratic  party,  until 
May,  1848,  when  he  returned  to  the  profession  of  law,  and  the  paper 
was  purchased  by  William  T.  Johnson  (who  afterward  became  cashier 
of  the  Granite  National  Bank).  He  associated  himself  with  Daniel  T, 
Pike,  who  became  its  editor.  Mr.  Pike,  who  wielded  a  forceful  and 
facetious  pen,  now  retired  from  the  profession,  whose  ranks  he  graced 
for  more  than  twenty  years,  is  enjoying  a  green  old  age  in  our 
midst.  Messrs.  Johnson  &  Pike  conducted  the  paper  until  May, 
1856,  when  they  were  succeeded  by  Benjamin  A.  G.  and  Melville  W. 
Fuller  (now  the  honored  chief  justice  of  the  United  States  supreme 
court),  who  after  a  number  of  years  disposed  of  the  establishment  to 
Daniel  T.  Pike,  and  he  in  turn  to  Elias  G.  Hedge  and  others.  They 
sold  to  Gilman  vSmith,  of  Augusta,  a  journeyman  printer,  and  the  old 
and  influential  y^^r,  which  had  so  long  and  so  safely  sailed  the  politi- 
cal seas,  died  upon  his  hands  during  the  war  of  the  rebellion. 

Upon  the  ruins  of  The  Age  rose  the  Maine  Standard,  in  1867,  a 
democratic  sheet,  published  by  Thaddeus  A.  Chick,  a  well  known  and 
accomplished  practical  printer,  and  Isaac  W.  Reed.  The  paper  was 
sold  in  1868,  to  Eben  F.  Pillsbury,  the  noted  political  leader  and  pol- 
ished lawyer,  several  times  the  nominee  of  the  democratic  party  for  gov- 
ernor, though  never  elected.  Mr.  Pillsbury,  who  had  formerly  edited 
the  Franklin  Patriot,  at  Farmington,  edited  the  Standard,  and  associ- 
ated with  him  was  L.  B.  Brown,  of  Starks,  now  of  New  Hampshire; 
and  at  one  time,  on  the  editorial  force,  was  Horace  :M.  Jordan,  of 
Westbrook,  now  of  Boston. 

The  paper  was  bought  in  January,  1881,  by  Manley  T.  Pike  &  Co., 
who  dropped  its  name  soon  after  the  purchase,  and  called  it  The  Neiv 
Age,  the  name  which  it  has  since  borne.     These  proprietors  published 


the  paper  two  years  and  a  half,  when,  in  July,  1883,  it  was  sold  to 
Harris  M.  Plaisted  and  Charles  B.  Morton.  General  Plaisted,  who 
had  been  the  democratic  governor  of  Maine  the  two  preceding  years, 
was  the  political  editor,  and  for  some  time  Charles  B.  Chick  was  con- 
nected with  the  local  department.  In  December,  1889,  Mr.  Morton's 
portion  was  purchased  by  a  son  of  the  senior  proprietor,  Frederick 
W.  Plaisted,  and  the  paper  has  since  been  published  by  H.  M.  Plais- 
ted &  Son.  The  paper  was  enlarged  and  changed  to  a  quarto  at  the 
beginning  of  the  2,'5th  volume,  March  6, 1891.  Tlie  Nczv  Age  has  a  large 
and  increasing  patronage,  being  the  leading  democratic  paper  of  cen- 
tral Maine. 

The  Maine  Farmer  grew  out  of  the  necessities  of  the  time,  and  was 
founded  to  meet  the  demands  of  a  more  progressive  agriculture.  Its 
"birth  really  grew  out  of  the  establishment  of  the  Kennebec  Agricul- 
tural Society,  in  1832.  It  was  started  in  Winthrop,  January  21,  1833, 
bearing  the  name  of  the  Kennebec  Farmer,  the  publishers  being  Wil- 
liam Noyes  &  Co.,  and  the  editor  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes.  It  was  printed 
in  quarto  form,  and  the  size  of  the  printed  page  was  7|  by  8-|  inches. 
After  eight  numbers  of  the  paper  had  been  issued,  the  name  which 
was  first  deemed  appropriate  was  adopted,  that  of  the  Maine  Farmer, 
adding  as  the  motto  for  its  field  of  operations,  "and  journal  of  the 
useful  arts,"'  devoting  itself  not  only  to  the  interests  of  the  farmer, 
but  also  the  mechanic.  The  first  four  volumes  were  published  in 
Winthrop,  when  the  paper  was  moved  to  Hallowell,  but  in  1838  was 
purchased  by  Marcian  Seavy,  and  moved  back  to  Winthrop.  vSeavy 
sold  out  the  next  year  to  Noyes  and  Benjamin  F.  Robbins,  the  latter 
remaining  in  the  firm  but  two  years.  In  1844  Russell  Eaton,  a  former 
publisher  of  the  AV««ci^(Y/ci«r«rt/,  purchased  the /v7r;«<r,  moved  it  to 
Augusta,  changed  its  form  to  that  of  a  folio,  which  it  has  since  re- 
tained, enlarged  the  paper,  and  improved  it  in  every  respect.  Mr. 
Eaton  made  another  enlargement  in  1847.  In  1860  and  1870  other  en- 
largements were  made,  the  last  in  1883,  representing  its  present  size, 
31i  by  46i  inches. 

In  1858,  after  publishing  the  paper  fourteen  years,  Mr.  Eaton  sold 
out  to  Joseph  A.  Homan  and  James  S.  Manley,  former  proprietors  of 
the  Gospel  Banner.  Special  attention  was  now  paid  to  a  compilation 
of  the  general  news,  making  the  Farmer  a  complete  family  paper,  that 
department  being  edited  by  Mr.  Homan.  On  account  of  failing 
health,  in  1861,  Mr.  Manley  sold  his  half  interest  to  William  S.  Bad- 
ger, the  present  senior  proprietor  and  manager  of  the  paper,  who  has 
become  a  veteran  in  the  service,  being  the  oldest  newepaper  man  in 
continuous  service  in  the  state.  In  1878  Mr.  Homan  retired,  selling 
his  interest  to  Joseph  H.  Manley,  the  present  junior  proprietor. 

Doctor  Holmes  continued  his  position  as  agricultural  editor  until 
February,  1866,  at  which  time  Dr.   N.  T.  True,  of  Bethel,  took  his 


place,  continuing  four  years.  Samuel  L.  Boardman,  now  employed  on 
the  editorial  force  of  the  Kennebec  Journal,  was  agricultural  editor  of 
the  Farmer  from  March,  1869,  to  March,  1879.  He  had  previously 
served  as  assistant  in  this  department.  Dr.  William  B.  Lapham,  the 
well  known  historian  and  necrologist,  who  had  been  employed  as  gen- 
eral news  editor  since  1872,  became  agricultural  editor  in  1879,  which 
relation  he  continued  until  November,  1883,  when  the  charge  was  as- 
sumed by  Z.  A.  Gilbert,  of  Greene,  secretary  of  the  board  of  agricul- 
ture, who  is  at  this  time  the  agricultural  editor.  Howard  Owen  has 
served  as  general  news  editor  since  1881,  and  Dr.  G.  M.  Twitchell  has 
charge  of  the  horse  and  poultry  departments.  The  paper  has^or  forty 
years  had  an  extensive  circulation,  easily  maintaining,  against  all  at- 
tempted competition,  its  position  as  the  exponent  of  the  interests  of 
the  intelligent  and  progressive  farmers  of  the  state.  Comparing  the 
paper  at  the  present  time  with  its  earlier  efforts,  shows  to  a  demon- 
stration the  great  advances  which  have  been  made  in  the  special  field 
of  practical  thought  to  which,  through  all  these  years,  it  has  devoted 

The  Co7iy  Student  is  a  monthly  periodical,  started  in  Augusta  in 
1887,  and  published  each  year,  during  the  school  term,  from  Septem- 
ber to  June,  inclusive,  managed  and  edited  by  a  corps  of  editors  and 
publishers  selected  by  and  from  the  students  in  the  Cony  High 
School.  It  is  "  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  members  of  the  Cony 
High  School,"  and  contains  original  essays,  poems,  sketches,  notes 
and  gossip.  It  has  several  times  been  enlarged,  until  now  it  is  a  cov- 
ered periodical  of  twelve  pages. 

The  Home  Mission  Echo,  a  monthly  paper  issued  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Woman's  American  Baptist  Home  Mis,sion  Society,  has  been 
issued  in  Augusta  about  five  years.  It  ably  champions  the  cause  of 
missions  in  the  home  field,  and  has  a  circulation  of  some  9,000  copies. 
Its  editor  and  publisher  is  the  well  known  writer,  Anna  Sargent  Hunt. 

The  Home  Farm  was  started  in  Augusta  by  Samuel  L.  Boardman, 
November  13,  1880.  It  was  designed  as  a  purely  agricultural  and 
home  paper.  It  contained  eight  pages,  five  18-inch  columns  to  the 
page.  In  the  beginning  of  volume  IV,  November  15,  1883,  it  was  en- 
larged to  six  columns  to  a  page,  making  a  neat,  well  made  up  journal. 
It  was  removed  to  Waterville  and  the  name  changed  to  Eastern 
Farmer.  The  first  number  under  the  new  name  appeared  September 
30,  1887.  During  the  time  it  was  published,  Henry  A.  Hall,  Asa  R. 
Boardman,  the  editor's  brother,  and  George  F.  Patch  were  at  different 
times  connected  with  the  paper  as  publishers  or  business  managers. 
Samuel  L.  Boardman  was  chief  owner  and  editor  until  its  discontinu- 
ance in  April,  1888. 

A  little  sheet,  called  the  Musical  Monitor,  published  by  R.  M.  Man- 


sur,  was  removed  from  North  Vienna  to  Augusta.  It  was  principally 
devoted  to  advertising. 

In  1840  there  was  published  in  Augusta  for  a  little  while,  a  bright 
and  crisp  little  temperance  paper  called  TIic  WasJiingtonian,  growing 
out  of  the  Washingtonian  movement  that  swept  like  a  tidal  wave  over 
the  country.  When  the  wave  subsided  the  paper  died.  It  was  pub- 
lished at  The  Age  office  by  Henry  Green,  a  journeyman  printer,  who 
had  been  interested  in  the  reform  movement.  The  articles  in  the 
paper  were  all  written  by  "  Washingtonians." 

Drew's  Rural  Intelligencer  was  a  weekly  newspaper,  devoted  to  the 
wants  and  pleasures  of  rural  life,  designed  to  make  home  pleasant  and 
happy.  It  embraced  departments  in  agriculture,  horticulture,  me- 
chanic arts,  education  and  general  intelligence.  It  was  established 
and  conducted  by  Rev.  William  A.  Drew,  who  but  a  few  months'  pre- 
viously had  laid  down  the  editorial  pen  on  the  Gospel  Banner.  He  was 
assisted  by  an  able  corps  of  contributors.  Mr.  Drew  had  no  printing 
office  of  his  own;  the  type  setting  was  done  at  the  Kennebec  Journal 
office,  and  the  press  work  at  the  office  of  The  Age.  It  was  a  four- 
column  quarto  of  eight  pages,  enclosed  with  a  tasty  border.  The 
paper  aimed  to  devote  itself  more  especially  to  the  interests  of  the 
home.  It  was  started  January  6,  1855,  and  continued  to  be  published 
at  Augusta  until  September,  1857,  when  it  was  purchased  by  R.  B. 
Caldwell,  of  Gardiner,  and  removed  to  that  city,  Mr.  Drew  continuing 
to  edit  it.  It  was  is.sued  until  1859,  when  it  ceased  to  exist  as  a  dis- 
tinctive publication. 

The  history  of  the  in  Gardiner  is  rather  an  uneventful  one, 
although  during  the  years  that  have  passed  quite  a  large  number  of 
journalistic  enterprises  have  been  launched  on  the  community,  flour- 
ished for  a  season,  and  finally  gone  the  way  of  all  the  living.  The 
advent  of  the  newspaper  in  Gardiner  dates  back  to  October  24,  1824, 
when  appeared  the  first  number  of  the  Eastern  Chronicle,  published 
and  edited  by  the  late  Hon.  Parker  Sheldon,  Gardiner's  second  mayor. 
January  25,  1827,  the  Chronicle  was  merged  with  the  Intelligencer,  and 
Rev.  William  A.  Drew,  spoken  of  elsewhere  in  these  sketches,  as- 
sumed the  editorial  management.  A  monthly  magazine  known  as  the 
New  England  Farmer,  and  Mechanics'  Jonrnal,  was  also  started  in  1828, 
by  Mr.  Sheldon,  and  twelve  numbers,  with  plates,  were  issued.  It  was 
edited  by  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes,  afterward  of  the  Maine  Farmer.  The  next 
journalistic  enterprise  was  the  Gardiner  Spectator,  which  began  publi- 
cation in  December,  1839,  Alonzo  Bartlett,  editor  and  proprietor.  In 
July,  1840,  Dr.  Gideon  S.  Palmer,  a  former  well  known  Gardiner  phy- 
sician, who  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  in  December,  1891,  assumed 
the  management,  but  after  a  brief  time  was  succeeded  by  his  brother, 
the  late  Judge  William  Palmer,  and  it  continued  under  his  manage- 
ment until  September  24,  1841,  when  it  peacefully  expired.     From  its 


ashes,  however,  arose  the  Gardiner  Ledger,  which  existed  about  thirteen 
months,  when  that,  too,  went  the  way  of  its  predecessor. 

In  1842  the  now  popular  Yankee  Blade  was  moved  from  Waterville 
to  Gardiner,  and  published  by  William  Mathews  and  Moses  Stevens. 
It  was  located  there  four  years,  when  it  was  moved  to  Boston,  its 
present  home.  The  Cold  Water  Fountain  and  Washingtonian  Journal, 
published  in  the  interests  of  the  temperance  cause,  was  started  June 
24,  1844,  under  the  manag-ement  of  the  late  General  Geoi^ge  M.  At- 
wood,  who  was  prominent  in  military  circles.  He  commanded  the 
24th  Regiment,  Maine  volunteers,  and  died  a  few  years  ago  in  Boston. 
He  was  succeeded  in  the  management  of  the.  Fountain  by  H.W.  Jewell 
&  Co.,  then  by  H.  L.  Weston  and  F.  Yates  in  1849,  who  were  soon  suc- 
ceeded by  Weston  &  Morrell,  and  they  in  January,  1851,  by  H.  K. 
Morrell  and  A.  M.  C.  Heath,  who  in  1853  sold  it  to  Portland  parties, 
and  it  was  moved  to  that  city.  The  afterward  noted  humorist,  Arte- 
mus  Ward,  worked  for  Morrell  &  Heath  as  an  apprentice  on  the 

David's  Sling  was  the  suggestive  title  of  a  little  publication,  the 
first  number  appearing  February  1,  1845.  Its  mission  was  to  diffuse 
the  peculiar  religious  views  of  James  A.  Clay  and  Isaac  Rowell,  but 
after  nine  months  "  life's  fitful  fever  ended."  The  Star  of  the  Fast 
and  Fastcrn  Light,  by  H.  W.  Jewell,  and  the  Busybody,  by  Thomas  H. 
Hoskins,  were  published  in  1845-6.  The  first  number  of  the  Lieor- 
rigible  appeared  July  1, 1848,  edited  and  published  by  W.  E.  S.  Whitman 
(Toby  Candor),  now  of  Augusta.  Only  four  issues  are  accounted  for, 
but  it  was  succeeded  by  a  smaller  sheet  known  as  the  Nettle,  which 
was  also  short-lived.  But  this  versatile  newspaper  man  has  amply 
demonstrated  that  as  "  great  oaks  from  little  acorns  grow,"  so  great 
correspondents  sometimes  spring  from  small  beginnings. 

The  Gardiner  Advertiser  made  its  first  appearance  February  9, 1850, 
published  by  Richard  B.  Caldwell,  father  of  a  former  editor  of  the 
Kennebee  Reporter.  After  the  second  number  the  name  was  changed  to 
the  Kennebec  Transcript,  and  Sedgwick  L.  Plummer  assumed  the  editorial 
management.  In  1856  Mr.  Caldwell  purchased  Drezv's  Rural  Intelli- 
gencer, and  removing  it  from  Augusta,  united  the  two  under  the  name 
of  the  Maine  Rural.  Brock  &  Cheeney,  and  later  Brock  &  Hacker,  pub- 
lished it.  A  daily,  called  the  Daily  Rural,  was  issued  a  few  months  in 
1859,  but  the  offices  were  burned  in  1860,  and  the  papers  discontinued. 
James  Burns  issued  six  numbers  of  a  radical  political  sheet,  known  as 
the  Despatch,  in  November  and  December.  1858.  The  publication  of 
the  Northern  Home  Journal  ^a.s  commenced  January  1,  1854,  A.  M.  C. 
Heath,  editor  and  proprietor.  In  1858  the  name  of  the  paper  was 
changed  to  Gardiner  Home  Journal.  Mr.  Heath  conducted  the  paper 
until  August,  1862,  when  he  enlisted  in  the  Sixteenth  Maine,  and  the 
management  of  the  Journal  passed  into  the  hands  of  H.  K.  Morrell. 


Mr.  Heath,  while  gallantly  fighting-  with  his  regiment  before  Freder- 
icksburg, December  13,  1862,  fell  mortally  wounded.  November  1, 
1864,  Mr.  Morrell  became  the  sole  proprietor  of  x\vq  Journal,  and  con- 
tinued to  control  its  pages  exactly  twenty  years,  when  he  relinquished 
editorial  cares  and  sold  the  office  to  his  son,  E.  W.  Morrell,  who,  as 
editor  and  proprietor,  still  conducts  the  paper  with  ability. 

The  Kennebec  Reporter  was  established  in  1866,  by  Giles  O.  Bailey 
and  James  F.  Brown.  After  a  few  months,  Mr.  Brown  retiring,  Rich- 
ard B.  Caldwell  purchased  his  interest.  G.  O.  Bailey  &  Co.,  with  Mr. 
Bailey  as  editor,  continued  its  management  until  August  10,  1871, 
when  Mr.  Bailey  sold  his  interest  to  his  partner.  In  1880  William  J. 
Landers  became  associated  with  Mr.  Caldwell  in  the  management  of 
the  paper,  and  this  firm  continued  its  publication  until  May,  1888, 
when  Mr.  Caldwell  retired,  and  the  present  management,  the  Reporter 
Publishing  Company,  assumed  control,  Mr.  Landers  having  charge  of 
its  columns. 

In  May,  1889,  the  Gardiner  Daily  Neios  sprung  into  existence,  pub- 
lished by  Thomas  W.  Schurman  &  Co.,  with  Mr.  Schurman  in  the 
editorial  chair.  In  the  summer  of  1891  Mr.  Schurman  purchased  his 
partner's  interest,  and  is  now  sole  proprietor  of  the  paper. 

The  history  of  the  press  in  Waterville  dates  from  May,  1823,  when 
the  first  i-ssue  of  the  Waterville  Intelligeneer  appeared,  published  and 
edited  by  William  Hastings,  the  pioneer  among  Waterville  journal- 
ists. The  Intelligencer  dragged  along  an  uncertain  existence  until  De- 
cember, 1828,  when  it  became  The]Vatchnian,yN\W\  Hastings  continuing 
as  editor  and  publisher  for  about  one  year,  when  it  was  suspended  for 
lack  of  support. 

The  next  attempt  in  Waterville  journalism  was  made  in  June, 
1831,  when  John  Burleigh  began  the  publication  of  Tiie  Times.  It  took 
about  two  years  to  demonstrate  the  failure  of  The  Times  venture,  when 
that  sheet  passed  out  of  existence.  Mr.  Burleigh,  however,  was  not 
discouraged,  and  in  1834  he  began  the  publication  of  the  Walervillc 
Journal,  and  continued  the  same  for  one  year.  The  demise  of  this 
paper  was  followed  by  a  long  lapse  of  time,  during  which  no  one  was 
ambitious  or  courageous  enough  to  again  take  the  field,  and  until 
1842  Waterville  was  unrepresented  by  any  sheet  whatever.  In  that 
year  Daniel  R.  Wing  and  William  Mathews  started  The  Watervillo- 
nian.  From  that  year  dated  Mr.  Wing's  almost  uninterrupted  career  as 
a  newspaper  man  until  his  death.  He  was  an  antiquarian,  and  his 
local  sketches,  frequently  published,  made  a  valuable  feature  of  the 
papers  with  which  he  was  connected.  The  fame  which  Mr.  Mathews 
has  since  attained  in  the  field  of  literature  needs  no  comment. 

At  the  close  of  the  first  volume  of  The  Watervillonian  its  name  was 
changed  to  the  Yankee  Blade.  In  1844  its  publishers  had  become  dis- 
couraged with  the  lack  of  support  the  Blade  had  been  able  to  secure  in 


Waterville,  and  the  paper  was  transferred  to  Gardiner,  and  a  little 
more  than  two  years  after  was  removed  to  Boston,  where  it  was  finally 
merged  in  the  Olive  Branch. 

The  Union  was  the  next  on  the  scene  in  Waterville,  its  first  issue 
appearing  in  April,  1847,  under  the  management  of  C.  F.  Hathaway, 
who  published  Tlic  Union  about  four  months,  when  he  induced  Eph- 
raim  Maxham,  who  had  enjoyed  journalistic  experience  in  Massa- 
chusetts and  New  Hampshire,  to  take  charge  of  the  sheet,  revised  and 
re-christened  as  the  Eastern.  Mail.  Mr.  Maxham  was  not  only  a  ready 
and  concise  writer,  who  always  chose  to  keep  his  paper  a  clean,  in- 
dependent, local  journal,  but  also  a  practical  printer,  and  under  his 
experienced  hands  the  Eastern  JAnVbegan  a  vigorous  growth.  Daniel 
R.  Wing  became  a  partner  with  Mr.  Maxham,  July  26,  1849,  and  the 
firm  of  Maxham  &  Wing  from  that  date  played  an  important  part  in 
the  history  and  development  of  Waterville.  The  title  of  the  paper 
was  changed  to  the  more  distinctive  local  name  of  the  Waterville  Mail, 
September  4,  1863.  Daniel  R.  Wing,  the  junior  editor,  died  Decem- 
ber 2,  1885.  Mr.  Maxham  stood  at  his  post,  although  stricken  down 
by  illness,  until  January  1,  1886,  when  the  Mail  was  purchased  by 
Charles  G.  Wing  and  Daniel  F.  Wing,  who  took  the  firm  name  of 
Wing  &  Wing. 

From  the  Mail  office  September  30,  1887,  was  issued  the  Eastern 
Farmer,  formerly  the  Home  Farm  (begun  at  Augusta),  and  Burleigh, 
Wing  &  Co.  appeared  as  the  name  of  the  new  firm.  This  paper  was 
a  financial  incubus  to  the  concern.  The  publication  of  the  Eastern 
Farmer  was  continued  up  to  April,  1888,  when  the  paper  was  discon- 
tinued, and  the  remains  of  its  subscription  list  transferred  to  the 
Lcwiston  Journal.  Hall  C.  Burleigh  at  the  same  time  retired  from  the 
firm,  which  again  appeared  as  Wing  &  Wing,  publishers  of  the  Mail 
alone.  They  introduced  many  modern  improvements  in  the  Mail 
office  and  in  the  paper,  making  it  one  of  the  best  local  papers  in  the 
state  from  a  typographical  point  of  view.  They  also  enlarged  it  and 
made  it  an  interesting  weekly  visitor  to  all  its  readers.  The  junior 
partner,  Daniel  F.  Wing,  died  March  21,  1891,  and  Charles  G.  Wing 
continued  the  publication  of  the  paper  until  April  17,  1891,  when  it 
was  purchased  by  H.  C.  Prince,  of  Buckfield,  and  E.  T.  Wyman,  of 
Sidney,  Me.,  the  present  proprietors.  Mr.  Wyman  graduated  from 
Colby  University  in  the  class  of  1890,  and  was  an  editor  on  the  Waterville 
Sentinel  until  he  went  to  the  Mail.  Mr.  Prince  was  also  formerly  a 
student  at  Colby,  but  left  college  to  go  West,  where  he  was  in  business 
for  several  years. 

The  Waterville  Sentinel  was  first  published  by  E.  O.  Robinson  in 
1880.  It  was  afterward  purchased  by  J.  D.  Maxfield,  who  in  turn  sold 
to  Otis  M.  and  L.  A.  Moore,  of  Augusta,  in  1884.  In  the  following- 
year  O.  M.  Moore  bought  his  brother's  interest,  and  .sold  one-half  of 


the  paper  to  A.  W.  Hall,  of  Rockland.  Mr.  Hall's  father,  Hon.  O.  G. 
Hall,  now  judge  of  the  superior  court  for  Kennebec  county,  purchased 
Moore's  half  in  the  summer  of  1886,  since  which  time  the  paper  has 
been  published  by  O.  G.  Hall  &  Son.  The  firm  has  lately  beenjknown 
as  the  Sentinel  Publishing  Company. 

The  Kennebec  Democrat  was  established  in  Waterville  by  Benjamin 
Bunker,*  who  issued  its  first  number  February  2,  1887.  It  is  a  nine- 
column  folio.  While  professedly  a  democratic  sheet,  it  exercises  the 
privilege  of  a  free  lance.  The  characteristic  of  the  sheet  is  the  origi- 
nal cuts  by  the  editor,  and  the  peculiar  pungency  of  its  political  para- 
graphs.    The  paper  is  known  as  "  Ben.  Bunker's  Democrat." 

The  first  newspaper  in  Oakland— then  known  by  the  name  of  West 
Waterville— was  started  in  187.5,  bearing  the  name  of  the  West 
Waterville  Union.  The  office  was  well  equipped  for  a  general  printing 
business,  a  newspaper  seemed  to  be  needed,  and  with  the  right  person 
at  the  head  of  affairs  at  the  time,  a  permanent  and  substantial  living 
would  have  been  assured.  But  there  was  a  flippancy  and  a  filthiness 
about  the  sheet  at  first  that  led  everybody  to  mistrust  the  future,  and 
the  thing  died  unlamented.  This  paper  was  published  by  Daniel 
Rowe  and  Casper  Hooper. 

In  the  meantime  Mr.  I.  J.  Thayer,  a  life-long  resident  of  Oakland, 
was  running  a  small  job  office,  and  in  1882  the  community  was  glad- 
dened by  the  announcement  of  Mr.  Thayer  that  he  proposed  to  issue 
a  monthly  paper,  the  Oakland  Observer,  the  name  of  the  town  having 
meanwhile  been  changed.  The  .sheet  was  an  unassuming  one,  the 
size  being  fifteen  by  twenty  inches.  For  a  time  the  Observer  was  ob- 
served each  month,  then  it  would  lapse;  and  when,  for  instance,  the 
August  number  reached  the  firesides  of  Oakland  on  Thanksgiving 
day,  its  early  death  would  be  looked  for  with  an  absolute  certainty. 
In  March,  1887,  the  proprietor  entered  into  an  arrangement  with  the 
proprietor  of  the  Madison  Bulletin  to  print  and  publish  the  Observer. 
which  was  enlarged  to  26  by  40,  "patent"  outside,  and  this  arrange- 
ment was  continued  until  June,  1888.  During  that  time  there  was 
nothing  in  the  paper  but  "  locals."  The  paper  came  regularly  to  hand, 
and  had  a  small  subscription  list.  The  Bulletin  man  engaged  Mr.  J. 
Wesley  Gilman  as  manager  and  editor,  in  June,  1888.  Mr.  Oilman 
wielded  a  graceful  and  facile  pen;  and  as  he  had  resided  in  the  town 
for  thirty  years  and  been  identified  with  its  business  interests,  he 
knew,  presumably,  the  wants  of  the  community.  In  the  fall  of  1888  the 
Observer  was  printed  in  the  county  of  Kennebec;  advertisements  were 
secured  and  the  subscription  list  increased,  and  in  a  larger  sense  than 
ever  before  Oakland  had  a  new.spaper  which  reflected  the  stability,  the 
*In  1880  he  established  the  Pine  Tree  State  at  Fairfield,  and  published  it  for 
two  years,  and  then  bought  the  Fairfield  Journal  and  conducted  it  as  an  inde- 
pendent paper  until  1886.— [Ed. 


prominence,  the  enterprise  of  the  town.  Under  this  arrangement  the 
Observer  continued  until  1890,  when  pressure  of  other  affairs,  together 
with  previous  engagements,  obliged  Mr.  Oilman  to  sever  his  connec- 
tion with  the  paper. 

About  this  time  Mr.  George  T.  Benson  made  an  arrangement  with 
Mr.  E.  P.  Mayo,  of  the  Fairfield  Journal,  to  print  and  publish  the  Oak- 
land Enterprise.  Outside  of  the  local  happenings,  the  "comings  and 
goings,"  it  in  no  sense  represents  the  people  of  Oakland,  but  is,  per- 
haps, better  than  no  paper. 

The  first  newspaper  published  in  Winthrop  was  the  Winthrop 
Gazette,  published  by  William  H.  Moody,  and  started  in  the  spring  of 
1866.  Mr.  Moody  was  at  that  time  principal  of  Towle  Academy,  and 
was  afterward  mail  agent  on  the  Maine  Central  railroad.  He  was  a 
graduate  of  Colby  University.  After  a  brief  period  the  paper  was  re- 
moved to  Mechanic  Falls,  and  its  name  changed  to  the  Mechanic  Falls 
Herald.  After  a  sickly  existence  of  a  few  years  in  its  adopted  home, 
the  paper  died. 

The  next  venture  in  journalism  was  the  Winthrop  Bulletin,  pub- 
lished by  W.  B.  Berry  &  Son,  and  first  edited  by  Rev.  D.  H.  Sherman, 
then  principal  of  Towle  Academy.  The  first  issue  was  dated  Septem- 
ber 19,  1867.  The  .size  of  the  sheet  was  21  by  30  inches.  Mr.  Sher- 
man's connection  with  the  paper  was  extremely  brief.  Shortly  after, 
the  elder  Berry  sold  out  to  his  son,  and  went  to  Camden,  starting  the 
Herald  at  that  place.  He  died  in  Massachusetts  about  two  years  ago. 
His  son,  A.  N.  Berry,  conducted  the  paper  until  February,  1869,  when 
he  discontinued  it.  The  Bulletin  was  a  good  local  paper,  and  never 
ought  to  have  been  allowed  to  die.  Its  latest  publisher,  Mr.  A.  N. 
Berry,  is  now  doing  a  good  business  in  Boston  as  a  label  printer, 
under  the  firm  name  of  J.  N.  Allen  &  Berry. 

The  first  copy  of  the  Winthrop  Budget,  a  paper  which  is  now  pub- 
lished, was  issued  in  January,  1881,  and  was  dated  the  8th  of  the 
month. .  It  was  started  by  E.  O.  Kelly,  of  Winthrop,  who  recently 
deceased  in  that  town.  It  carried  a  "patent  outside,"  and  was  com- 
posed of  twenty  columns.  The  present  publisher,  John  A.  Stanley, 
purchased  the  paper  August  22, 1882,  issuing  the  first  number  August 
26th.  It  was  continued  as  a  "  patent  "  until  February,  1885,  when  Mr. 
Stanley  decided  to  print  the  entire  paper  in  Winthrop,  and  has  done 
so  ever  since.  The  first  issue  in  August,  1889,  was  enlarged  to  its 
present  size,  21  by  30  inches,  six  columns  to  a  page.  The  paper  is 
non-partisan,  is  devoted  principally  to  local  happenings,  and  has  a 
good  circulation. 

At  East  Winthrop,  in  the  same  town.  The  Winthrop  Alonthly  News, 
with  "  local  news  in  full,  stories,  poetry,  wit,  humor,  &c.,"  was  started 
in  October,  1875.  Although  a  little  sheet,  all  its  matter  was  original; 
the   stories,  editorials,  news  items,  and  even    advertisements,  were 


written  by  the  editor,  who  was  a  printer  as  well  as  editor  almost  from 
infancy.  Mr.  Packard  also  published  another  little  amateur  paper 
called  the  Enterprise,  and  in  October,  1880,  he  started  the  Wintlirop 
Banner  as  a  monthlj',  printing  it  on  an  old  "  Novelty  "  press.  The 
Banner  has  had  a  varying  existence,  but  has  steadily  gained  until  it  is 
now  a  weekly  sheet  18  by  24  inches,  and  the  publishers  are  contem- 
plating another  enlargement  in  the  near  future.  The  present  circula- 
tion is  800.  In  December,  1889,  Mr.  Packard  formed  a  partnership  in 
the  business  with  J.  E.  Snow,  of  Winthrop.  Besides  the  Banner,  the 
firm  print  for  Mrs.  Hannah  J.  Bailey  the  Pacific  Banner  and  the  Acorn, 
two  monthly  papers,  having  a  circulation  of  from  twelve  hundred  to 
fifteen  hundred  each.  A  well  equipped  job  printing  office  is  con- 
nected with  the  establishment. 

The  West  Gardiner  Observer  was  issued  semi-monthly  in  1889,  by  E. 
E.  Peacock,  a  young  man  in  that  town.  After  a  suspension  of  two 
years  he  began  "  Vol.  II  "  as  a  weekly,  his  printing  being  done  at  the 
Wintlirop  Banner  office. 

TIic  Orb  was  the  name  of  a  paper  published  at  China,  by  Japheth 
C.  Washburn.  Vol.  I,  No.  1,  was  issued  December  5,  1833 — a  clean, 
newsy  and  well  scissored  quarto.  The  second  volume  was  begun  De- 
cember 6,  1834,  and  was  completed.  Although  the  subscription  price 
was  two  dollars  a  year,  its  publication  was  discontinued  at  the  close 
of  the  second  year,  and  no  further  attempt  was  made  at  journalism  in 
that  town.  The  advertising  and  job  work  of  that  day  were  very  light 
in  that  purely  agricultural  town. 

The  only  paper  ever  attempted  at  Vassalboro  is  the  Kennebec  ]~allcy 
News,  started  at  Getchell's  Corner  in  August,  1891,  by  the  Kennebec 
Valley  News  Company,  Samuel  A.  Burleigh,  editor.  It  is  published 
weekly,  at  one  dollar  per  year. 

The  Clinton  Advertiser,  the  smallest  paper  in  the  county,  was  started 
in  Clinton,  June,  1886,  by  B.  T.  Foster  &  Co.,  editors  and  publishers. 
It  is  published  weekly;  terms,  fifty  cents  per  year.  No  other  paper 
was  ever  started  in  Clinton. 


THE  list  of  persons,  natives  or  at  some  time  residents  of  Kennebec 
county,  who  have  in  one  way  or  another  contributed  to  the 
literature  of  the  nineteenth  century  is  remarkably  long  and 
varied.  It  comprises  poets,  humorists,  novelists,  essayists,  historians, 
philosophers,  moralists  and  scientists  of  both  sexes  and  all  ages,  whose 
work  ranges  from  the  level  of  ordinary  merit  to  heights  of  superior 
attainment.  The  personality  of  several  writers  of  note  still  resident 
in  the  county  might  well  be  treated  at  length;  and  such  singularly  in- 
teresting work  as  that  of  the  Hon.  James  W.  North  should  receive 
more  than  passing  attention;  but  to  treat  in  extenso  the  personalities 
and  published  productions  of  the  entire  company  of  authors  named  in 
this  chapter  would  require  a  volume  in  itself,  and  would  be  obviously 
beyond  the  present  purpose.  It  has,  therefore,  been  deemed  advisa- 
ble to  do  little  more  than  enumerate  in  their  alphabetical  succession 
the  names  of  the  writers,  and  briefly  indicate,  wherever  possible,  the 
general  character  of  their  efforts. 

Though  numbers  of  professional  men  of  literary  tastes  have  con- 
tributed excellent  special  matter  to  the  pages  of  various  periodicals, 
and  though  there  are  many  general  works  devoted  to  the  state,  or  New 
England,  in  which  Kennebec  county  is  incidentally  treated — both 
open  practically  endless  avenues  of  statistical  research  upon  which  it 
is  impracticable  here  to  enter;  consequently,  only  those  who  have  con- 
tributed to  what  may  be  classed  as  the  general  literature  of  the  day 
are  mentioned  m  the  succeeding  pages. 

Editors  whose  line  of  literary  effort  has  been  confined  solely  to  the 
columns  of  the  press  have  received  notice  in  the  preceding  chapter: 
but  in  this  connection  it  should  be  remarked  that  the  majority  of  the 
authors  here  catalogued  essayed  their  first  flights  up  the  thorny  slopes 
of  Parnassus  through  the  friendly  aid  of  the  editors  of  the  local  press, 
to  whom  is  due,  in  large  measure,  the  credit  of  producing,  either  di- 
rectly or  indirectly,  nearly  all  of  the  county's  prominent  poets  and 
story  writers,  as  well  as  those  of  humbler  attainments. 

The  well  known  Rollo  and  Lucy  books,  the  Illustrated  History  series. 


and  History  of  Maine,  were  from  the  facile  pen  of  Rev.  Jacob  Abbott, 
a  native  of  Hallowell,  who  was  graduated  from  Bowdoin  in  1820. 

A  popular  Yassalboro  writer  is  Howard  G.  Abbott,  who  is  a  cor- 
respondent for  several  newspapers. 

An  early  poet  favorably  known  was  Josiah  Andrews,  born  in 
Augusta  in  1799.  One  of  his  poems.  To  Augusta,  appears  in  Tlie  Pcets 
of  Maine,  published  at  Portland  in  1888. 

Mrs.  Frederick  (Wimple)  Allen,  wife  of  the  distinguished  attorney, 
possessed  superior  intellectual  abilities,  richly  developed  by  education 
and  culture.  She  enjoyed  scientific  research,  geology  being  her 
special  delight.  She  was  one  of  the  first  to  find  marine  fossil  shells  of 
extinct  species  in  this  region.  Her  collection  was  recognized  as  of 
great  value  by  Agassiz,  Silliman  and  other  scientists  with  whom  she 
was  in  frequent  correspondence.  Her  longest  literary  production  was 
a  poem  entitled,  A  Poetical  Geognosy. 

Samuel  Lane  Boardman'-,  the  editor  of  the  Daily  Kennebec  Journal, 
was  born  at  Skowkegan,  Me.,  March  30,  1836.  He  early  developed  a 
taste  and  ability  for  literary  work,  and  in  1861  became  editor  of  the 
Maine  Farmer.  For  more  than  seventeen  years  he  filled  this  import- 
ant position,  becoming  undoubtedly  the  foremost  writer  in  Maine 
upon  agriculture  and  kindred  topics.  Within  that  period  he  published 
— in  1867 — History  and  Natural  History  of  Kennebec  County,  Maine,  8vo., 
200  pp.;  and  while  secretary  of  the  Maine  State  Board  of  Agriculture 
(1872-1877),  he  published  six  volumes  on  Agriculture  of  Maine;  and  in 
1885-6  issued  two  volumes  on  Pomology  of  Maine.  He  has  published 
a  genealogy  of  the  Boardman  family  (1876),  besides  numerous  pam- 
phlets and  lectures  on  historical,  literary,  agricultural  and  scientific 
subjects.  He  was  editor  of  the  American  Cultivator,  Boston,  1878,  and 
from  1880  to  1888,  editor  and  proprietor  of  The  Home  Farm.  Mr. 
Boardman  is  also  vice-president  of  the  Kennebec  Natural  History  and 
Antiquarian  Society;  resident  member  of  the  Maine  Historical  Society, 
and  of  the  New  England  Historic-Genealogical  Society,  Boston;  and 
corresponding  member  of  the  Vermont  and  Wisconsin  Historical  So- 
cieties, and  of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  Philadelphia. 

Ira  Berry,  born  in  1801,  started  The  Age  at  Augusta  in  1831,  and 
published  the  Gospel  Banner  in  1839.  His  poems.  The  Androscoggin,  and 
Spring,  are  among  the  best  specimens  of  his  verse.  His  son,  Stephen, 
born  in  Augusta  in  1833,  is  also  the  author  of  several  pleasing  poems. 

Two  brothers  are  seldom  made  bishops,  but  the  exception  is  found 
in  the  case  of  the  Rt.  Rev.  George,  and  Rt.  Rev.  Alexander,  sons  of 
*This  family  name  first  appears  in  New  England  in  1634,  when  William 
Boardman  was  a  citizen  of  Cambridge.  Mass.  One  of  his  descendants,  also 
named  William,  was  born  at  Stratham,  N.  H.,  in  1754,  and  in  1816  his  son,  Sam- 
uel L.,  born  1781,  removed  to  Maine,  when  his  son,  Charles  F.  Boardman.  the 
■editor's  father,  was  ten  years  of  age. 


Hon.  Thoma.s  Burgess,  of  Rhode  Island.  Rev.  George  was  conse- 
crated bishop  of  Maine  m  1847,  becoming  also  rector  of  Christ  church, 
at  Gardiner.  A  volume  of  his  poems  was  published  after  his  death, 
in  1866.  Rev.  Alexander,  first  bishop  of  Ouincy,  Mass.,  was  rector  of 
St.  Mark's,  Augusta,  1843-1864.  He  is  the  author  of  many  printed 
sermons,  carols  and  hymns. 

Many  poems  and  short  stories  for  newspapers  and  magazines  were 
written  by  Josiah  D.  Bangs,  at  one  time  a  resident  of  Augusta,  and 
later,  in  1843,  a  New  York  journalist.  His  wife,  Pauline,  a  native  of 
Augusta,  furnished  a  few  poems  for  the  Ktr>i>i6'6ec /oierna/ a.s  early  as 
1831.  Later  she  wrote  regularly  for  the  Philadelphia  Saturday  Courier, 
under  the  pseudonyms  of  "  Ella"  and  "  Pauline." 

The  Address  delivered  by  Rev.  Doctor  Bosworth  at  the  dedication 
of  Memorial  Hall,  Colby  University,  was  published  at  Waterville  in 

Benjamin  Bunker,  of  Waterville,  the  democratic  editor,  was  born 
in  North  Anson,  Me.,  in  1837,  and  has  been  a  resident  of  this  county 
since  1887.  He  founded  The  Pine  Tree  State  at  Fairfield,  in  1880,  and 
in  1888  published,  under  the  title  Bunker  s  Text-Book  of  Politieal  Deviltry, 
a  humorous  criticism  upon  Maine  politics  and  politicians.  The  "Jack- 
knife"  illustrations  by  the  author  is  its  mechanical  characteristic. 

Samuel  P.  Benson's  Historic  Address,  delivered  at  the  Winthrop 
Centennial  celebration  in  1871,  was  afterward  published  in  pamphlet 

John  M.  Benjamin,  of  Winthrop,  a  careful,  methodical  collector  of 
local  history,  has  long  been  engaged  in  preserving  the  earliest  data 
relating  to  that  town.  His  unpublished  manuscript  is  doubtless  the 
best  literature  in  existence  on  the  pioneer  period  of  Winthrop  before 

Clarence  B.  Burleigh,  of  Augusta,  son  of  Governor  Edwin  C.  Bur- 
leigh, is  the  author  of  a  pleasing  story,  The  Smugglers  of  Chestnut,  illus- 
trated, published  by  E.  E.  Knowles  &  Co.,  1891. 

Maine's  most  distinguished  adopted  son,  Hon.  James  G.  Blaine,  of 
Augusta,  is  the  author  of  the  brilliant  and  instructive  book.  Twenty 
Years  of  Congress,  published  in  1884.  His  life  and  work  are  mentioned 
at  length  in  the  chapter  on  Augusta. 

Judge  H.  K.  Baker,  of  Hallowell,  author  of  Maine  Justice,  has  also 
written  a  valuable  and  interesting  volume  on  Hymnology,  issued  dur- 
ing the  summer  of  1892  from  the  press  of  Charles  E.  Nash,  Augusta. 

A  number  of  interesting  articles  in  Harper's  Magazine  have  been 
contributed  by  Horatio  Bridge,  of  Augusta,  who  was  a  classmate  and 
life-long  intimate  friend  of  Nathaniel  Hawthorne.  His  recent  Harper 
articles  are  in  relation  to  Mr.  Hawthorne. 

A  ready  writer,  and  frequent  correspondent  of  Maine  papers,  is  H. 
J.  Brookings,  of  Gardiner,  now  a  resident  of  Washington,  D.  C. 


Hannah  J.  Bailey,  of  Winthrop — a  well  known  Christian  reformer 
and  philanthropist,  is  a  daughter  of  David  Johnston,  a  Friend  minister, 
of  Cornwall,  N.  Y.  After  the  death  of  her  husband,  Moses  Bailey, 
she  wrote  and  published  an  appreciative  biography  of  him  in  a  volume 
aptly  entitled  Reminiscences  of  a  Christian  Life.  She  is  now  chiefly  en- 
gaged in  literary  work  incident  to  her  official  position  in  the  W.  C.  T.  U., 
as  world's  superintendent  of  its  department  of  Peace  and  Arbitration, 
editing  two  monthly  publications  and  devoting  great  intellectual  and 
material  resources  to  the  uplifting  of  mankind. 

Colonel  Henry  Boynton,  of  Augusta,  is  a  compiler  of  historical 
works.     He  issued  The  World's  Greatest  Conflict  in  1891. 

Eight  interesting  volumes  from  the  pen  of  Rev.  Henry  T.  Cheever, 
of  Hallowell,  bear  title  as  follows:  The  Whale  and  his  Captors;  Island 
World  of  the  Pacific;  Life  in  the  Sandivich  Islands;  Life  of  Captain 
Conger;  Memoir  of  Nathaniel  Cheever,  IStiO;  Memoir  of  Rev.  Walter  Col- 
ton;   Voices  of  Nature;  and  Pulpit  and  Pew,  1852. 

A  pleasing  writer  of  poems  and  short  stories  for  the  magazines  is 
Gertrude  M.  Cannon,  of  Augusta. 

Eunice  H.  W.  Cobb,  of  Hallowell,  wrote  hymns  and  occasional 
poems,  and  obituary  lines  that  comforted  many  in  affliction.  She  was 
the  wife  of  Rev.  Sylvanus  Cobb,  D.D.,  and  the  mother  of  Sylvanus 
Cobb,  jun.,  of  Boston,  the  gifted  story  writer. 

Emma  M.  Cass,  of  Hallowell,  has  gained  recognition  as  a  writer 
both  of  prose  and  verse.  Her  little  poem.  My  Neighbors,  is  especially 

Harry  H.  Cochrane,  of  Monmouth,  grandson  of  Dr.  James  Coch- 
rane, jun.,  has.  among  other  things,  given  close  attention  to  historical 
and  antiquarian  subjects.  The  chapter  on  Monmouth  in  this  volume 
is  an  abridgment  of  his  very  elaborate  manuscript  History  of  Mon- 
mouth and  Wales,  which  is  soon  to  be  published. 

Alexander  C.  Currier  was  an  early  literary  light  of  Hallowell.  He 
achieved  the  distinction  of  having  one  of  his  anonymous  fugitive 
newspaper  poems  quoted  by  William  Cullen  Bryant  in  his  Library  of 
Poetry  and  Song. 

J.  T.  Champlin,  D.D.,  a  former  president  of  Colby,  was  the  author 
of  a  number  of  valuable  text-books  and  pamphlets,  a|Rong  them  being: 
A  Discourse  on  the  Death  of  President  Harrison,  published  in  1841;  De- 
mosthenes  on  the  Crown,  1843:  Knhners  Elementary  Latin  Grammar, 
1845;  Text-book  of  Intellectual  Philosophy,  1860;  and  Lessons  on  Political 
Economy,  1868. 

Golden  Gems,  a  pretty  booklet  of  poems,  handsomely  illustrated,  is 
from  the  pen  of  Mrs.  Maria  Southwick  Colburn,  a  daughter  of  Jacob 
Southwick,  of  Vassalboro.     Mrs.  Colburn  now  lives  in  Oakland,  Cal. 

An  expressive  poem.  Dominie  M' Lauren,  is  from  the  pen  of  Rev. 


Edgar  F.  Davis,  pastor  of  the  Congregational  church  at  Gardiner  from 
1881  to  1889. 

•  Rev.  William  A.  Drew,  of  Augusta,  was  the  author  of  a  volume  of 
Foreign  Travels  (1851),  published  by  Homan  &  Manley,  and  numerous 
sermons  and  addresses. 

John  T.  P.  Du  Mont,  who  died  prior  to  1856,  was  locally  famous  as 
a  literary  man  and  wit.  He  was  an  orator  of  considerable  ability,  and 
a  valued  contributor  to  the  local  press. 

A  pleasing  volume  of  Poems  bears  upon  its  title  page,  as  author, 
the  name  of  Mrs.  Mattie  B.  Dunn,  of  Waterville. 

Charles  F.  Dunn,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  College,  possessed  an 
excellent  gift  of  poetry,  as  shown  in  his  published  writings;  but  he 
was  buried  on  a  farm  in  Litchfield  during  most  of  his  life,  and  his 
talents  never  received  their  full  development. 

A  brilliant  writer  of  sea  letters  was  Captain  John  H.  Drew,  of 
Farmingdale.  He  was  well  and  delightfully  known  to  readers  of  the 
Boston  Journal  ?iS,  "  Kennebecker."     He  died  in  1891. 

Olive  E.  Dana,  of  Augusta,  has  written  several  poems  of  merit  for 
various  periodicals.  One,  The  Magi,  is  illustrative  of  her  best  ability. 
Other  poems  from  her  pen  are  embraced  in  TIic  Poets  of  America,  is- 
sued in  1891  by  the  American  Publishing  Association,  of  Chicago. 

Henry  Weld  Fuller,  jun.,  was  born  in  Augusta  in  1810.  He  was  a 
graduate  of  Bowdoin,  and  later  became  the  law  partner  of  his  father, 
Hon.  Henry  Weld  Fuller.  The  Victim,  a  fine  poem  from  his  pen,  ap- 
pears in  The  Poets  of  Maine. 

Benjamin  A.  G.  Fuller,  born  in  Augusta  in  1818,  was  an  occasional 
contributor  to  genealogical  and  other  magazines.  He  was  also  the 
author  of  several  poems. 

Melville  W.  Fuller,  of  Augusta,  chief  justice  of  the  U.  S.  supreme 
court,  is  a  man  of  cultivated  literary  tastes,  as  shown  m  numerous 
published  poems. 

The  verses  of  Oscar  F.  Frost,  of  Monmouth,  have  appeared  in  manj' 
of  the  leading  metropolitan  periodicals.  His  short  poem,  Brush  Awaj 
the  Tears.  Alollic,  which  appeared  in  the  Boston  Post  soon  after  Presi- 
dent Garfield  was  assassinated,  was  set  to  music  by  a  leading  publish- 
ing house. 

R.  H.  Gardiner  was  the  author  of  a  History  of  Gardiner.  The  vol- 
ume may  be  found  in  the  Maine  Historical  Society's  collection. 

Rev.  Eliphalet  Gillett,  D.D.,  of  Hallowell,  was  the  author  of  many 
published  sermons,  ranging  in  date  from  1795  to  1823;  and  also  author 
of  Reports  of  the  Maine  Missionary  Society,  1807  to  1849  (except  1836), 
and  A  List  of  the  Ministers  of  Maine,  1840. 

William  B.  Glazier,  who  was  born  in  Hallowell,  is  now  a  forgotten 
poet,  but  one  who,  in  his  day,  contributed  many  pleasing  verses  to 


periodical  literature.  A  volume  of  his  poems  was  published  by  Mas- 
ters &  Co.,  previous  to  1872. 

Several  volumes  of  poems  have  been  written  by  F.  Glazier,  of  Hal- 

Mrs.  Eleanor  (Allen)  Gay,  daughter  of  Mrs.  Frederick  Allen,  and 
wife  of  Doctor  Gay,  of  Gardiner,  was  a  woman  of  rich  mental  gifts, 
and  a  writer  of  much  literary  merit.  She  published  a  volume  entitled 
Tlie  Siege  of  Agrigentum. 

An  Obituary  Record  of  Graduates  of  Colby  University,  from  1822  to 
1870,  was  compiled  by  Charles  E.  Hamlin,  and  published  (66  pp.,  8vo.) 
at  Waterville  in  1870.  Mr.  Hamlin  is  also  the  author  of  an  interesting 
Catalogue  of  Birds  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Waterville. 

J.  H.  Hanson,  LL.D.,  principal  of  Coburn  Classical  Institute,  has 
contributed  much  to  the  educational  literature  of  the  day,  having  an- 
notated and  published  TJie  Preparatory  Latin  Prose  Book;  Cicero's  Select 
Orations;  CcBsar's  Commeiitarics;  and  (in  association  with  Prof.  W.  J. 
Rolfe,  of  Cambridge,  Mass.,)  the  Hand-Book  of  Latin  Poetry  and  Selec- 
tions from  Ovid  and  Virgil. 

The  literary  labors  of  the  late  Dr.  Ezekiel  Holmes,  of  Winthrop, 
author  of  The  Northern  Shepherd,  are  referred  to  at  some  length  at 
page  192. 

Mrs.  Anne  A.  Hall,  of  Augusta,  wrote  many  sweet  poems  of  home 
life,  among  them  The  Little  Child's  Belief  and  The  Nursery.  She  died 
in  Spain  in  1865. 

Mrs.  Caroline  N.  Hobart,  of  Augusta,  was  the  author  of  Lines  on 
Visiting  the  Old  Ladies  Home,  Childhood's  Faith  and  other  short  poems. 

Amos  L.  Hinds,  town  clerk  of  Benton,  is  the  author  of  a  beautiful 
legendary  poem,  of  considerable  length,  entitled  Uncle  Stephen. 

On  the  Assabet,  a  local  poem,  by  Dora  B.  Hunter,  of  Waterville,  ap- 
peared in  the  Portland  Transcript  some  years  ago  and  received  de- 
served recognition.  Miss  Hunter  is  also  a  contribator  to  the  Congrc- 
gationalist.  Christian  Union  and  other  papers. 

Ode  to  the  Snow,  Good-bye,  and  the  The  Men  of  Auld  Lang  Syne,  (the 
latter  sung  at  the  Augusta  Centennial  celebration,  July  4,  1854),  are 
from  the  pen  of  Joseph  A.  Homan,  the  retired  editor  and  publisher, 
of  Augusta. 

Mrs.  Anna  Sargent  Hunt,  of  Augusta,  editor  of  the  Home  Mission 
Echo,  has  been  a  very  prolific  writer,  both  of  prose  and  verse.  Alpine 
Calls  is  one  of  her  best  poems. 

In  1852  Rev.  J.  W.  Hanson,  then  pastor  of  the  Universalist  church 
in  Gardiner,  published,  in  343  pages,  a  local  history  of  the  old  town  of 
Pittston,  in  which  is  preserved  much  valuable  information.  The 
work,  now  out  of  print,  is,  in  fact,  the  best  authority  extant  on  the 
early  families  of  Gardiner,  West  Gardiner,  Pittston,  Farmingdale  and 


Randolph.     Mr.  Hanson  wa.s  also  author  of  the  Histjry  of  Norridge- 
wock  and  Canaan,  Me.,  and  the  History  of  Danvcrs,  Mass. 

A  profound  student  of  ancient  and  modern  languages,  and  a  noted 
Shakespearian  scholar,  is  Prof.  Henry  Johnson,  a  native  of  Gardiner 
and  member  of  the  faculty  of  Bowdoin  College.  He  is  at  work  on  a 
variorum  edition  of  Shakespeare,  (portions  of  which  have  been  already 
published),  which  is  intended  to  give  an  exact  account  of  all  the  varia- 
tions of  early  copies  of  the  great  poet,  even  to  the  least  in  spelling  or 

Clara  R.  Jones,  of  Winslow,  is  the  author  of  Spinning  and  other 

The  poetic  contributions  of  Cathie  L.  Jewett,  of  Augusta,  have  ap- 
peared in  many  periodicals,  and  she  has  also  achieved  success  in  the 
line  of  story  writing. 

The  Life  of  Eli  and  Sybil  Jones  was  written  in  1888,  by  Rufus  M. 
Jones,  now  principal  of  Oak  Grove  Seminary.  It  is  a  graphic  and 
moving  narration  of  the  struggles  of  these  early  missionaries,  the  first 
ever  sent  abroad  by  the  Friends.  Mr.  Jones  is  also  the  author  of  the 
chapter  in  the  present  work,  on  The  Society  of  Friends. 

Rev.  Sylvester  Judd,  once  pastor  of  the  Unitarian  society  of 
Augusta,  was  an  author  of  national  reputation.  A  graduate  of  Yale, 
and  the  divinity  school  at  Cambridge,  he  was  an  accomplished  scholar, 
.  a  deep  thinker,  and  the  master  of  an  elegant  and  forceful  literary 
style.  He  was  the  author  of  Margaret,  A  Tale  of  the  Real  and  Ideal; 
Philo,  an  Evangeliad;  Riehard  Edney,  and  several  volumes  of  sermons 
and  lectures.  His  Life  and  Character,  by  Miss  Arethusa  Hall,  was  pub- 
lished in  1854,  the  year  of  his  death. 

Dr.  William  B.  Lapham*,  of  Augusta,  is  a  well  known  author  of 
local  histories  and  genealogies.  He  has  written  the  following  town 
histories:  Woodstock,  published  in  1882;  Paris,  1884;  Norzvay,  1886; 
Runiford,  1890;  Bethel,  1892— all  of  Oxford  county,  Me.  He  is  also  the 
author  of  the  synoptical  history  of  Kennebec  county,  and  its  cities 
and  towns,  which  prefaces  the  Atlas  of  Kennebec  County,  published  in 
1879,  by  Caldwell  &  Halfpenny;  and  he  has  compiled  the  well  known 
Bradbury  Genealogy,  and  eight  smaller  genealogies  of  from  20  to  72 
pages  each.  Doctor  Lapham  is  chairman  of  the  committee  on  publi- 
cation, of  the  Maine  Historical  Society.  Though  his  natural  taste  is 
for  genealogical  and  historical  matters,  he  has  by  no  means  confined 
his  pen  to  this  line  of  work.  He  began  writing  for  the  local  papers  in 
Oxford  county,  and  wrote  also  for  the  Portland  Transcript.  He  was 
editor  of  the  Maine  Fanner  from  1871  to  1885;  he  issued  the  Maine 
Genealogist  and  Biographer — a  quarterly — from  1875  to  1878;  and  he 
edited  the  Farm  and  Hearth  two  years. 

His  style   is  clear  and  concise,  without  any  effort  at  display,  but 
*By  H.  K.'  Morrell,  Esq.,  of  Gardiner. 



never  dull  or  uninteresting.  He  ha.s  occasionally  "dropped  into  poetry," 
like  Mr.  Wegg,  and  has  very  rarely  taken  a  turn  at  political  sarcasm. 
His  pen,  though  usually  as  smooth  as  the  stylus  of  Virgil,  can  be  pro- 
voked to  criticism,  and  is  then  pointed  enough  to  satisfy  any  opponent. 
He  has  a  sharp  sense  of  fitness,  and  feels  keenly  what  he  thinks  is 
unfairness.  His  works  are  such  as  will  always  live,  so  long  as  the 
sons  of  Maine  take  a  pride  in  its  history.  He  once  remarked  that  he 
did  not  take  much  interest  in  a  man  till  he  had  been  dead  a  century 
or  two.  This  was,  of  course,  a  joke,  but  it  indicates  the  true  anti- 
quarian, of  which  he  is  a  good  specimen.  Charles  IX  said,  as  he 
kicked  over  the  massacred  body  of  Coligny,  "  There  is  nothing  so  sweet 
as  the  smell  of  a  dead  enemy."  Doctor  Lapham  would  not  go  so  far 
as  that,  but  there  is  an  odor  of  sanctity  to  old  books  and  old  heroes 
and  pioneers  very  refreshing  to  his  nostrils.  May  he  live  to  write  the 
obituary  and  history  of  all  of  us— for  he  will  "  nothing  extenuate,  nor 
set  down  aught  in  malice." 

Elijah  P.  Lovejoy,  son  of  the  late  Rev.  Daniel  Lovejoy,  of  Albion, 
graduated  from  Waterville  College  in  1826.  He  was  shot  by  a  mob  in 
Alton,  111.,  in  1837,  for  writing  against  slavery  in  the  newspaper  he 
had  established  in  that  place.  His  poems.  The  Little  Star,  and  To  My 
MotJier,  appear  in  Tlie  Poets  of  Maine. 

Henry  C.  Leonard,  editor  of  the  Gospel  Banner  during  Mr.  Homan's 
proprietorship,  was  a  man  of  fine  poetic  instincts,  instanced  in  The  Old 
Chief  and  Christinas  Eve. 

Prof.  J.  R.  Loomis,  of  Colby,  is  the  author  of  a  volume  on  the  Ele- 
ments of  Physiology. 

Mrs.  M.  V.  F.  Livingston,  of  Augusta,  is  a  constant  writer  for  cur- 
rent periodicals,  and  is  also  the  author  of  several  remarkable  books — 
one  of  them,  Fra  Lippo  Lippi,  having  attained  a  wide  circulation. 

Harriet  S.  Morgridge,  of  Hallowell,  is  widely  known  by  her  series  of 
Mother  Goose  Sonnets,  published  in  St.  Nicholas  in  1889.  Miss  xMor- 
gridge  is  also  the  author  of  many  fugitive  pieces,  in  prose  and  verse, 
that  have  appeared  from  time  to  time  in  various  periodicals. 

John  W.  May,  formerly  of  Winthrop,  is  the  author  of  a  stirring 
poem  first  read  at  the  Winthrop  Centennial  celebration  in  1871,  and 
afterward  published.  He  also  published  in  1884,  a  unique  volume  of 
legal  and  local  reminiscences,  entitled  Inside  the  Bar. 

A  very  talented  writer  of  verses,  Hannah  A.  Moore,  of  Benton,  was 
introduced  to  the  literary  world  by  N.  P.  Willis,  and  her  poems  found 
favor  with  Longfellow,  Bryant  and  other  celebrated  authors.  Almost 
Miss  Moore's  first  publisher  was  Ephraim  Maxham,  of  the  Waterville 

HiRAM  K.  MORRELL,  of  Gardiner,  whose  antecedents  are  noticed 
at  page  658,  is  perhaps  as  distinctively  a  literary-  man  in  tastes,  habits 
and  accomplishments  as  any  non-professional  resident  of  the  county. 


His  relations  to  the  local  press  are  noticed  in  the  preceding  chapter, 
and  while  editor  of  his  own  paper  he  did  much  of  the  literar}^  work 
by  which  he  is  now  well  known  in  Maine. 

His  school  days  were  passed  in  Gardiner,  where  he  had  not  only  such 
chances  of  learning  as  every  poor  man's  son  may  secure,  but  also  re- 
ceived some  help  in  a  private  school  kept  by  Frederick  A.  Sawyer, 
who  took  a  great  interest  in  the  boy.  He  also  studied  Latin  with 
Judge  Snell,  then  teaching  in  the  public  schools.  He  learned  the 
brickmaker's  trade  with  his  father,  and,  about  1857,  was  in  partner- 
ship with  him  for  a  year.  Possessing  a  natural  taste  for  literature,  it 
was  not  surprising  that  he  soon  drifted  into  newspaper  work,  where 
he  has  made  a  reputation  for  himself  of  which  any  journalist  might 
be  protid. 

During  his  long  editorial  career  Mr.  Morrell  was  regarded  as 
among  the  ablest  newspaper  writers  in  the  state;  and  his  innate  hu- 
mor and  waggishness  (a  prominent  trait  of  the  Morrells  of  this  gen- 
eration) served  him  in  good  stead  as  a  paragrapher,  there  being  but 
few  who  could  equal  him  in  this  difficult  form  of  composition.  In  the 
discussion  of  topics  of  the  time  he  wielded  a  ready  and  intelligent 
pen.  He  could  be  very  sarcastic  when  he  chose  and  sympathetic 
when  he  thought  the  occasion  required  it. 

Though  retired  from  the  active  duties  of  the  newspaper  office, 
whenever  he  now  takes  up  the  pen  he  handles  it  with  all  his  old-time 
facility  and  vigor.  His  education  is  varied,  and  he  is  able  to  write 
instructively  upon  a  great  variety  of  topics.  He  has  ever  been  a 
close  student  of  nature  in  all  her  varied  forms.  He  is  something  of  a 
botanist,  an  intelligent  mineralogist,  and  in  several  other  departments 
of  natural  history  he  is  well  versed.  He  has  been  a  champion  of  tem- 
perance from  his  boyhood,  and  no  man  in  Maine  has  written  more  or 
better  upon  this  subject.  He  joined  the  Sons  of  Temperance  October 
8,  1845,  and  is  now  the  senior  member  of  the  order.  He  was  for  nine- 
teen j'ears  grand  scribe  of  Maine — the  longest  recorded  service  in 
that  office.     In  1862  he  joined  the  National  Division. 

For  many  years  he  was  librarian,  treasurer  and  collector  of  the 
old  Mechanics'  Association  of  Gardiner,  which  later  became  the  Gar- 
diner Public  Library,  of  which  he  has  been  a  director  from  the  start; 
and  his  labors  in  behalf  of  the  institution  have  been  very  valuable  to 
the  city.  His  latest  literary  work  will  be  found  in  the  initial  chapter 
of  this  volume.  Honest,  open-handed  and  open-hearted,  a  hater  of  all 
forms  of  hypocrisy,  of  an  intensely  sympathetic  nature,  and  an  unos- 
tentatious friend  of  the  needy,  Mr.  Morrell  commands  the  love,  ad- 
miration and  respect  of  all  who  knoiv  him. 

Henry  A.  Morrell,  now  of  Pittsfield,  Me.,  but  a  native  of  Gardiner 
(see  page  658),  is  a  versatile  and  interesting  newspaper  correspondent. 
He  is  well  known  under  the  pseudonym  of  "Juniper,"  the  signature 

J^  /(".  y^l^n^r^^^ 


he  gave  to  a  very  readable  series  of  articles  in  the  Gardiner  Home  Jour- 
nal, which  he  wrote  while  making  an  extended  tour  through  the  woods 
of  Maine,  New  Brunswick  and  Nova  Scotia.  His  brother,  William 
Morrell,  of  Gardiner,  has  more  than  a  local  reputation  as  one  of  the 
most  witty  writers  in  Maine. 

Dora  May  Morrell,  of  Gardiner,  mentioned  at  page  658,  after  a  very 
successful  career  as  a  teacher,  devoted  herself  entirely  to  her  pen. 
She  is  considered  a  very  able  and  entertaining  writer  of  short  sketches, 
and  for  the  past  year  has  been  literary  editor  of  the  Massac/nisetts 
Ploughman,  of  Boston. 

By  far  the  most  elaborate,  careful  and  valuable  volume  of  local 
history  that  has  been  written  by  any  author  of  Kennebec  county,  is 
Hon.  James  W.  North's  History  of  Augusta,  issued  from  the  press  of 
Sprague,  Owen  &  Nash.  This  remarkable  work  is  a  monument  to  its 
author  that  will  outlast  any  of  stone  or  bronze  that  might  be  erected 
to  his  memory.  It  is  a  most  accurate,  painstaking  and  minute  record 
of  the  persons  and  events,  the  customs  and  manners,  the  sayings  and 
doings  of  the  long  procession  of  years  from  the  earliest  settlement  on 
the  Kennebec  down  to  the  year  1870,  when  the  volume  was  published. 
The  infinite  care,  labor  and  anxiety  attendant  upon  the  undertaking 
can  be  approximately  appreciated  only  by  the  student  who  thought- 
fully peruses  its  990  teeming  pages.  It  is  filled  with  curious,  as  well 
as  historical  information,  confined  not  only  to  the  locality  of  Augusta 
itself,  but  extending  far  to  the  north,  south  and  west  of  that  historic 
spot.  Interesting  as  literature,  and  valuable  as  history,  it  is  destined 
to  perpetuate  its  author's  name  through  generations  to  come. 

Captain  Charles  E.  Nash,  of  Augusta,  publisher  of  the  Maine 
Farmers'  Almanac,  is  a  careful,  concise  writer.  His  style  may  fairly  be 
judged  from  his  Indians  of  the  Kennebec,  which  appears  as  Chapter  II. 
of  this  volume.  Except  while  editing  newspapers  (see  page  239),  he 
has  not  made  writing  his  business,  but  cultivates  as  a  pastime  his  love 
for  historical  research. 

Emma  Huntington  Nason,  of  Augusta,  a  daughter  of  Samuel  W. 
Huntington,  of  Hallowell,  is  a  well  known  contributor  to  some  of  the 
best  periodicals.  At  an  early  age  she  gave  evidence  of  literary  talent, 
and  soon  after  leaving  school  she  published  anonymously  several 
short  poems  and  stories  in  the  Portland  Transcript.  The  first  article 
appearing  under  her  own  name  was  written  in  1874  and  was  published 
in  the  Atlantic  Monthly.  This  poem,  The  Tower,  attracted  general  at- 
tention. It  was  followed  by  other  poems  of  acknowledged  merit  and 
numerous  ballads  and  stories  for  children,  which  have  since  made 
their  author  familiarly  known  to  the  readers  of  our  higher  class  of 
juvenile  literature.  In  1888  D.  Lothrop  Company  issued  her  first  pub- 
lished volume— If 7«V('  Sails,  a  collection  of  poems  and  ballads  for 
young  people.     This  book,  which  her  publishers  issued  as  a  Christmas 


publication,  was  elegantly  illustrated  by  some  of  the  ablest  artists. 
It  was  well  received,  and  is  now  one  of  their  leading  publications. 
It  contains  several  ballads  which  have  been  widely  reprinted.  Among 
them  The  Bravest  Boy  in  Town,  The  Mission  Tcaparty,  and  Off  for  Boy- 
land  have  found  their  way  into  various  collections  for  declamation 
and  recitation.  At  the  dedication  of  the  Hallowell  Library  in  her 
native  city,  March  9,  1880,  she  read  an  original  poem,  which  was  pub- 
lished in  a  souvenir  volume  by  Hoyt,  Fogg  &  Donham,  of  Portland. 
The  work  of  her  pen,  already  before  the  public,  gives  brilliant  promise 
for  her  literary  future. 

Howard  Owen,  the  well-known  editor,  author  and  lecturer,  was 
born  in  Brunswick,  Me.,  in  1835.  He  was  educated  in  the  public 
schools  and  learned  the  printer's  trade  in  the  offices  of  the  Lczciston 
Jouriial  and  Brnnsivick  Telegraph.  At  Brunswick  he  printed  and 
edited  the  first  youth's  temperance  paper  ever  published  in  Maine. 
He  has  written  a  number  of  poems,  one,  Wanted  to  be  an  Editor,  ap- 
pearing, in  1888,  in  The  Poets  of  Maine;  and  he  was  the  originator  and 
author  of  Biographical  Sketches  of  Members  of  the  Senate  and  House  of 
Representatives  of  Maine.  He  has  been  in  the  lecture  field  for  many 
years,  giving  numerous  lectures,  most  of  them  in  a  humorous  vein. 
He  has  also  delivered  quite  a  number  of  Memorial  Day  orations.  In 
1879  Colby  University  conferred  on  Mr.  Owen  the  degree  of  A.M. 
The  preceding  chapter  in  this  volume  is  by  Mr.  Owen. 

Rev.  A.  L.  Park,  many  years  pastor  of  the  Congregational  church 
of  Gardiner,  but  now  of  Lafonia,  Cal.,  has  had  much  correspondence 
in  Maine  papers. 

A  bright  and  favorite  writer  of  juvenile  stories  and  humorous 
sketches  is  Manley  H.  Pike,  of  Augusta,  son  of  Hon.  Daniel  T.  Pike. 
The  period  of  his  literary  production  covers  now  but  about  seven 
years.  He  has  contributed  to  Golden  Days,  but  now  writes  solely  for 
the  Youth's  Companion,  so  far  as  juvenile  tales  are  concerned.  In 
humorous  writing  he  has  been  a  constant  contributor  to  Puck,  and  his 
sketches  which  have  appeared  in  that  periodical  are  now  to  be  issued 
in  book  form  by  the  publishers  of  Puck.  Mr.  Pike  has  also  at  times 
contributed  humorous  matter  to  Life,  Harper's  Bazar,  Harper's  Monthly 
and  the  Century. 

By  vote  of  the  Maine  Historical  Society  in  November,  1802,  John 
A.  Poor  was  appointed  to  deliver  a  eulogy  upon  the  character  and  a 
memoir  of  the  life  and  public  services  of  Hon.  Reuel  Williams,  of 
Augusta,  then  deceased.  This  memoir,  ably  and  elegantly  writ- 
ten, was  read  at  a  special  meeting  of  the  Historical  Society  in  Au- 
gusta in  February,  1863,  and  in  the  following  year  was  published  by 
H.  O.  Houghton  &  Co.  for  private  circulation. 

A  series  of  twenty-nine  interesting  historical  sketches,  by  W.  Har- 
rison Parlin,  that  first  made  their  appearance  in  The  Banner,  published 


in  East  Winthrop,  were  afterward,  at  the  urgent  request  of  many 
friends,  incorporated  into  book  form,  and  issued,  in  1891,  under  the 
title,  Rcmuiisccnces  of  East  Winthrop. 

Heaven  Our  Home:  the  Cliristian  Doctrine  of  the  Resurrection,  by  Rev. 
George  W.  Quinby,  was  issued  in  1876  from  the  Gospel  Banner  office, 
Augusta.  Mr.  Quinby  also  edited  a  volume  of  Sermons  and  Prayers  by 
Fifteen  Universalist  Clergymen,  350  pp.,  12mo.,  published  by  S.  H. 

Artiong  the  published  works  of  Prof.  Charles  F.  Richardson,  a  na- 
tive of  Hallowell,  are:  A  Primer  of  American  Literature  and  The  Col- 
lege Book,  1878,  and  a  volume  of  religious  poems.  The  Cross,  1879. 

Dr.  Joseph  Ricker,  of  Augusta,  a  graduate  of  Colby,  and  in  point 
of  service  the  oldest  member  of  the  university's  board  of  trustees,  was 
born  in  1814.  An  extract  from  a  Commencement  Ode  from  his  pen  ap- 
pears in  The  Poets  of  Maine. 

Daniel  Robinson,  a  resident  of  West  Gardiner  from  1812  to  1864, 
was  a  school  teacher  and  a  man  of  unusual  intellectual  gifts.  Astron- 
omy v/as  his  favorite  study,  and  at  an  early  age  he  was  considered  an 
adept  in  the  science.  He  was  the  editor  of  several  standard  school 
books,  but  his  widest  reputation  rests  upon  his  connection  with  the 
Maine  Partners'  Almanac  (founded  by  Rev.  Moses  Springer,  of  Gardi- 
ner, in  1818),  of  which  Mr.  Robinson  was  editor  from  1821  to  1864. 
He  died  in  1866,  in  his  ninetieth  year. 

The  Star  of  Bethlehem  and  Dreaming  are  two  poems  by  Edward  L. 
Rideout,  who  was  born  in  Benton  in  1841  and  now  resides  in  Read- 
field.     Mr.  Rideout  is  a  contributor  to  several  periodicals. 

Mrs.  Salvina  R.  Reed,  the  daughter  of  Josiah  Richardson,  of  Mon- 
mouth, was  for  many  years  one  of  Maine's  popular  verse  writers. 
She  married  Daniel  Reed,  the  son  of  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Lewis- 
ton.     She  now  resides  in  Auburn. 

Laura  E.  Richards,  whose  work  as  a  writer  covers,  as  yet,  but  little 
more  than  a  decade,  was  first  known  to  her  readers  by  her  book.  Five 
lUiee  in  a  Mouse-Trap,  published  by  Estes  &  Lauriat  in  1880.  In  My 
Nursery,  the  Toto  Books  and  others  which  followed  have  now  a  fixed 
place  with  popular  publications  for  children.  Among  her  books  not 
designed  for  juvenile  readers,  but  often  portraying  the  ever  fasci- 
nating child  character,  are:  Crr//«/«/rt;«<rt;-j',  perhaps  the  best  known 
of  this  class;  Queen  Hildegarde  and  Hildegardes  Holiday,  the  latter  pub- 
lished in  1891.  Mrs.  Richards  has  resided  in  Gardiner  since  her  mar- 
riage with  Henry  Richards,  of  that  city.  Her  father  was  Dr.  Samuel 
G.  Howe,  the  philanthropist;  her  mother,  Julia  Ward  Howe,  the  author 
and  poet. 

Some  very  pleasing  poetical  sketches  have  been  written  by  Dr.  A. 
T.  Schunian,  of  Gardiner.  His  prose  writings  are  also  marked  by 
grace  of  diction  and  fine  literary  insight. 


A  well-known  writer  of  books,  and  an  editor  of  the  Yoiitlis  Coiii- 
pauiou,  is  Edward  Stanwood.  a  native  of  Augusta. 

Rev.  Albion  W.  Small  (noticed  at  page  99),  late  president  of  Colby 
University,  is  author  of  the  following  works:  The  Bulletin  of  the  French 
Revolution,  published  in  1887;  The  Grnvth  of  American  Nationality, 
1888:  The  Dynamics  of  Social  Progress,  1889;  Introduction  to  the  History 
of  European  Civilization,  1889;  vend  Introduction  to  the  Science  of  Sociology, 

Rev.  David  N.  Sheldon,  president  of  Waterville  College  from  1843 
to  1853,  was  the  author  of  a  volume  of  sermons.  Sin  and  Redemption, 
published  by  a  New  York  house  in  1856.  At  the  time  of  the  compila- 
tion of  these  sermons  Mr.  Sheldon  was  a  Baptist,  but  some  years  after 
his  resignation  of  the  college  presidency  he  associated  himself  with 
the  Unitarian  church. 

Major-A.  R.  Small,  of  Oakland,  is  the  author  of  The  Sixteenth  Maine 
Regiment  in  the  War  of  the  Rebellion,  a  book  of  323  pages.  Of  this  his- 
tory General  James  A.  Hall  says:  "  The  faithfulness  with  which  you 
have  produced  the  record,  and  the  completeness  of  the  tabulations, 
give  the  work  a  value  not  often  found  m  such  productions.  The  bio- 
graphical allusions,  the  personal  reminiscences,  and  the  delineations 
of  camp,  march,  bivouac  and  battle  are  so  correctly  drawn  that  I  pre- 
dict for  it  the  highest  place  among  regimental  histories."  Major 
Small  is  also  a  veteran  and  valued  newspaper  correspondent  and  the 
author  of  an  exhaustive  History  of  lilessahviskee  Lodge,  of  West  Water- 
ville, Me.,  from  its  organization  to  the  year  1870. 

Miss  Caroline  D.  Swan,  of  Gardiner,  is  known  to  discriminating 
readers  as  a  valued  contributor  to  standard  newspapers  and  maga- 
zines. The  productions  of  her  pen  sometimes  take  the  form  of  prose, 
but  oftener  of  poetry,  among  the  latter  being  The  Fire-Fly's  Song  and 
Sea  Fogs,  which  have  been  extensively  copied. 

Our  national  hymn,  America,  and  the  missionary  hymn.  The  Morn- 
ing Light  is  Breaking,  were  written  by  Samuel  Francis  Smith,  pastor 
of  the  First  Baptist  Church  at  Waterville  from  1834  to  1842. 

Nathaniel  F.  Sawyer,  at  one  time  a  resident  of  Gardiner,  was  a 
writer  of  great  originality,  both  of  prose  and  poetry.  He  died  of  con- 
sumption in  1845. 

A  young  author  of  Augu.sta,  who  died  in  1882,  was  Arthur  M. 
Stacy.  From  the  age  of  fourteen  he  was  a  contributor  to  various 
papers  and  juvenile  magazines.  A  volume  of  his  verses,  T/ic  Miser's 
Dream  and  Other  Poems,  and  a  story  in  book  form,  Edii>ard  Earle,  a 
Romance,  have  been  published. 

Captain  Henry  Sewall,  of  Augusta,  an  officer  in  the  revolutionary 
army,  left  a  remarkably  interesting  diary,  in  manuscript,  of  the  stir- 
ring events  of  1776-1783.  It  was  published  in  the  Historical  Magazine 
August,  1871. 


The  History  of  Winthrop.  1764-185.'5,  was  written  by  Rev.  David 
Thurston,  a  graduate  of  Hanover  and  pastor  of  the  Winthrop  Con- 
gregational Church  from  1807  to  18!54.  It  was  published  by  Brown 
Thurston,  of  Portland,  in  18.o5.  Mr.  Thurston  was  also  the  author  of 
Letters  from  a  Father  to  his  So//  a/t  Apprc/iticc  and  other  pamphlets  of 
moral  tone. 

Rev.  Daniel  Tappan,  born  in  1798,  and  at  one  time  pastor  of  the 
Congregational  church  at  Winthrop,  was  the  author  of  several  poems 
and  numerous  addresses. 

Rev.  Benjamin  Tappan,  D.D.,  for  many  years  pastor  of  the  South 
Parish  church,  of  Augusta,  was  a  ready  writer,  though  plain  in  style. 
He  died  in  1863,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five,  leaving  a  number  of  pub- 
lished volumes  of  sermons  on  a  variety  of  practical  themes. 

The  chapter  on  Tlie  Town  of  Fayette  in  this  work  is  from  the  pen 
of  George  Underwood,  of  Fayette.  Mr.  Underwood  is  also  an  occa- 
sional contributor  to  several  newspapers. 

The  literary  work  of  Dr.  Benjamin  Vaughan,  LL.D.,  of  Hallowell, 
author  of  numerous  articles  on  surgery,  and  a  well-known  writer  on 
agriculture,  is  referred  to  at  length  in  the  chapter  on  Agriculture  and 
Live  Stock,  page  19] . 

Me/ital Beauty, -AxidL  other  poems  of  a  devotional  nature,  were  written 
by  Richard  H.  Vose,  for  many  years  a  resident  of  Augusta. 

Miss  Kate  Vannah,  of  Gardiner,  has  for  a  series  of  years  thrown 
some  of  the  impressions  she  has  received  from  people  and  events  into 
that  omnipresent  mirror  of  the  times — the  modern  newspaper.  Her 
writings  seem  to  be  the  irrepressible  overflow  of  mental  activity. 
Her  ideas  take  the  mould  of  prose  or  poetry,  as  best  adapted  to  their 
expression,  with  equal  facility.  She  has  published  one  volume  of 
poems — Verses — and  another  is  ready  for  the  press.  With  marked 
musical  talent  and  careful  training  she  has  found  an  inviting  field 
in  composing  and  publishing  songs. 

At  the  death  of  the  gifted  Rev.  Sylvester  Judd,  Robert  C.Waterston, 
a  native  of  Kennebunk,  was  called  to  Augusta  to  take  charge  of  the 
vacant  pastorate.  He  was  author  of  a  number  of  fine  hymns  and 
poems,  and  memoirs  of  Charles  vSprague,  George  Sumner,  William 
Cullen  Bryant  and  George  B.  Emerson. 

Some  spirited  anti-slavery  poems  were,  in  years  gone  by,  written 
for  the  Maine  Far//ier  by  Mrs.  Thankful  P.  N.  Williamson,  of  Augusta. 
She  was  born  in  1819. 

During  Prof.  W.  F.  Watson's  senior  year  at  Colby  University  he 
published  a  volume  of  miscellaneous  and  college  poems  entitled  The 
Children  of  the  Stc/i. 

William  E.  S.  Whitman,  the  well-known  "  Toby  Candor  "  of  the 
Bosto//  Jour//al,  besides  having  been  the  regular  correspondent  of  sev- 


eral  daily  papers,  has  written  Maine  in  the  War  and  several  other 
books.     He  was  the  only  son  of  Dr.  C.  S.  Whitman,  of  Gardiner. 

Judge  Henry  S.  Webster,  of  Gardiner,  in  addition  to  widely  recog- 
nized professional  and  business  qualifications,  has  also  a  distinct  liter- 
ary reputation  as  an  earnest  student  and  thinker  and  as  a  strong  and 
accomplished  writer.  The  public  know  him  chiefly  in  the  prose  col- 
umns of  various  newspapers,  but  his  friends  know  that  the  finest  coin- 
age of  his  heart  and  brain  come  through  the  mint  of  verse. 

Samuel  Wood,  of  Winthrop,  a  valbed  contributor  to  the  Maine 
Farmer,  is  mentioned  in  the  chapter  on  Agriculture  and  Live  Stock, 
page  192. 

At  the  age  of  sixteen  Julia  May  Williamson,  of  Augusta,  published 
a  volume  of  her  poems  for  circulation  among  her  friends;  and  a  sec- 
ond volume,  published  in  1878,  was  well  received.  A  third  volume, 
recently  issued,  is  entitled  Star  of  Hope  and  Other  Songs.  Miss  Wil- 
liamson is  in  her  twenty-third  year;  her  noui  de  guerre  is  "Lura  Bell." 

In  1813  a  book  was  published  by  J.  C.  Washburn,  of  China,  under 
the  following  explanatory  title:  "  The  Parish  Harmony,  or  Fairfax 
Collection  of  Musick,  containing  a  Concise  Introduction  to  the  grounds 
of  Musick,  and  a  variety  of  Psalm  Tunes  suitable  to  be  used  in  Divine 
vService,  together  with  Anthems,  by  Japheth  Coombs  Washburn." 

Nathan  Weston,  a  former  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of 
Maine,  and  long  an  honored  resident  of  Augusta,  was  the  author  of 
an  eloquent  oration  in  1854,  at  the  centennial  celebration  of  the  erec- 
tion of  Fort  Western.  It  was  published  by  William  H.  Simpson,  Au- 

In  1887  S.  H.  Whitney,  of  Vassalboro,  published  a  cursory  sketch 
of  122  pages,  entitled  Early  History  of  Kennebec  Valley. 

Oscar  E.  Young,  of  Fayette,  is  the  author  of  a  book  of  poems  and 
is  also  a  contributor  to  the  columns  of  the  Chicat^o  Sun. 


BY  RUFUS  JI.  JONES,  Principal  of  Oak  Grove  Seminary. 

David  Sands. — First  Meeting.— George  Fox. — Vassalboro  Meeting. — Oak  Grove 
Seminary.— China  Monthly  Meeting.— Fairfield  Quarterly  Meeting.— Litch- 
field Preparative.— Winthrop  Preparative.— Manchester  Preparative.— Sid- 
ney Preparative. 

NO  man  is  more  intimately  and  essentially  connected,  by  his  life  and 
labors,  with  the  rise  and  growth  of  the  Society  of  Friends  in  Ken- 
nebec county  than  David  Sands,  a  Friend  minister  from  Cornwall, 
Orange  county,  N.  Y.  In  the  year  1775  David  Sands,  then  thirty  years 
of  age  and  nine  years  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  came  to 
New  England  to  attend  the  yearly  meeting  at  Newport,  R.  I.  Again 
in  1777,  he  felt  called  to  more  extended  labors  throughout  the  towns 
and  villages  of  New  England,  and  he  came  with  a  minute  from  his 
own  meeting  for  that  service.  In  his  journal  we  find  the  following 

"  We  had  many  meetings,  although  passmg  through  a  wilderness 
country.  I  trust  they  were  to  the  encouragement  of  many  seeking 
minds.  We  were  invited  to  the  house  of  Remington  Hobbie;  he  re- 
ceived us  kindly,  and  we  had  two  meetings  at  his  house,  one  on  First 
day,  where  were  many  of  the  town's  people;  this  place  is  called  Vas- 
salborough,  on  the  Kennebec  River;  and  another  in  the  evening  at  a 
Friend's  hou,se.  These  meetings  were  much  to  my  comfort,  feeling 
the  overshadowing  of  our  Divine  Master.  We  next  proceeded  up  the 
river  for  two  days,  through  great  fatigue  and  suffering,  haying  to 
travel  part  of  the  way  on  foot,  to  a  Friend's  house,  who  received  us 
kindly,  there  being  no  other  Friend's  house  within  forty-five  miles. 
We  had  a  meeting  among  a  poor  people,  newly  settled,  but  to  our 
mutual  comfort  and  satisfaction,  witnessing  the  Divine  Presence  to 
be  underneath  for  our  support." 

This  is  the  first  of  his  four  visits  to  the  towns  of  Kennebec  county, 
and  this  account  shows  the  true  state  of  this  region  at  the  time.  The 
country  was  only  just  beginning  to  be  settled.  If  there  were  any 
Friends,  there  was  not  more  than  one  famijy  in  a  settlement.  Each 
visit  of  David  Sands  was  attended  with  striking  success,  showing  that 
he  possessed  peculiar  gifts  and  ability  for  missionary  work  among 
these  Maine  pioneers.     Hardly  a  meeting  was  begun  in  the  county  a 


century  ago  which  did  not  owe  almost  the  possibility  of  its  existence 
more  or  less  directly  to  his  influence,  and  a  very  large  number  of  the 
prominent  Friends  in  these  early  meetings  were  convinced  by  his 
preaching  or  through  his  personal  efforts.  It  would  be  safe  to  say 
that  the  position  Friends  have  held  here  and  the  work  they  have  been 
able  to  do,  is  in  great  measure  owing  to  the  zeal  and  faithfulness  of 
this  true  and  devoted  Christian  apostle.  Nearly  twenty  years  from 
his  first  visit  he  made  a  final  journey  through  the  county,  of  which 
he  wrote: 

"  I  proceeded  towards  the  eastward  on  horseback  "•■  *  *  on  our 
course  toward  Kennebec,  where  we  arrived  5th  month,  9th.  1795,  and 
found  things  greatly  altered  since  my  first  visit,  there  being  now  a 
pretty  large  monthly  meeting  where  there  was  not  a  Friend's  face  to 
be  seen  when  I  first  visited  the  country;  but  rather  a  hard,  warlike 
people,  addicted  to  many  vices,  but  now  a  solid  good  behaved  body  of 

The  first  meeting  for  worship  established  by  the  Society  of  Friends 
in  this  county  was  at  Vassalboro,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Kennebec 
river,  in  the  year  17S0.  Members  of  this  society  were  among  the 
pioneer  settlers  of  the  towns  of  China  and  Vassalboro,  and  as  the  set- 
tlers increased  many  embraced  the  peculiar  views  of  the  so-called 
Quakers.  These  early  Friends  were  men  and  women  of  great  strength 
of  character;  their  lives  were  their  strongest  arguments  in  favor  of 
the  views  which  they  promulgated  and,  though  few  in  number,  they 
at  once  made  their  influence  felt.  They  lacked  the  broad  culture  of 
the  schools  and  colleges,  nor  had  they  gained  the  intellectual  skill 
which  long  study  gives;  but  they  had  keen  judgment,  prompt  decision, 
unwavering  faith  in  God,  and  they  looked  constantly  to  him  for  guid- 
ance. The  solitary  life  in  their  new  homes,  where  the  forests  were 
just  yielding  to  give  place  to  fields  and  pastures,  was  well  suited  to 
this  people,  and  they  were  in  many  respects  peculiarly  adapted  for  the 
only  kind  of  life  possible  in  this  county  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  last 
century.  For  a  better  understanding  of  these  Friends  themselves,  their 
fitness  for  their  condition  and  surroundings,  and  their  influence  espec- 
ially on  the  early  life  of  this  county,  it  will  be  necessary  to  take  a 
hasty  glance  at  the  rise  and  growth  of  the  society,  and  to  consider  the 
character  of  its  founder,  George  Fox,  for  he  is  the  proper  exponent  of 

He  was  born  in  1625,  and  began  his  active  career  in  about  the  year 
1649,  closing  his  eventful  life,  with  those  words  of  triumph,  "I  am 
•clear,'!  am  clear,"  in  the  year  1690.  For  centuries  the  truths  declared 
to  men  among  the  hills  of  Judea  had  been  unknown  to  the  people;  the 
signification  of  the  Incartiation  was  completely  lost  to  them,  symbols 

*This  Journal  [New  York:  Collins  &  Bro.,  269  Pearl  street]  is  highly  inter- 
esting not  only  to  Friends  but  to  all  who  love  to  read  the  simple  record  of  a  good 
■man's  life. 


were  taken  for  the  things  symbolized,  mechanical  performances  took 
the  place  of  vital  communion  with  a  loving  Father  as  revealed 
by  the  vSon;  but  the  rise  of  modern  Protestantism,  and  the  fear- 
ful struggles  of  the  century  which  followed  Luther's  first  protests 
belong  to  general  history.  The  unrest  which  was  so  noticeable  in 
the  first  half  of  the  sixteenth  century  goes  to  show  that  the  people 
were  not  yet  satisfied  with  the  religious  condition  of  the  country  any 
more  than  with  the  political.  Numerous  characters  and  various 
societies  came  forward  at  this  time,  each  with  its  own  peculiar  con- 
ception of  the  relation  which  exists  between  this  world  and  the  next; 
between  the  human  creature  and  the  Creator. 

The  feeling  that  outward  signs  of  religion  are  empty  and  that  the 
relation  between  God  and  man  is  in  the  highest  degree  a  personal 
matter  came,  at  a  very  early  age,  with  great  force,  into  the  heart  of 
George  Fox.  He  had  sat  on  the  knee  of  a  mother  who  came  from  the 
stock  of  martyrs,  and  he  inherited  a  fearlessness  which  never  left  him 
when  the  "  voice  within  "  bade  him  stand  in  his  place.  His  father, 
who  was  the  "  Righteous  Christer,"  taught  him  by  his  life  and  words 
that  there  is  no  crown  on  earth  or  in  Heaven  to  be  compared  with  a 
'crown  of  righteousness."  He  possessed  a  tender  but  strong  nature 
which  could  be  satisfied  by  what  was  genuine  alone.  Let  us  see  by 
looking  a  little  farther  at  the  experience  of  George  Fox  what  being  a 
*'  Quaker  "*  means. 

He  went  to  keep  sheep  for  a  shoemaker,  and  his  work  as  shoe- 
maker and  shepherd  combined  went  on  until  he  was  twenty,  and 
might  have  continued  through  his  life,  had  not  He  who  appeared  to 
Saul  on  his  way  to  Damascus,  appeared  no  less  certainly,  though  dif- 
ferently, to  him.  Carlyle  says:  "  Perhaps  the  most  remarkable  inci- 
dent in  modern  history  is  not  the  Diet  of  Worms,  still  less  the  battle 
of  Austerlitz,  Waterloo,  Peterloo,  or  any  other  battle;  but  George 
Fox's  making  himself  a  suit  of  leather.  This  man,  the  first  of  the 
Quakers,  and  by  trade  a  shoemaker,  was  one  of  those  to  whom,  under 
ruder  or  purer  forms,  the  Divine  idea  of  the  Universe  is  pleased  to 
manifest  itself,  and  across  all  the  hulls  of  ignorance  and  earthly 
degradation,  shine  through  in  unspeakable  awefulness,  unspeakable 
beauty  in  their  souls;  who  therefore  are  rightly  accounted  Prophets, 
God-pos.sessed,  or  even  God's,  as  in  some  periods  it  has  chanced." 

No  man  ever  instituted  a  more  earnest  search  for  the  truth;  far  and 
near  besought  for  a  teacher  who  could  really  teach  him;  he  was  ready 
to  listen  on  his  knees  to  such  an  one  when  he  found  him,  but  though 
he  traveled  as  far  as  London  he  could  find  no  man  who  could  lift  a  jot 
of  the  weight  from  his  burdened  heart.  The  answers  he  received 
would  have  completely  discouraged  a  less  earnest  youth,  but  he  was 
on  a  quest  he  could  not  abandon:  "  Be  sure  they  sleep  not  whom  God 
*  At  first  a  nickname  started  by  George  Fox's  telling  a  magistrate  to  "  Quake 
at  the  word  of  the  Lord." 


needs."  At  length,  when  all  his  hope  in  men  was  gone,  and  as  he  tells 
us,  "When  I  had  nothing  outwardly  to  help  me,  nor  could  tell  what 
to  do;  then  O  1  then,  I  heard  a  voice  which  said:  '  There  is  one,  even 
Christ  Jesus,  that  can  speak  to  thy  condition.'  " 

He  had  always  heard  a  dead  Christ  preached  in  the  churches,  but 
he  sought  a  Christ  who  could  teach  him  and  act  upon  him  so  as  to 
change  his  life^  only  a  living  Christ  could  do  that.  Doctrines  about 
Christ  and  what  He  has  done  for  man  are  not  Christ  himself;  and  at 
length  Fox  reached  the  great  truths,  as  Kingsley  says,  "  That  Christ 
must  be  a  living  person,  and  He  must  act  directly  on  the  most  inward, 
central  personality  of  him,  George  Fox;"  or  again  in  his  own  words, 
"Christ  it  was  who  had  enlightened  me,  that  gave  me  his  light  to  !e- 
lieve  in,  and  gave  me  hope  which  is  in  Himself,  revealed  Himself  m 
me,  and  gave  me  His  spirit  and  gave  me  His  grace,  which  I  found 
sufficient  in  the  deeps  and  in  weakness." 

He  and  the  early  Friends  were  orthodox  in  regard  to  the  atone- 
ment, but  this  has  sometimes  been  overlooked,  owing  to  the  emphasis 
which  they  put  on  the  spiritual  Christ  who  is  the  Light  within,  the 
constant  guest  of  the  soul.  Their  characterizing  peculiarities  were, 
then,  obedience  at  all  times  to  the  voice  within,  the  maintenance  of  a 
life  in  full  harmony  with  their  profession,  protestation  against  all 
shams  and  formality,  the  use  of  "  thee  "  and  "  thou  "  to  show  the 
equality  of  all  men,"'-  and  their  refusal  to  doff"  the  hat  to  so-called 
social  superiors.  Still,  farther,  they  declared  the  incompatibility 
of  war  with  perfect  Christianity;  oaths,  even  in  courts  of  justice, 
they  utterly  refused;  in  regard  to  the  two  sacraments,  baptism  and 
the  Lord's  supper,  they  held  that  "  they  were  temporary  ordinances, 
intended  for  the  transition  period,  while  the  infant  church  was  ham- 
pered by  its  Jewish  swaddling  clothes,  but  unneces.sary  and  unsuitable 
in  2. purely  spiritual  religion^  Men  and  women  were  equal  in  the  sight 
of  God  and  "  the  gift  for  the  ministry  "  was  conferred  upon  both  by 
the  Head  of  the  church.  It  was  wrong  for  a  minister  to  receive  pay- 
ment for  preaching  the  Gospel,  whether  from  the  state  or  from  the 
congregation.  vSilent  communion  was  an  essential  part  of  their  wor- 
ship and  it  was  believed  that  the  true  voice  could  be  best  heard  at 
such  seasons. 

To  note  these  distinguishing  points  in  belief,  life  and  conduct, 
taken  with  the  successful  efforts  of  George  Fox  to  gain  light  and  per- 
fect peace,  will  help  the  reader  to  form  a  just  conception  of  the 
Friends  of  Kennebec  county,  who  were  the  inheritors  of  the  princi- 
ples and  practices  of  the  men  who  so  aroused  and  influenced  the 
world  a  hundred  years  before  them.  We  do  not  need  to  speak  of  the 
fearful  persecution  which  attended  their  labors;  suffice  it  to  say  that 

*The  use  of  "  you,"  the  plural  to  superiors,  and  "  thou,"  the  singular  to  in- 
feriors, was  very  common  then,  as  it  still  is,  in  Germany. 


in  central  Maine  they  were  allowed  peacefully  to  pursue  their  manner 
of  life,  and  no  remonstrance  was  raised  against  their  tenets.  Here,  as 
in  England,  the  Friends  marked  out  no  creed,  but  contented  them- 
selves with  the  life  and  words  of  the  Lord  as  recorded  by  the  holy 
men  who  received  the  revelation,  and  they  strove  to  be  in  their  meas- 
ure reproductions  of  Christ.  The  following  words  used  by  a  recent 
writer  on  the  "  Quakers  "  very  nearly  express  their  views  at  all  the 
different  epochs  of  their  existence: 

"  Christianity  is  a  life;  the  true  life  of  man;  the  life  of  the  spirit 
reigning  over  all  the  lusts  of  the  flesh.  *  *  *  Christianit}',  we  call 
it,  because  first  in  Jesus,  the  Christ,  this  life  was  manifested  in  its 
highest  perfection.  *  *  *  Our  creeds  and  theologies  are  human 
conceptions  of  what  the  Christian  life  is;  but  the  Christian  life  was 
before  them  all,  is  independent  of  them  all,  and  probably  no  one  of 
them  is  a  perfectly  true  and  adequate  description  of  the  reality. 
Their  diversities,  their  mutations,  prove  that  they  are  imperfect. 
Christianity  is  the  life  which  Christ  lived,  which  lives  in  us  now  by 
His  Spirit." 

Such,  then,  was  the  belief  and  such,  in  a  measure,  the  life  of  the 
little  company  which  met  m  Vassalboro,  on  the  hill  side  overlooking 
the  Kennebec  valley,  in  the  year  1780.  The  history  of  the  Friends  in 
this  county  can  never  be  adequately  written,  since  from  their  first  ap- 
pearance until  the  present  time  they  have  done,  their  work  in  a  quiet, 
unobtrusive  way,  leaving  behind  them  little  more  record  of  their 
trials  and  triumphs  than  nature  does  of  her  unobserved  workings  in 
the  forests;  but  this  fact  does  not  make  their  existence  here  unim- 
portant, and  no  careful  observer  will  consider  it  to  have  been  so. 

In  1779  John  Taber  and  family  moved  from  Sandwich,  Mass.,  to- 
gether with  Bartholomew  and  Rebecca  Taber,  brother  and  sister,  and 
established  themselves  in  Vassalboro,  being  the  first  Friends  to  settle 
in  this  locality,  excepting  Jethro  Gardner,  who  lived  on  Cross  hill. 
They  soon  held  a  meeting  at  John  Taber's  house.  In  1780  Jacob 
Taber,  aged  eighty-one,  father  of  the  above  mentioned  John  Taber, 
together  with  Peleg  Delano  and  their  families,  settled  in  Vassalboro. 
About  two  years  later  Moses  Sleeper  joined  this  little  group  of  Friends. 
In  the  3d  month  of  1786  Stephen  Hussey  and  Rebecca  Taber  were 
married  at  the  house  of  John  Taber,  this  being  the  first  marriage  in 
this  meeting.  The  same  year  Joseph  Howland  moved  hither  from 
Pembroke  and  brought  the  first  removal  certificate  which  was  placed 
upon  the  records  of  the  meeting. 

Friends  Meeting  House  at  Vassalboro  was  built  from  178.)  to  1786, 
only  one  half  being  finished,  and  the  little  company  met  one,  if  not 
two,  winters  without  any  fire,  meeting  holding  sometimes  three 
hours.  The  meeting  house  at  Vassalboro  was  rebuilt  about  fifty  years 
ago.      In  1787  Joshua  Frye  moved  to  Vassalboro.      In  10th  month, 

274  HISTORY   OF    KEN